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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-29 19:19:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000045
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00045
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAdenosine monophosphate
DescriptionAdenosine monophosphate, also known as adenylic acid or adenylate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. These are nucleotides consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose to which one monophosphate group is attached. Catabolic mechanisms, which generate ATP through the release of energy from breaking down molecules, are activated by the AMPK enzyme while anabolic mechanisms, which utilize energy from ATP to form products, are inhibited. As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix adenylyl-. Adenosine monophosphate is a drug. Adenosine monophosphate is a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Adenosine monophosphate exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans, adenosine monophosphate is involved in thioguanine action pathway. AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows:AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction)ADP + Pi → ATP (this step is most often performed in aerobes by the ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation)AMP can be converted into IMP by the enzyme myoadenylate deaminase, freeing an ammonia group. Furthermore, other studies suggest that the high ratio of AMP:ATP levels in cells, rather than just AMP, activate AMPK. This variance in AMP/ADP versus ATP binding leads to a shift in the dephosphorylation state for the enzyme. Since ATP cleavage, and corresponding phosphorylation reactions, are utilized in various processes throughout the body as a source of energy, ATP production is necessary to further create energy for those mammalian cells. AMP plays an important role in many cellular metabolic processes, being interconverted to ADP and/or ATP. AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP).
Structure
Data?1563860631
Synonyms
ValueSource
5'-Adenosine monophosphateChEBI
5'-Adenylic acidChEBI
5'-AMPChEBI
5'-O-PhosphonoadenosineChEBI
Adenosine 5'-(dihydrogen phosphate)ChEBI
Adenosine 5'-phosphateChEBI
Adenosine phosphateChEBI
Adenosine-5'-monophosphoric acidChEBI
Adenosine-5'pChEBI
Adenosini phosphasChEBI
AdenylateChEBI
Adenylic acidChEBI
Ado5'pChEBI
AMPChEBI
Fosfato de adenosinaChEBI
pAChEBI
PAdoChEBI
Phosphate d'adenosineChEBI
AdenylKegg
Adenosine 5'-monophosphateKegg
5'-Adenosine monophosphoric acidGenerator
5'-AdenylateGenerator
Adenosine 5'-(dihydrogen phosphoric acid)Generator
Adenosine 5'-phosphoric acidGenerator
Adenosine phosphoric acidGenerator
Adenosine-5'-monophosphateGenerator
Phosphoric acid d'adenosineGenerator
Adenosine 5'-monophosphoric acidGenerator
Adenosine monophosphoric acidGenerator
Adenosine 5'-phosphorateHMDB
Adenosine-5'-monophosphorateHMDB
Adenosine-5-monophosphorateHMDB
Adenosine-5-monophosphoric acidHMDB
Adenosine-monophosphateHMDB
Adenosine-phosphateHMDB
AdenoviteHMDB
CardiomoneHMDB
LycedanHMDB
Muscle adenylateHMDB
Muscle adenylic acidHMDB
My-b-denHMDB
My-beta-denHMDB
PhosadenHMDB
PhosphadenHMDB
PhosphentasideHMDB
5'-Phosphate, adenosineHMDB
Acid, 2'-adenylicHMDB
2'-Adenylic acidHMDB
Adenosine 3' phosphateHMDB
Disodium, adenosine phosphateHMDB
Phosphate dipotassium, adenosineHMDB
Adenosine 2'-phosphateHMDB
Adenosine 5' phosphateHMDB
Adenosine phosphate dipotassiumHMDB
Dipotassium, adenosine phosphateHMDB
2' Adenylic acidHMDB
5' Adenylic acidHMDB
Acid, 5'-adenylicHMDB
Adenosine 3'-phosphateHMDB
monoPhosphate, 2'-adenosineHMDB
Phosphate disodium, adenosineHMDB
2' Adenosine monophosphateHMDB
2'-AMPHMDB
2'-Adenosine monophosphateHMDB
Adenosine 2' phosphateHMDB
Adenosine phosphate disodiumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H14N5O7P
Average Molecular Weight347.2212
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight347.063084339
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Nameadenylate
CAS Registry Number61-19-8
SMILES
NC1=C2N=CN([C@@H]3O[C@H](COP(O)(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]3O)C2=NC=N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H14N5O7P/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(17)6(16)4(22-10)1-21-23(18,19)20/h2-4,6-7,10,16-17H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13)(H2,18,19,20)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUDMBCSSLTHHNCD-KQYNXXCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. These are nucleotides consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose to which one monophosphate group is attached.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine ribonucleotides
Direct ParentPurine ribonucleoside monophosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility10 mg/mL at 20 °CBEILSTEIN
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.31 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.1ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area186.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity74.07 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-014i-0974000000-7ce25c09f93913b81e9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0975000000-8175538459abaf92d36fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0974000000-7ce25c09f93913b81e9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0975000000-8175538459abaf92d36fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002b-9713000000-019182f931e395f479cdJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0gl0-4942400000-fb8ced86745a4de1b047JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-052b-0209001000-f6c3cf706bb3b839d180JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053s-0395300000-e2a342872025e6e960aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-2b9fb262817de641a5cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-ee7bab39079e225a1b07JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0109000000-52331e416cbdd8218b97JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-ddc799b6e2bb5d5ac9a6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-68d6660e0cfbfb8f02adJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-27f73c3a0a9566986a0eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0007009001-639c5cafae90b10dfc5fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0290000000-e0b5612abd24736e70daJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-3e5b716531d739ca25d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-9232b7438abb1f6256b6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0007-2109007000-3e1cf347bd9e054b9368JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0002009000-b840e6edcca65562937bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-948ec97ae442eda212cbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0009000000-bd1c10704f289141803aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0109000000-433eab5bd833cd92f290JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000b-0709000000-fa268a51905a453bc6f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-002b-9104000000-bc358c1d8c03290fc49dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0913000000-52bfdec6ec6f2f9422f4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-9bf867ba72f77732e0ceJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-fab6495d31eac8de123cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0032-6709000000-fd9ea223f556b17d2d3aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0059-8900000000-3937203187746280b10aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-5947ff2a364087cb0e38JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified5.1+/- 1.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified51.0 (10.0-92.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 3.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.2 +/- 3.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified80.0 (71.0-89.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified23 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified< 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.793 +/- 0.705 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.70 +/- 3.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.912 +/- 0.994 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.04 +/- 1.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.19 +/- 2.66 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.51 +/- 1.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.60 +/- 1.12 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.124 +/- 0.284 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.30 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.99 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.24 +/- 0.33 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.10 +/- 0.29 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.321 +/- 0.506 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Metastatic melanoma
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleMissing teeth details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.39 +/- 1.25 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.72 +/- 4.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.12 +/- 6.43 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Crohn's disease
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Metastatic melanoma
  1. Frankel AE, Coughlin LA, Kim J, Froehlich TW, Xie Y, Frenkel EP, Koh AY: Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing and Unbiased Metabolomic Profiling Identify Specific Human Gut Microbiota and Metabolites Associated with Immune Checkpoint Therapy Efficacy in Melanoma Patients. Neoplasia. 2017 Oct;19(10):848-855. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2017.08.004. Epub 2017 Sep 15. [PubMed:28923537 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Attachment loss
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Missing teeth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Periodontal Probing Depth
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00131
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021806
KNApSAcK IDC00019347
Chemspider ID5858
KEGG Compound IDC00020
BioCyc IDAMP
BiGG ID33534
Wikipedia LinkAdenylic_acid
METLIN ID5111
PubChem Compound6083
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16027
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  2. BISHOP C, RANKINE DM, TALBOTT JH: The nucleotides in normal human blood. J Biol Chem. 1959 May;234(5):1233-7. [PubMed:13654353 ]
  3. Lin CY, Ishida M: Elevation of cAMP levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neonatal meningitis. Pediatrics. 1983 Jun;71(6):932-4. [PubMed:6304612 ]
  4. Pagani R, Tabucchi A, Carlucci F, Leoncini R, Consolmagno E, Molinelli M, Valerio P: Some aspects of purine nucleotide metabolism in human lymphocytes before and after infection with HIV-1 virus: nucleotide content. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;309B:43-6. [PubMed:1781403 ]
  5. Drezner MK, Neelon FA, Curtis HB, Lebovitz HE: Renal cyclic adenosine monophosphate: an accurate index of parathyroid function. Metabolism. 1976 Oct;25(10):1103-12. [PubMed:184364 ]
  6. Aschenbach WG, Sakamoto K, Goodyear LJ: 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise. Sports Med. 2004;34(2):91-103. [PubMed:14965188 ]
  7. Subramanian GM, Cronin PW, Poley G, Weinstein A, Stoughton SM, Zhong J, Ou Y, Zmuda JF, Osborn BL, Freimuth WW: A phase 1 study of PAmAb, a fully human monoclonal antibody against Bacillus anthracis protective antigen, in healthy volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jul 1;41(1):12-20. Epub 2005 May 24. [PubMed:15937757 ]
  8. Aurbach GD: Genetic disorders involving parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 May;7(6):48-54. [PubMed:4155962 ]
  9. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. [PubMed:6656991 ]
  10. Post RM, Cramer H, Goodwin FK: Cyclic AMP in cerebrospinal fluid of manic and depressive patients. Psychol Med. 1977 Nov;7(4):599-605. [PubMed:201957 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 269 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Required for the phosphorylation of the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyguanosine (dG) and deoxyadenosine (dA). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based on the chirality of the substrate. It is also an essential enzyme for the phosphorylation of numerous nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents.
Gene Name:
DCK
Uniprot ID:
P27707
Molecular weight:
30518.315
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine → ADP + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetate so that it can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation.
Gene Name:
ACSS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR19
Molecular weight:
78579.11
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
Gene Name:
ACSS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUB1
Molecular weight:
74625.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Acetyl adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Acetyl-CoAdetails
Propinol adenylate + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Propionyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
P49961
Molecular weight:
58706.0
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Phosphatedetails
ADP + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. The order of activity with different substrates is UDP > GDP > UTP > GTP. Has very low activity towards ADP and even lower activity towards ATP. Does not hydrolyze AMP and GMP. Involved in proteoglycan synthesis.
Gene Name:
CANT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WVQ1
Molecular weight:
44839.24

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 269 proteins in total.