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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 09:42:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000127
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00127
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Glucuronic acid
DescriptionGlucuronic acid is a carboxylic acid that has the structure of a glucose molecule that has had its sixth carbon atom (of six total) oxidized. The salts of glucuronic acid are known as glucuronates. Glucuronic acid is highly soluble in water. In humans, glucuronic acid is often linked to toxic or poisonous substances to allow for subsequent elimination, and to hormones to allow for easier transport. These linkages involve O-glycosidic bonds. The process is known as glucuronidation, and the resulting substances are known as glucuronides (or glucuronosides). Glucuronidation uses UDP-glucuronic acid (glucuronic acid linked via a glycosidic bond to uridine diphosphate) as an intermediate. UDP-glucuronic acid is formed in the liver of all animals.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
GlcAaChEBI
GlcAalphaChEBI
D-GlucuronateGenerator
alpha-D-Glucopyranuronic acidHMDB
alpha-D-Glucuronic acidHMDB
alpha-delta-Glucopyranuronic acidHMDB
alpha-delta-Glucuronic acidHMDB
D-(+)-GlucuronateHMDB
D-(+)-Glucuronic acidHMDB
delta-(+)-GlucuronateHMDB
delta-(+)-Glucuronic acidHMDB
delta-GlucuronateHMDB
GCUHMDB
GlucosiduronateHMDB
Glucosiduronic acidHMDB
GlucuronateHMDB
Glucuronic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O7
Average Molecular Weight194.1394
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.042652674
IUPAC Name(2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameglucuronic acid
CAS Registry Number6556-12-3
SMILES
O[C@H]1O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O7/c7-1-2(8)4(5(10)11)13-6(12)3(1)9/h1-4,6-9,12H,(H,10,11)/t1-,2-,3+,4-,6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyAEMOLEFTQBMNLQ-WAXACMCWSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Pyran
  • Monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Hemiacetal
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point143 - 144 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility485 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.57HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility295 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area127.45 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a6s-5900000000-4145d7dbe91803d8047fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000l-6242950000-7b610ed98440b47c2a32View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0h9c-7900000000-36121a46a2890d86232eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0ab9-9000000000-8c30084b43ecb0cf7818View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-580b96de2b78621ac645View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-056s-1900000000-5b29218582cf3ee829fdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9400000000-2aa876e0cbcc0ef3bddfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0007-0900000000-5e77c9eef959f8dfe0bfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0035-3900000000-97b32d589162947b3a11View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-23aa5a5d3545ff8b0f90View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified165.0 +/- 32.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified165.0 +/- 23.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.7 (3.7-20.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified36.07-453.51 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified125.0 +/- 30.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 (1.38-5.00) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.82 +/- 20.95 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.9 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified30.5 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified144.7 +/- 27.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Cryptosporidium infection
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021897
KNApSAcK IDC00001123
Chemspider ID392615
KEGG Compound IDC00191
BioCyc IDGLUCURONATE
BiGG ID34196
Wikipedia LinkGlucuronic acid
METLIN ID161
PubChem Compound444791
PDB IDGCU
ChEBI ID42717
References
Synthesis ReferenceHamayasu, Kenichi; Tadokoro, Hiroki; Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Hara, Kozo. Preparation of glucuronic acid and/or glucuronolactone from sucrose. PCT Int. Appl. (2006), 21pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Roy-Chowdhry J, Arias IM: Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Nov;90(5):2130-5. [PubMed:1430236 ]
  2. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  3. Jowett TP, Slater JD: A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of tetrahydroaldosterone 3-glucosiduronic acid in human plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 1981 Jan 22;109(2):133-44. [PubMed:7193539 ]
  4. Schmitt G, Aderjan R, Keller T, Wu M: Ethyl glucuronide: an unusual ethanol metabolite in humans. Synthesis, analytical data, and determination in serum and urine. J Anal Toxicol. 1995 Mar-Apr;19(2):91-4. [PubMed:7769794 ]
  5. Karasawa E: [Supplementary findings on urinary glucuronic acid excretion in pediatrics. I. Total glucuronic acid in 24-hour urine of normal infants determined by the modified Fishman's method with NaBH4]. Nihon Shonika Gakkai Zasshi. 1968 Aug 1;72(8):1122-7. [PubMed:5755643 ]
  6. Carpenter PC, Mattox VR: Isolation, determination of structure and synthesis of the acid-labile conjugate of aldosterone. Biochem J. 1976 Jul 1;157(1):1-14. [PubMed:962850 ]
  7. Raju U, Sklarew RJ, Post J, Levitz M: Steroid metabolism in human breast cancer cell lines. Steroids. 1978 Dec;32(5):669-80. [PubMed:734701 ]
  8. Stearns RA, Miller RR, Doss GA, Chakravarty PK, Rosegay A, Gatto GJ, Chiu SH: The metabolism of DuP 753, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, by rat, monkey, and human liver slices. Drug Metab Dispos. 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):281-7. [PubMed:1352222 ]
  9. Little JM, St Pyrek J, Lester R: Hepatic metabolism of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-etianic acid (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstan-17 beta-carboxylic acid) in the adult rat. J Clin Invest. 1983 Jan;71(1):73-80. [PubMed:6848561 ]
  10. Pfeiffer E, Graf E, Gerstner S, Metzler M: Stimulation of estradiol glucuronidation: a protective mechanism against estradiol-mediated carcinogenesis? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Apr;50(4-5):385-9. [PubMed:16598814 ]
  11. McDonagh AF, Palma LA, Lauff JJ, Wu TW: Origin of mammalian biliprotein and rearrangement of bilirubin glucuronides in vivo in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1984 Sep;74(3):763-70. [PubMed:6470139 ]
  12. Murano PS, Robichaud VY, Webb RE: Urinary excretion of sulfate and glucuronate conjugates in a free living population of adult males. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Jul;43(1):13-6. [PubMed:2758129 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 23 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular weight:
59741.035
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + Water → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + D-Glucuronic aciddetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 23 proteins in total.