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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:43:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000142
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00142
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFormic acid
DescriptionFormic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid. Formate is an intermediate in normal metabolism. It takes part in the metabolism of one-carbon compounds and its carbon may appear in methyl groups undergoing transmethylation. It is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Formate is typically produced as a byproduct in the production of acetate. It is responsible for both metabolic acidosis and disrupting mitochondrial electron transport and energy production by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity, the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. Cell death from cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate is believed to result partly from depletion of ATP, reducing energy concentrations so that essential cell functions cannot be maintained. Furthermore, inhibition of cytochrome oxidase by formate may also cause cell death by increased production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to the blockade of the electron transport chain. In nature, formic acid is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order Hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. Urinary formate is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter frundii, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (PMID: 22292465 ).
Structure
Data?1563860635
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaCH2O2
Average Molecular Weight46.0254
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.005479308
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number64-18-6
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O2/c2-1-3/h1H,(H,2,3)
InChI KeyBDAGIHXWWSANSR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point8.4 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.54HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-5d27bb312e37a2c8994fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fmi-9200000000-2a89ba98485194acd75aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-092f816e62c8d2f5d56eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004j-9000000000-2e63b0c1e2e417b0d747JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Most Tissues
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified224.5 +/- 119.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified121.7 +/- 97.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified106.5 +/- 91.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified11.84(29.81) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.90-219.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified32.8 +/- 13.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified12.2 +/- 14.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified32 +/- 16 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified59 (9-244) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38 (3-201) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified47 (<1-407) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified35 (7-106) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified370 +/- 660 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified390 +/- 590 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified500 +/- 600 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified600 +/- 750 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified460 +/- 570 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified490 +/- 660 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified340 +/- 520 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified46 (3-244) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-96 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified96.37 +/- 83.83 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified44.2 +/- 22.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17 +/- 8.11 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified>0.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified43.47-195.63 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified26.8 (6.9-120.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.82 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.39 +/- 11.84 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified46.198 +/- 30.211 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.593 +/- 25.421 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified55.42 (14.60 – 120.70) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified19.8 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified171.7 +/- 73.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Methanol poisoning
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1630 (543 - 2717) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Formic acid intoxication
details
BloodDetected and Quantified19.1 +/- 21.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.2 +/- 11.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.4 (4.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified19.3 (14.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified600.0 (400.0-17100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMethanol poisoning details
BloodDetected and Quantified27.0 (13.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0 (17.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified33.48(33.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified34.2(42.65) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with reduced ejection fraction details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Pancreatic
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3479.9 (628.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified3496.6 (620.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femaleankylosing spondylitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femalerheumatoid arthritis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIrritable Bowel Syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedasymptomatic diverticulosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsymptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified79.1 +/- 27.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothMethyl formate exposure details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0006 - 0.0081 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 11.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified31.25 +/- 30.018 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified64.96 +/- 62.14 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Methanol poisoning
details
UrineDetected and Quantified92.45 (20.06 – 524.35) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Methanol poisoning
  1. Sejersted OM, Jacobsen D, Ovrebo S, Jansen H: Formate concentrations in plasma from patients poisoned with methanol. Acta Med Scand. 1983;213(2):105-10. [PubMed:6837328 ]
  2. Baumann K, Angerer J: Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. VI. Formic acid concentration in blood and urine as an indicator of methanol exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1979 Jan 15;42(3-4):241-9. [PubMed:422265 ]
Formic acid intoxication
  1. Moore DF, Bentley AM, Dawling S, Hoare AM, Henry JA: Folinic acid and enhanced renal elimination in formic acid intoxication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1994;32(2):199-204. [PubMed:8145360 ]
Pancreatic cancer
  1. Zhang L, Jin H, Guo X, Yang Z, Zhao L, Tang S, Mo P, Wu K, Nie Y, Pan Y, Fan D: Distinguishing pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis and healthy individuals by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic profiles. Clin Biochem. 2012 Sep;45(13-14):1064-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.05.012. Epub 2012 May 19. [PubMed:22613268 ]
Early preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
  2. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
  3. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
  4. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Chelliah A, Mandal R, Dong E, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester trisomy 18 detection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;209(1):65.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.028. Epub 2013 Mar 25. [PubMed:23535240 ]
Late-onset preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Hong YS, Hong KS, Park MH, Ahn YT, Lee JH, Huh CS, Lee J, Kim IK, Hwang GS, Kim JS: Metabonomic understanding of probiotic effects in humans with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 May-Jun;45(5):415-25. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318207f76c. [PubMed:21494186 ]
Diverticular disease
  1. Tursi A, Mastromarino P, Capobianco D, Elisei W, Miccheli A, Capuani G, Tomassini A, Campagna G, Picchio M, Giorgetti G, Fabiocchi F, Brandimarte G: Assessment of Fecal Microbiota and Fecal Metabolome in Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;50 Suppl 1:S9-S12. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000626. [PubMed:27622378 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Tie-juan ShaoZhi-xing HeZhi-jun XieHai-chang LiMei-jiao WangCheng-ping Wen. Characterization of ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 1H NMR-based metabolomics of human fecal extracts. Metabolomics. April 2016, 12:70 [Link]
Methyl formate exposure
  1. Berode M, Sethre T, Laubli T, Savolainen H: Urinary methanol and formic acid as indicators of occupational exposure to methyl formate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Aug;73(6):410-4. [PubMed:11007345 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D603-10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn810. Epub 2008 Oct 25. [PubMed:18953024 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 1
  1. (). Lorena Ivona ŞTEFAN, Alina NICOLESCU, Simona POPA, Maria MOŢA, Eugenia KOVACS and Calin DELEANU. 1H-NMR URINE METABOLIC PROFILING IN TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS. Rev. Roum. Chim., 2010, 55(11-12), 1033-1037 . .
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
External LinksNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference Finholt, Albert E.; Jacobson, Eugene C. The reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid with lithium aluminum hydride. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1952), 74 3943-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ohmori S, Sumii I, Toyonaga Y, Nakata K, Kawase M: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of formate as benzimidazole in biological samples. J Chromatogr. 1988 Apr 8;426(1):15-24. [PubMed:3384868 ]
  2. Dal Pra I, Chiarini A, Boschi A, Freddi G, Armato U: Novel dermo-epidermal equivalents on silk fibroin-based formic acid-crosslinked three-dimensional nonwoven devices with prospective applications in human tissue engineering/regeneration/repair. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Aug;18(2):241-7. [PubMed:16820930 ]
  3. Igeta Y, Kawarabayashi T, Sato M, Yamada N, Matsubara E, Ishiguro K, Kanai M, Tomidokoro Y, Osuga J, Okamoto K, Hirai S, Shoji M: Apolipoprotein E accumulates with the progression of A beta deposition in transgenic mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997 Nov;56(11):1228-35. [PubMed:9370233 ]
  4. Kerns W 2nd, Tomaszewski C, McMartin K, Ford M, Brent J: Formate kinetics in methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(2):137-43. [PubMed:12126185 ]
  5. Nagasawa H, Wada M, Koyama S, Kawanami T, Kurita K, Kato T: [A case of methanol intoxication with optic neuropathy visualized on STIR sequence of MR images]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005 Jul;45(7):527-30. [PubMed:16119839 ]
  6. Foulon V, Sniekers M, Huysmans E, Asselberghs S, Mahieu V, Mannaerts GP, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M: Breakdown of 2-hydroxylated straight chain fatty acids via peroxisomal 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase: a revised pathway for the alpha-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 18;280(11):9802-12. Epub 2005 Jan 11. [PubMed:15644336 ]
  7. Iwamoto N, Nishiyama E, Ohwada J, Arai H: Distribution of amyloid deposits in the cerebral white matter of the Alzheimer's disease brain: relationship to blood vessels. Acta Neuropathol. 1997 Apr;93(4):334-40. [PubMed:9113198 ]
  8. Ferrari LA, Arado MG, Nardo CA, Giannuzzi L: Post-mortem analysis of formic acid disposition in acute methanol intoxication. Forensic Sci Int. 2003 Apr 23;133(1-2):152-8. [PubMed:12742704 ]
  9. Tasaka Y, Nakaya F, Matsumoto H, Iwamoto Y, Omori Y: Pancreatic amylin content in human diabetic subjects and its relation to diabetes. Pancreas. 1995 Oct;11(3):303-8. [PubMed:8577686 ]
  10. D'Andrea MR, Reiser PA, Polkovitch DA, Gumula NA, Branchide B, Hertzog BM, Schmidheiser D, Belkowski S, Gastard MC, Andrade-Gordon P: The use of formic acid to embellish amyloid plaque detection in Alzheimer's disease tissues misguides key observations. Neurosci Lett. 2003 May 15;342(1-2):114-8. [PubMed:12727331 ]
  11. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [PubMed:7762816 ]
  12. Berode M, Sethre T, Laubli T, Savolainen H: Urinary methanol and formic acid as indicators of occupational exposure to methyl formate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Aug;73(6):410-4. [PubMed:11007345 ]
  13. Lehmann P, Kligman AM: In vivo removal of the horny layer with formic acid. Br J Dermatol. 1983 Sep;109(3):313-20. [PubMed:6615718 ]
  14. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [PubMed:6321058 ]
  15. Dunne VG, Bhattachayya S, Besser M, Rae C, Griffin JL: Metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage correlate with vasospasm and clinical outcome: a pattern-recognition 1H NMR study. NMR Biomed. 2005 Feb;18(1):24-33. [PubMed:15455468 ]
  16. Bloomer JC, Clarke SE, Chenery RJ: Determination of P4501A2 activity in human liver microsomes using [3-14C-methyl]caffeine. Xenobiotica. 1995 Sep;25(9):917-27. [PubMed:8553685 ]
  17. Grady S, Osterloh J: Improved enzymic assay for serum formate with colorimetric endpoint. J Anal Toxicol. 1986 Jan-Feb;10(1):1-5. [PubMed:3754027 ]
  18. Baumann K, Angerer J: Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. VI. Formic acid concentration in blood and urine as an indicator of methanol exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1979 Jan 15;42(3-4):241-9. [PubMed:422265 ]
  19. Ferry DG, Temple WA, McQueen EG: Methanol monitoring. Comparison of urinary methanol concentration with formic acid excretion rate as a measure of occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1980;47(2):155-63. [PubMed:7440001 ]
  20. Gupta A, Dwivedi M, Mahdi AA, Khetrapal CL, Bhandari M: Broad identification of bacterial type in urinary tract infection using (1)h NMR spectroscopy. J Proteome Res. 2012 Mar 2;11(3):1844-54. doi: 10.1021/pr2010692. Epub 2012 Jan 31. [PubMed:22292465 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 35 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes C14-demethylation of lanosterol; it transforms lanosterol into 4,4'-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol.
Gene Name:
CYP51A1
Uniprot ID:
Q16850
Molecular weight:
57277.81
Reactions
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH → Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
Lanosterin + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → 4,4-Dimethylcholesta-8,14,24-trienol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
Obtusifoliol + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Delta 8,14 -Sterol + Formic acid + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name:
ESD
Uniprot ID:
P10768
Molecular weight:
31462.545
Reactions
S-Formylglutathione + Water → Glutathione + Formic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
Gene Name:
ASPA
Uniprot ID:
P45381
Molecular weight:
35734.79
Reactions
N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
Specific function:
Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACY3
Uniprot ID:
Q96HD9
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
N-Formyl-L-aspartate + Water → Formic acid + L-Aspartic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MTHFD1
Uniprot ID:
P11586
Molecular weight:
101530.36
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Formic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid → ADP + Phosphate + 10-Formyltetrahydrofolatedetails
General function:
Involved in GTP cyclohydrolase I activity
Specific function:
Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.
Gene Name:
GCH1
Uniprot ID:
P30793
Molecular weight:
27902.855
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Formic acid + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphatedetails
Formamidopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate + Water → 2,5-Diaminopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate + Formic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Removes the formyl group from the N-terminal Met of newly synthesized proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDF
Uniprot ID:
Q9HBH1
Molecular weight:
27013.25
Reactions
Formyl-L-methionyl peptide + Water → Formic acid + methionyl peptidedetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 35 proteins in total.