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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-03-14 17:59:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000206
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00206
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN6-Acetyl-L-lysine
DescriptionN-acetyl-lysine is an acetylated amino acid. Post-translational lysine-acetylation is one of two major modifications of lysine residues in various proteins. Acetylation of specific lysine residues in the N-terminal domains of core histones is a biochemical marker of active genes. Acetylation is now known to play a major role in eukaryotic transcription. Specifically, acetyltransferase enzymes that act on particular lysine side chains of histones and other proteins are intimately involved in transcriptional activation. By modifying chromatin proteins and transcription-related factors, these acetylases are believed to regulate the transcription of many genes. The best-characterized mechanism is acetylation, catalyzed by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. HATs function enzymatically by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to the -amino group of certain lysine side chains within a histone's basic N-terminal tail region. Within a histone octamer, these regions extend out from the associated globular domains, and in the context of a nucleosome, they are believed to bind the DNA through charge interactions (positively charged histone tails associated with negatively charged DNA) or mediate interactions between nucleosomes. Lysine acetylation, which neutralizes part of a tail region's positive charge, is postulated to weaken histone-DNA or nucleosome-nucleosome interactions and/or signal a conformational change, thereby destabilizing nucleosome structure or arrangement and giving other nuclear factors, such as the transcription complex, more access to a genetic locus. In agreement with this is the fact that acetylated chromatin has long been associated with states of transcriptional activation. Specific recognition of N-acetyl-lysine is a conserved function of all bromodomains found in different proteins, recognized as an emerging intracellular signaling mechanism that plays critical roles in regulating gene transcription, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, and cytoskeletal organization. (PMID 9169194 , 10827952 , 17340003 , 16247734 , 9478947 , 10839822 ).
Structure
Data?1547234050
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-6-(Acetylamino)-2-aminohexanoic acidChEBI
N(6)-ACETYLLYSINEChEBI
N(zeta)-AcetyllysineChEBI
N-epsilon-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
N-Epsilon-AcetyllysineChEBI
N(epsilon)-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
N(zeta)-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
(2S)-6-(Acetylamino)-2-aminohexanoateGenerator
N(Z)-AcetyllysineGenerator
N(Ζ)-acetyllysineGenerator
N(Z)-Acetyl-L-lysineGenerator
N(Ζ)-acetyl-L-lysineGenerator
e-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
e-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
e-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
epsilon-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
epsilon-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
epsilon-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
L-e-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
L-epsilon-N-AcetyllysineHMDB
N-e-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
N-e-AcetyllysineHMDB
N6-AcetyllysineHMDB
Ne-acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
Ne-acetyllysineHMDB
Omega-N-acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
W-N-Acetyl-L-lysineHMDB
N(6)-AcetyllsineHMDB
Omega-acetyllsineHMDB
N6-Acetyl-L-lysineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC8H16N2O3
Average Molecular Weight188.2242
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight188.116092388
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-6-acetamidohexanoic acid
Traditional NameN6-acetyllysine
CAS Registry Number692-04-6
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCCC[C@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H16N2O3/c1-6(11)10-5-3-2-4-7(9)8(12)13/h7H,2-5,9H2,1H3,(H,10,11)(H,12,13)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyDTERQYGMUDWYAZ-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point250 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility17.5 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.43ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.53ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.42 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity47.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.28 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0002-9610000000-6e30cfdb2a70cc49f983JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9610000000-6e30cfdb2a70cc49f983JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1900000000-e36d5532f4f0ed8ec34fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9500000000-266c8b0fce84c71553b2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9200000000-a186b34425c93ea31a66JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9110000000-255e47c2dfcdf6b61403JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004r-1900000000-4745f7cfa9eaaef208adJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-635805826359aa05ec7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-8857489c6ac957c71a5dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-39f91157038523017046JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000j-0900000000-183e1f50c20603f14c03JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-da02d0f8bd73b5b96b46JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4j-9400000000-8531cdbb4e8108dbec95JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-94d72f2c644db8c0b5cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c6ff005564503774a853JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-3900000000-dffc604f608a010e711eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-d6bc330de42890c4c091JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8d68337bf7a8db380cd7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-1400569a447d5f66c3a8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-39f91157038523017046JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000j-0900000000-183e1f50c20603f14c03JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-da02d0f8bd73b5b96b46JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4j-9400000000-8531cdbb4e8108dbec95JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-94d72f2c644db8c0b5cdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-c6ff005564503774a853JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0077-0900000000-e0d9659d3d504e9c8d81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ued-3900000000-ae84e0c568d22d7c62fbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9100000000-848f804e26f5a4edfcfbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-545e3c760ee61913f301JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05p2-3900000000-3a6e9f0c90d936bd6ae8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9000000000-33c2ede158e490bcc70fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified2.036-2.828 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified9.318 +/- 4.75 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.141 +/- 3.949 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
    3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
    1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB000476
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID83801
    KEGG Compound IDC02727
    BioCyc IDCPD-567
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkAcetyllysine
    METLIN ID5216
    PubChem Compound92832
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID17752
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceBenoiton, Leo; Leclerc, Jean. An improved synthesis of e-N-acetyl-L-lysine and similar compounds. Canadian Journal of Chemistry (1965), 43(4), 991-3.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Jacobson RH, Ladurner AG, King DS, Tjian R: Structure and function of a human TAFII250 double bromodomain module. Science. 2000 May 26;288(5470):1422-5. [PubMed:10827952 ]
    2. Armstrong MD, Robinow M: A case of hyperlysinemia: biochemical and clinical observations. Pediatrics. 1967 Apr;39(4):546-54. [PubMed:6022933 ]
    3. Crane-Robinson C, Hebbes TR, Clayton AL, Thorne AW: Chromosomal mapping of core histone acetylation by immunoselection. Methods. 1997 May;12(1):48-56. [PubMed:9169194 ]
    4. Jamonnak N, Fatkins DG, Wei L, Zheng W: N(epsilon)-methanesulfonyl-lysine as a non-hydrolyzable functional surrogate for N(epsilon)-acetyl-lysine. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Mar 21;5(6):892-6. Epub 2007 Feb 5. [PubMed:17340003 ]
    5. Iwabata H, Yoshida M, Komatsu Y: Proteomic analysis of organ-specific post-translational lysine-acetylation and -methylation in mice by use of anti-acetyllysine and -methyllysine mouse monoclonal antibodies. Proteomics. 2005 Dec;5(18):4653-64. [PubMed:16247734 ]
    6. Hazen SL, d'Avignon A, Anderson MM, Hsu FF, Heinecke JW: Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of reactive aldehydes. Mechanistic studies identifying labile intermediates along the reaction pathway. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 27;273(9):4997-5005. [PubMed:9478947 ]
    7. Sterner DE, Berger SL: Acetylation of histones and transcription-related factors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000 Jun;64(2):435-59. [PubMed:10839822 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
    Gene Name:
    GLYAT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6IB77
    Molecular weight:
    18506.33
    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
    Gene Name:
    GLYATL1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q969I3
    Molecular weight:
    35100.895
    General function:
    Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
    Gene Name:
    GLYATL2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8WU03
    Molecular weight:
    34277.055