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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-06-13 17:00:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000118
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0004285
  • HMDB00118
  • HMDB04285
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHomovanillic acid
DescriptionHomovanillic acid is a dopamine metabolite occurring in human biofluids. A high proportion of patients with neuroblastoma excrete increased amounts of it in their urine. Homovanillic acid is a major catecholamine metabolite. It is used as a reagent to detect oxidative enzymes (Wikipedia). Homovanillic acid is found to be associated with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, celiac disease, growth hormone deficiency, and sepiapterin reductase deficiency, which are inborn errors of metabolism. Homovanillic acid is also a metabolite of Bifidobacterium (PMID: 24958563 ) and of flavonoids.
Structure
Data?1560444514
Synonyms
ValueSource
(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acidChEBI
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetateChEBI
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acidChEBI
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneacetic acidChEBI
HVAChEBI
Vanillacetic acidChEBI
(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetateGenerator
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneacetateGenerator
VanillacetateGenerator
HomovanillateGenerator
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy 3-methoxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
HomovanilateHMDB
Homovanilic acidHMDB
Homovanillinic acidHMDB
VanilacetateHMDB
Vanilacetic acidHMDB
3 Methoxy 4 hydroxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
Acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylaceticHMDB
Acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylaceticHMDB
4 Hydroxy 3 methoxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
Acid, homovanillicHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H10O4
Average Molecular Weight182.1733
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight182.057908808
IUPAC Name2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid
Traditional Namehomovanillic acid
CAS Registry Number306-08-1
SMILES
COC1=CC(CC(O)=O)=CC=C1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H10O4/c1-13-8-4-6(5-9(11)12)2-3-7(8)10/h2-4,10H,5H2,1H3,(H,11,12)
InChI KeyQRMZSPFSDQBLIX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as methoxyphenols. Methoxyphenols are compounds containing a methoxy group attached to the benzene ring of a phenol moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassMethoxyphenols
Direct ParentMethoxyphenols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Anisole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point138 - 140 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility17 mg/mLNot Available
LogP0.33LAHANN,TR ET AL. (1989)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.72 g/LALOGPS
logP1.02ALOGPS
logP1.15ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity45.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-056r-1962000000-4f8e427392aa8e136095JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-056r-2972000000-f53a7b3ac40c099e3c99JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9800000000-def178a40b9d8cc16724JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-06vi-0596000000-729a4b24107b98261cb2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-056r-1962000000-4f8e427392aa8e136095JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-056r-2972000000-f53a7b3ac40c099e3c99JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-056r-1962000000-24557ef3db49c59cd5ddJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-cb0e3eb7a6d9e785a2f8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01w0-9352000000-0e2f11bc503dd5ce6345JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-994a78c607c1b6a724d2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00fr-4900000000-ca5ef14a72dcdf3cf9feJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9700000000-44f2784ec5407e93ea57JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0019-0900000000-aafe8aee1cf8c42b941aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-313fe6eb451badd5c052JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0609-6900000000-11aa4fb169e782205ea3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-9200000000-637a59b417fe2b2e7f58JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-7b87b58730add4511c8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0019-0900000000-aafe8aee1cf8c42b941aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-313fe6eb451badd5c052JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0609-6900000000-11aa4fb169e782205ea3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-9200000000-1bc951858c2e658a79afJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-7b87b58730add4511c8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-0c3c4c703b4b9743a521JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-a5e048e5e58ed8e57ecdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0079-0900000000-35fbf40336719c96dd3dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-57e5685e37a2d70f9ab4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00kr-0900000000-b8470b9851db4df96b61JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052r-3900000000-2690d7c586d4f7c3dccfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001r-0900000000-713f0600845faa67fec3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01qi-0900000000-30a79a8a4d5cf0ffc864JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-2900000000-6f967f9e7f7117a9d1e4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-3900000000-b8c848b70c066282b36fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Caudate Nucleus
  • Central Nervous System
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Spinal Cord
  • Striatum
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.082 +/- 0.050 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.048 +/- 0.009 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.006 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.047 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.078 +/- 0.029 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.029 +/- 0.045 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.027 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.029 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.166 +/- 0.147 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.574 (0.302-0.845) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1521 +/- 0.0177 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.324-1.0980 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.124-0.362 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.658-1.434 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.324-1.098 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.105-0.262 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.33-0.668 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.346-0.716 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified174 +/- 75.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified202 +/- 94 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.07 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.19+/- 0.093 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.28 (0.15-0.41) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0004 +/- 0.00006 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.89 +/- 0.47 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.78 +/- 0.42 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.76 +/- 0.38 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.71 +/- 0.34 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.66 +/- 0.33 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.66 +/- 0.48 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.54 +/- 0.211 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.08 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.14 +/- 0.54 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.14 +/- 0.046 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.40 +/- 0.075 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.039 +/- 0.021 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.174 +/- 0.075 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.202 +/- 0.094 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.94 +/- 0.11 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.384-0.765 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specifiednormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.401 +/- 0.188 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.320-0.780 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.20 (0.047-0.35) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified2.196 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified25.251 +/- 32.442 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified34.528 +/- 55.442 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.43 +/- 1.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.94 +/- 1.15 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.92 +/- 5.082 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-8.316 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.742 +/- 3.993 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.26 +/- 1.58 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.93 +/-3.37 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.5 (2.0-19.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.0-2.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.551 +/- 6.827 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.654 +/- 7.447 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.930 +/- 3.351 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.1 (7.1-28.6) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.6 (15.6-31.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.5 (3.6-14.6) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.6 (2.1-47.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<=3.618 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2 (1.8-12.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.3 (0.9-5.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (0.4-4.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.9 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.605 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.520 +/- 0.725 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<16.64 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.7-2.7 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0-5.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.133 +/- 0.015 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.900-19.300 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.3 (0.9-8.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.062 +/- 0.022 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.071 +/- 0.022 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Breast cancer
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.00 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy; Schizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.38 +/- 0.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.39773 (0.155-0.654) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedPNPO deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.083 +/- 0.000 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MaleAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.09 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not AvailableUrocanase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.151-0.490 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothPyridoxamine 5-prime-phosphate oxidase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1347 +/- 0.0121 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's syndrome details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.654 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedPNPO deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.155 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedPNPO deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.292 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedPNPO deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.49 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedPNPO deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified110 +/- 68.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified167 +/- 74.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.49 +/- 0.08 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.39 +/- 0.091 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNarcolepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.21 +/- 0.08 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedGrowth hormone deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.21 +/- 0.035 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.030 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.2572 +/- 0.1055 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.229 +/- 0.0782 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism with testosterone replacment details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.21 +/- 0.12 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.05 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.05 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.20 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Major depression
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.17 +/- 0.084 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPanic Disorder details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.16 +/- 0.095 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.17 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedOlivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.17 +/- 0.01 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedFriedreich's ataxia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.15 +/- 0.03 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAutosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguena details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.50 +/- 0.32 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedAutism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0002 +/- 0.00005 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00137 (0.000604-0.00225) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.038 +/- 0.016 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00017 (0.00013-0.00022) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.128 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0820-0.149 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Breast cancer
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.1282 +/- 0.0583 uMNot SpecifiedBothceliac disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0585 (0.055-0.062) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specifiedsepiapterin reductase deficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.187 +/- 0.065 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's Disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.751 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleDopamine-serotonin Vesicular Transport Defect details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.838 +/- 4.994 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.237 +/- 4.67 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.9 +/- 0.0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)MaleAromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.903 +/- 2.358 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.0891 +/- 1.738 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.447 +/- 3.848 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4-0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleBrunner Syndrome details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.5 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Female
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.1 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Female
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Breast cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.427 +/- 7.439 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hypothyroidism
  1. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
Narcolepsy
  1. Strittmatter M, Isenberg E, Grauer MT, Hamann G, Schimrigk K: CSF substance P somatostatin and monoaminergic transmitter metabolites in patients with narcolepsy. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Nov 1;218(2):99-102. [PubMed:8945737 ]
Growth hormone deficiency
  1. Burman P, Hetta J, Wide L, Mansson JE, Ekman R, Karlsson FA: Growth hormone treatment affects brain neurotransmitters and thyroxine [see comment]. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996 Mar;44(3):319-24. [PubMed:8729530 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Harnryd C, Bjerkenstedt L, Grimm VE, Sedvall G: Reduction of MOPEG levels in cerebrospinal fluid of psychotic women after electroconvulsive treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1979 Aug 8;64(2):131-4. [PubMed:115032 ]
  2. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. [PubMed:2480613 ]
  3. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. [PubMed:7595563 ]
  4. Nikisch G, Baumann P, Wiedemann G, Kiessling B, Weisser H, Hertel A, Yoshitake T, Kehr J, Mathe AA: Quetiapine and norquetiapine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients treated with quetiapine: correlations to clinical outcome and HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG in CSF. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Oct;30(5):496-503. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181f2288e. [PubMed:20814316 ]
  5. Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Hagenfeldt L, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Plasma amino acids in relation to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Br J Psychiatry. 1985 Sep;147:276-82. [PubMed:2415198 ]
  6. Peters JG: Dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin spinal fluid metabolites in temporal lobe epileptic patients with schizophrenic symptomatology. Eur Neurol. 1979;18(1):15-8. [PubMed:436860 ]
Epilepsy
  1. Botez MI, Young SN: Effects of anticonvulsant treatment and low levels of folate and thiamine on amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain. 1991 Feb;114 ( Pt 1A):333-48. [PubMed:1705463 ]
  2. Shaywitz BA, Cohen DJ, Bowers MB: Reduced cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in children with epilepsy. Neurology. 1975 Jan;25(1):72-9. [PubMed:803305 ]
  3. Peters JG: Dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin spinal fluid metabolites in temporal lobe epileptic patients with schizophrenic symptomatology. Eur Neurol. 1979;18(1):15-8. [PubMed:436860 ]
Panic disorder
  1. Eriksson E, Westberg P, Alling C, Thuresson K, Modigh K: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites in panic disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1991 Mar;36(3):243-51. [PubMed:1712114 ]
Olivopontocerebral atrophy
  1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
  1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Autism
  1. Narayan M, Srinath S, Anderson GM, Meundi DB: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Apr 15-May 1;33(8-9):630-5. [PubMed:7687150 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. LeWitt PA, Galloway MP, Matson W, Milbury P, McDermott M, Srivastava DK, Oakes D: Markers of dopamine metabolism in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. Neurology. 1992 Nov;42(11):2111-7. [PubMed:1436520 ]
  2. Dizdar N, Kagedal B, Lindvall B: Treatment of Parkinson's disease with NADH. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994 Nov;90(5):345-7. [PubMed:7887134 ]
Friedreich's ataxia
  1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
Major depressive disorder
  1. Sheline Y, Bardgett ME, Csernansky JG: Correlated reductions in cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997 Feb;17(1):11-4. [PubMed:9004051 ]
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
  1. Abdenur JE, Abeling N, Specola N, Jorge L, Schenone AB, van Cruchten AC, Chamoles NA: Aromatic l-aminoacid decarboxylase deficiency: unusual neonatal presentation and additional findings in organic acid analysis. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jan;87(1):48-53. Epub 2005 Nov 9. [PubMed:16288991 ]
  2. Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Barth PG, van Cruchten A, Westra M, Wijburg FA: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: a new case with a mild clinical presentation and unexpected laboratory findings. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998 Jun;21(3):240-2. [PubMed:9686366 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Hallert C, Astrom J, Sedvall G: Psychic disturbances in adult coeliac disease. III. Reduced central monoamine metabolism and signs of depression. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1982 Jan;17(1):25-8. [PubMed:6182605 ]
Sepiapterin reductase deficiency
  1. Verbeek MM, Willemsen MA, Wevers RA, Lagerwerf AJ, Abeling NG, Blau N, Thony B, Vargiami E, Zafeiriou DI: Two Greek siblings with sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2008 Aug;94(4):403-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2008.04.003. Epub 2008 May 27. [PubMed:18502672 ]
Pyridoxamine 5-prime-phosphate oxidase deficiency
  1. Ormazabal A, Oppenheim M, Serrano M, Garcia-Cazorla A, Campistol J, Ribes A, Ruiz A, Moreno J, Hyland K, Clayton P, Heales S, Artuch R: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate values in cerebrospinal fluid: reference values and diagnosis of PNPO deficiency in paediatric patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2008 Jun;94(2):173-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2008.01.004. Epub 2008 Feb 21. [PubMed:18294893 ]
  2. Plecko B, Paul K, Paschke E, Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu S, Struys E, Jakobs C, Hartmann H, Luecke T, di Capua M, Korenke C, Hikel C, Reutershahn E, Freilinger M, Baumeister F, Bosch F, Erwa W: Biochemical and molecular characterization of 18 patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and mutations of the antiquitin (ALDH7A1) gene. Hum Mutat. 2007 Jan;28(1):19-26. [PubMed:17068770 ]
Parkinsonian syndrome
  1. Espino A, Calopa M, Ambrosio S, Ortola J, Peres J, Navarro MA: CSF somatostatin increase in patients with early parkinsonian syndrome. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1995;9(2-3):189-96. [PubMed:8527003 ]
Urocanase deficiency
  1. Espinos C, Pineda M, Martinez-Rubio D, Lupo V, Ormazabal A, Vilaseca MA, Spaapen LJ, Palau F, Artuch R: Mutations in the urocanase gene UROC1 are associated with urocanic aciduria. J Med Genet. 2009 Jun;46(6):407-11. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2008.060632. Epub 2009 Mar 19. [PubMed:19304569 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Nam H, Chung BC, Kim Y, Lee K, Lee D: Combining tissue transcriptomics and urine metabolomics for breast cancer biomarker identification. Bioinformatics. 2009 Dec 1;25(23):3151-7. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp558. Epub 2009 Sep 25. [PubMed:19783829 ]
Phenylketonuria
  1. Rampini S, Vollmin JA, Bosshard HR, Muller M, Curtius HC: Aromatic acids in urine of healthy infants, persistent hyperphenylalaninemia, and phenylketonuria, before and after phenylalanine load. Pediatr Res. 1974 Jul;8(7):704-9. [PubMed:4837567 ]
Dopamine-serotonin Vesicular Transport Defect
  1. Rilstone JJ, Alkhater RA, Minassian BA: Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and its treatment. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 7;368(6):543-50. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1207281. Epub 2013 Jan 30. [PubMed:23363473 ]
Brunner Syndrome
  1. Brunner HG, Nelen MR, van Zandvoort P, Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Wolters EC, Kuiper MA, Ropers HH, van Oost BA: X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Jun;52(6):1032-9. [PubMed:8503438 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID574
FoodDB IDFDB001783
KNApSAcK IDC00029504
Chemspider ID1675
KEGG Compound IDC05582
BioCyc IDCPD-7651
BiGG ID46066
Wikipedia LinkHomovanillic_acid
METLIN ID971
PubChem Compound1738
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID545959
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  3. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [PubMed:12649306 ]
  4. Hyland K, Gunasekara RS, Munk-Martin TL, Arnold LA, Engle T: The hph-1 mouse: a model for dominantly inherited GTP-cyclohydrolase deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2003;54 Suppl 6:S46-8. [PubMed:12891653 ]
  5. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
  6. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. [PubMed:8884658 ]
  7. Needlman R, Zuckerman B, Anderson GM, Mirochnick M, Cohen DJ: Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursors and metabolites in human neonates following in utero cocaine exposure: a preliminary study. Pediatrics. 1993 Jul;92(1):55-60. [PubMed:8516085 ]
  8. Houston JP, Maas JW, Bowden CL, Contreras SA, McIntyre KL, Javors MA: Cerebrospinal fluid HVA, central brain atrophy, and clinical state in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1986 Nov;19(3):207-14. [PubMed:3797547 ]
  9. Scatton B, Dennis T, L'Heureux R, Monfort JC, Duyckaerts C, Javoy-Agid F: Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic but not dopaminergic neurones in the lumbar spinal cord of parkinsonian patients. Brain Res. 1986 Aug 13;380(1):181-5. [PubMed:2428421 ]
  10. Javors MA, Bowden CL, Maas JW: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid. Storage and measurement by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and coulometric detection using 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid as an internal standard. J Chromatogr. 1984 Dec 12;336(2):259-69. [PubMed:6085084 ]
  11. Court JA, Lloyd S, Thomas N, Piggott MA, Marshall EF, Morris CM, Lamb H, Perry RH, Johnson M, Perry EK: Dopamine and nicotinic receptor binding and the levels of dopamine and homovanillic acid in human brain related to tobacco use. Neuroscience. 1998 Nov;87(1):63-78. [PubMed:9722142 ]
  12. Reynolds GP, Garrett NJ: Striatal dopamine and homovanillic acid in Huntington's disease. J Neural Transm. 1986;65(2):151-5. [PubMed:2939198 ]
  13. Kay AD, Schapiro MB, Riker AK, Haxby JV, Rapoport SI, Cutler NR: Cerebrospinal fluid monoaminergic metabolites are elevated in adults with Down's syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1987 Apr;21(4):408-11. [PubMed:2437853 ]
  14. Lovenberg W, Levine RA, Robinson DS, Ebert M, Williams AC, Calne DB: Hydroxylase cofactor activity in cerebrospinal fluid of normal subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease. Science. 1979 May 11;204(4393):624-6. [PubMed:432666 ]
  15. Ruberg M, Javoy-Agid F, Hirsch E, Scatton B, LHeureux R, Hauw JJ, Duyckaerts C, Gray F, Morel-Maroger A, Rascol A, et al.: Dopaminergic and cholinergic lesions in progressive supranuclear palsy. Ann Neurol. 1985 Nov;18(5):523-9. [PubMed:3000280 ]
  16. Kaminski R, Powchick P, Warne PA, Goldstein M, McQueeney RT, Davidson M: Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1990;14(3):271-87. [PubMed:2193315 ]
  17. Birkmayer W, Birkmayer GJ: Nicotinamidadenindinucleotide (NADH): the new approach in the therapy of Parkinson's disease. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1989 Jan-Feb;19(1):38-43. [PubMed:2644889 ]
  18. Lambert GW, Eisenhofer G, Jennings GL, Esler MD: Regional homovanillic acid production in humans. Life Sci. 1993;53(1):63-75. [PubMed:8515683 ]
  19. Pifl C, Schingnitz G, Hornykiewicz O: The neurotoxin MPTP does not reproduce in the rhesus monkey the interregional pattern of striatal dopamine loss typical of human idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Oct 5;92(2):228-33. [PubMed:3263594 ]
  20. Grant DB, Dunger DB, Smith I, Hyland K: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia of the cardia associated with mixed neuropathy, long-tract degeneration and mild dementia. Eur J Pediatr. 1992 Feb;151(2):85-9. [PubMed:1537368 ]
  21. Eriksson E, Westberg P, Alling C, Thuresson K, Modigh K: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of monoamine metabolites in panic disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1991 Mar;36(3):243-51. [PubMed:1712114 ]
  22. Lepore V, Di Reda N, Defazio G, Pedone D, Giovine A, Lanzi C, Tartaglione B, Livrea P: Dopaminomimetic action of diphenylhydantoin in rat striatum: effect on homovanillic acid and cyclic AMP levels. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985;86(1-2):27-30. [PubMed:2991966 ]
  23. Levreri I, Caruso U, Deiana F, Buoncompagni A, De Bernardi B, Marchese N, Melioli G: The secretion of ibuprofen metabolites interferes with the capillary chromatography of urinary homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid in neuroblastoma diagnosis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(2):173-7. [PubMed:15843212 ]
  24. Broderick PA, Barr GA, Sharpless NS, Bridger WH: Biogenic amine alterations in limbic brain regions of muricidal rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1985 Apr;48(1):3-15. [PubMed:2581293 ]
  25. Sullivan GM, Oquendo MA, Huang YY, Mann JJ: Elevated cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in women with comorbid depression and panic disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006 Oct;9(5):547-56. Epub 2005 Nov 1. [PubMed:16259647 ]
  26. Lekman A, Witt-Engerstrom I, Gottfries J, Hagberg BA, Percy AK, Svennerholm L: Rett syndrome: biogenic amines and metabolites in postmortem brain. Pediatr Neurol. 1989 Nov-Dec;5(6):357-62. [PubMed:2604799 ]
  27. Losonczy MF, Song IS, Mohs RC, Mathe AA, Davidson M, Davis BM, Davis KL: Correlates of lateral ventricular size in chronic schizophrenia, II: biological measures. Am J Psychiatry. 1986 Sep;143(9):1113-8. [PubMed:2428259 ]
  28. Seeldrayers P, Messina D, Desmedt D, Dalesio O, Hildebrand J: CSF levels of neurotransmitters in Alzheimer-type dementia. Effects of ergoloid mesylate. Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 May;71(5):411-4. [PubMed:2409733 ]
  29. Lembreghts M, Ansseau M: [Biological markers in schizophrenia]. Encephale. 1993 Sep-Oct;19(5):501-23. [PubMed:8306920 ]
  30. Dale G, McGill AC, Seviour JA, Craft AW: Urinary excretion of HMMA and HVA in infants. Ann Clin Biochem. 1988 May;25 ( Pt 3):233-6. [PubMed:3400977 ]
  31. Sardar AM, Czudek C, Reynolds GP: Dopamine deficits in the brain: the neurochemical basis of parkinsonian symptoms in AIDS. Neuroreport. 1996 Mar 22;7(4):910-2. [PubMed:8724671 ]
  32. Ormazabal A, Garcia-Cazorla A, Fernandez Y, Fernandez-Alvarez E, Campistol J, Artuch R: HPLC with electrochemical and fluorescence detection procedures for the diagnosis of inborn errors of biogenic amines and pterins. J Neurosci Methods. 2005 Mar 15;142(1):153-8. [PubMed:15652629 ]
  33. Ali SF, Kordsmeier KJ, Gough B: Drug-induced circling preference in rats. Correlation with monoamine levels. Mol Neurobiol. 1995 Aug-Dec;11(1-3):145-54. [PubMed:8561958 ]
  34. von Holst H, Lindquist C, Sedvall G: Increased concentrations of the monoamine metabolites homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in lumbar and central CSF and of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in lumbar CSF after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1985;77(3-4):146-51. [PubMed:2416192 ]
  35. Strittmatter M, Isenberg E, Grauer MT, Hamann G, Schimrigk K: CSF substance P somatostatin and monoaminergic transmitter metabolites in patients with narcolepsy. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Nov 1;218(2):99-102. [PubMed:8945737 ]
  36. Curtin F, Walker JP, Peyrin L, Soulier V, Badan M, Schulz P: Reward dependence is positively related to urinary monoamines in normal men. Biol Psychiatry. 1997 Aug 15;42(4):275-81. [PubMed:9270904 ]
  37. Abramowsky CR, Taylor SR, Anton AH, Berk AI, Roederer M, Murphy RF: Flow cytometry DNA ploidy analysis and catecholamine secretion profiles in neuroblastoma. Cancer. 1989 May 1;63(9):1752-6. [PubMed:2702581 ]
  38. Sumiyoshi T, Yotsutsuji T, Kurachi M, Itoh H, Kurokawa K, Saitoh O: Effect of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy human subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998 Jul;19(1):70-3. [PubMed:9608578 ]
  39. Jolicoeur FB, Rivest R, Drumheller A: Hypokinesia, rigidity, and tremor induced by hypothalamic 6-OHDA lesions in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1991 Feb;26(2):317-20. [PubMed:1901508 ]
  40. Harnryd C, Bjerkenstedt L, Grimm VE, Sedvall G: Reduction of MOPEG levels in cerebrospinal fluid of psychotic women after electroconvulsive treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1979 Aug 8;64(2):131-4. [PubMed:115032 ]
  41. di Rocco A, Bottiglieri T, Dorfman D, Werner P, Morrison C, Simpson D: Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000 Jul-Aug;23(4):190-4. [PubMed:11020122 ]
  42. Van Der Heyden JC, Rotteveel JJ, Wevers RA: Decreased homovanillic acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children without a known defect in dopamine metabolism. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2003;7(1):31-7. [PubMed:12615172 ]
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  47. Konradi C, Kornhuber J, Sofic E, Heckers S, Riederer P, Beckmann H: Variations of monoamines and their metabolites in the human brain putamen. Brain Res. 1992 May 8;579(2):285-90. [PubMed:1628216 ]
  48. Riddle MA, Jatlow PI, Anderson GM, Cho SC, Hardin MT, Cohen DJ, Leckman JF: Plasma debrisoquin levels in the assessment of reduction of plasma homovanillic acid. The debrisoquin method. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1989 Jun;2(2):123-9. [PubMed:2742727 ]
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  59. Narayan M, Srinath S, Anderson GM, Meundi DB: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Apr 15-May 1;33(8-9):630-5. [PubMed:7687150 ]
  60. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [PubMed:6198473 ]
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  63. Boto-Ordonez M, Urpi-Sarda M, Queipo-Ortuno MI, Tulipani S, Tinahones FJ, Andres-Lacueva C: High levels of Bifidobacteria are associated with increased levels of anthocyanin microbial metabolites: a randomized clinical trial. Food Funct. 2014 Aug;5(8):1932-8. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00029c. [PubMed:24958563 ]
  64. Koistinen VM (2019). Effects of Food Processing and Gut Microbial Metabolism on Whole Grain Phytochemicals: A Metabolomics Approach. In Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Health Sciences., no 510 (pp. 26-58). University of Eastern Finland. [ISBN:978-952-61-3088-0 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Homovanillic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. This protein preferentially oxidizes aromatic aldehyde substrates. It may play a role in the oxidation of toxic aldehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A1
Uniprot ID:
P30838
Molecular weight:
50394.57
Reactions
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated aldehydes. Metabolizes also benzaldehyde. Low activity towards acetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. May not metabolize short chain aldehydes. May use both NADP(+) and NAD(+) as cofactors. May have a protective role against the cytotoxicity induced by lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH3B1
Uniprot ID:
P43353
Molecular weight:
51839.245
Reactions
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
Homovanillic acid → Homovanillic acid sulfatedetails