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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 09:54:52 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000076
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00076
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDihydrouracil
DescriptionDihydrouracil is an intermediate breakdown product of uracil. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DHP) catalyzes the reduction of uracil into 5,6-dihydrouracil then dihydropyrimidinase hydrolyzes 5,6-dihydrouracil into N-carbamyl-beta-alanine. Finally, beta-ureidopropionase catalyzes the conversion of N-carbamyl-beta-alanine into beta-alanine. When present at abnormally high levels, dihydrouracil can be toxic although the mechanism of toxicity is not clear. In particular, patients with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency exhibit highly increased concentrations of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine, and moderately increased concentrations of uracil and thymine can be detected in urine. Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency is a disorder that can cause neurological and gastrointestinal problems in some affected individuals (OMIM: 222748 ). The neurological abnormalities that occur most often in people with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency are intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), an abnormally small head size (microcephaly), and autistic behaviours that affect communication and social interaction. Gastrointestinal problems that occur in dihydropyrimidinase deficiency include backflow of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and recurrent episodes of vomiting. The direct measurement of the activity of DHP in patients has been hampered by the fact that the enzyme is expressed almost exclusively in liver tissue.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,4-DioxotetrahydropyrimidineChEBI
5,6-dihydro-2,4-DihydroxypyrimidineChEBI
dihydro-2,4(1H,3H)-PyrimidinedioneChEBI
DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE-2,4(1H,3H)-dioneChEBI
DihydrouracileChEBI
HydrouracilChEBI
5,6-dihydro-2,4(1H,3H)-PyrimidinedioneHMDB
5,6-DihydrouracilHMDB
dihydro-Pyrimidine-2,4-dioneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6N2O2
Average Molecular Weight114.1026
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight114.042927446
IUPAC Name1,3-diazinane-2,4-dione
Traditional Namedihydrouracil
CAS Registry Number504-07-4
SMILES
O=C1CCNC(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6N2O2/c7-3-1-2-5-4(8)6-3/h1-2H2,(H2,5,6,7,8)
InChI KeyOIVLITBTBDPEFK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. These are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl urea
  • Pyrimidone
  • Ureide
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Dicarboximide
  • Urea
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point279 - 281 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility25.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity25.75 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9700000000-4adeeb2f4f5a1111afb7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00di-5900000000-8af1b81502646fa5b417View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0fdo-9750000000-d2aaeeba1cf962175f84View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9700000000-4adeeb2f4f5a1111afb7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-5900000000-8af1b81502646fa5b417View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fdo-9750000000-d2aaeeba1cf962175f84View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f6w-2940000000-3430a0e2d1819021af1dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-3900000000-79f2d90a419b7469cb61View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004l-9100000000-55536f0571922b6c69feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03k9-9800000000-da772cea603c785c1df4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9100000000-94a5f543e8c6be7b3204View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0btc-9200000000-e9bf2ae82714a2a3a737View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-0fe83e63f6e5d1347894View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-03xr-6900000000-08aca1bc7f27b0e7cb08View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-5900000000-53ea361c86b4f9fa284bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-a8599c09cd21e2f84329View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-2900000000-ad7f91d5265e53403dd6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0603-9200000000-4b30a83fb454e5bbffb8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ce54e3c860a95b0af401View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-9800000000-d705e188f6700a76ef72View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a26409d69a4259731004View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-f00c4df547660023bee4View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03fu-9400000000-5b9edda3479e7d0a0d28View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.31 (0.02-1.63) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.31 (0.02-1.63) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.32 ( 0.10-0.74) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.1 +/- 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified700 +/- 199 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2168.16 +/- 127.94 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2000 +/- 223 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2000 +/- 223 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2210 +/- 353 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2240 +/- 380 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2350 +/- 654 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.79 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.8 (2.1-8.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4 +/- 4.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 +/- 2.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5-20 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.2 +/- 6.2 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified81.5 (46.0-117.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4 +/- 1.67 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
UrineDetected and Quantified627.0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothDihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4 +/- 2.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCerebral infarction details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 +/- 1.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMalignancy details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.7 +/- 1.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLiver dysfunction details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 +/- 2.00 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNephropathy details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. Sumi S, Kidouchi K, Ohba S, Wada Y: Automated screening system for purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Oct 20;672(2):233-9. [PubMed:8581129 ]
  2. Van Kuilenburg AB, Stroomer AE, Van Lenthe H, Abeling NG, Van Gennip AH: New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid? Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):119-24. [PubMed:14705962 ]
Hypertension
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Liver disease
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Cerebral infarction
  1. Hayashi K, Kidouchi K, Sumi S, Mizokami M, Orito E, Kumada K, Ueda R, Wada Y: Possible prediction of adverse reactions to pyrimidine chemotherapy from urinary pyrimidine levels and a case of asymptomatic adult dihydropyrimidinuria. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;2(12):1937-41. [PubMed:9816152 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01849
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021890
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID629
KEGG Compound IDC00429
BioCyc IDDI-H-URACIL
BiGG ID34956
Wikipedia LinkDihydrouracil
METLIN ID285
PubChem Compound649
PDB IDDUC
ChEBI ID15901
References
Synthesis ReferenceBhat, K. S.; Rao, A. S. Synthesis of uracil, 6-methyluracil and some dihydrouracils. Organic Preparations and Procedures International (1983), 15(5), 303-13.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Hofmann U, Schwab M, Seefried S, Marx C, Zanger UM, Eichelbaum M, Murdter TE: Sensitive method for the quantification of urinary pyrimidine metabolites in healthy adults by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 5;791(1-2):371-80. [PubMed:12798197 ]
  3. Van Kuilenburg AB, Stroomer AE, Van Lenthe H, Abeling NG, Van Gennip AH: New insights in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency: a pivotal role for beta-aminoisobutyric acid? Biochem J. 2004 Apr 1;379(Pt 1):119-24. [PubMed:14705962 ]
  4. Grem JL: Intratumoral molecular or genetic markers as predictors of clinical outcome with chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol. 2005 Feb;32(1):120-7. [PubMed:15726514 ]
  5. Assmann B, Hoffmann GF, Wagner L, Brautigam C, Seyberth HW, Duran M, Van Kuilenburg AB, Wevers R, Van Gennip AH: Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency and congenital microvillous atrophy: coincidence or genetic relation? J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997 Sep;20(5):681-8. [PubMed:9323563 ]
  6. Megyeri A, Bacso Z, Shields A, Eliason JF: Development of a stereological method to measure levels of fluoropyrimidine metabolizing enzymes in tumor sections using laser scanning cytometry. Cytometry A. 2005 Apr;64(2):62-71. [PubMed:15729713 ]
  7. Nakamura A, Kikuchi K, Ohishi T, Masuike T: [Assay method for uracil, dihydrouracil, 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluoro-5, 6-dihydrouracil by high-performance liquid chromatography]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2004 Mar;31(3):381-6. [PubMed:15045945 ]
  8. van Lenthe H, van Kuilenburg AB, Ito T, Bootsma AH, van Cruchten A, Wada Y, van Gennip AH: Defects in pyrimidine degradation identified by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of urine specimens or urine-soaked filter paper strips. Clin Chem. 2000 Dec;46(12):1916-22. [PubMed:11106323 ]
  9. Sumi S, Kidouchi K, Ohba S, Wada Y: Automated screening system for purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Oct 20;672(2):233-9. [PubMed:8581129 ]
  10. Shen GP, Galick H, Inoue M, Wallace SS: Decline of nuclear and mitochondrial oxidative base excision repair activity in late passage human diploid fibroblasts. DNA Repair (Amst). 2003 Jun 11;2(6):673-93. [PubMed:12767347 ]
  11. Tan BR, McLeod HL: Pharmacogenetic influences on treatment response and toxicity in colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol. 2005 Feb;32(1):113-9. [PubMed:15726513 ]
  12. Garcia AA, Blessing JA, Lenz HJ, Darcy KM, Mannel RS, Miller DS, Husseinzadeh N: Phase II clinical trial of capecitabine in ovarian carcinoma recurrent 6-12 months after completion of primary chemotherapy, with exploratory TS, DPD, and TP correlates: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2005 Mar;96(3):810-7. [PubMed:15721430 ]
  13. Schneider S, Uchida K, Brabender J, Baldus SE, Yochim J, Danenberg KD, Salonga D, Chen P, Tsao-Wei D, Groshen S, Hoelscher AH, Schneider PM, Danenberg PV: Downregulation of TS, DPD, ERCC1, GST-Pi, EGFR, and HER2 gene expression after neoadjuvant three-modality treatment in patients with esophageal cancer. J Am Coll Surg. 2005 Mar;200(3):336-44. [PubMed:15737843 ]
  14. Jiang H, Jiang J, Hu P, Hu Y: Measurement of endogenous uracil and dihydrouracil in plasma and urine of normal subjects by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Mar 25;769(1):169-76. [PubMed:11936689 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the second step of the reductive pyrimidine degradation, the reversible hydrolytic ring opening of dihydropyrimidines. Can catalyze the ring opening of 5,6-dihydrouracil to N-carbamyl-alanine and of 5,6-dihydrothymine to N-carbamyl-amino isobutyrate.
Gene Name:
DPYS
Uniprot ID:
Q14117
Molecular weight:
56629.36
Reactions
Dihydrouracil + Water → Ureidopropionic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Involved in pyrimidine base degradation. Catalyzes the reduction of uracil and thymine. Also involved the degradation of the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil.
Gene Name:
DPYD
Uniprot ID:
Q12882
Molecular weight:
111400.32
Reactions
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPHdetails
Dihydrouracil + NADP → Uracil + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails