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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-07-23 18:32:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000220
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00220
  • HMDB0060083
  • HMDB60083
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePalmitic acid
DescriptionPalmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from the fruit of oil palms (palm oil). Excess carbohydrates in the body are converted to palmitic acid. Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and is the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a consequence, palmitic acid is a major body component of animals. In humans, one analysis found it to make up 21–30% (molar) of human depot fat (PMID: 13756126 ), and it is a major, but highly variable, lipid component of human breast milk (PMID: 352132 ). Palmitic acid is used to produce soaps, cosmetics, and industrial mould release agents. These applications use sodium palmitate, which is commonly obtained by saponification of palm oil. To this end, palm oil, rendered from palm tree (species Elaeis guineensis), is treated with sodium hydroxide (in the form of caustic soda or lye), which causes hydrolysis of the ester groups, yielding glycerol and sodium palmitate. Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid (Wikipedia). Palmitic acid is also used in the determination of water hardness and is a surfactant of Levovist, an intravenous ultrasonic contrast agent.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-Hexyldecanoic acidChEBI
1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acidChEBI
16:00ChEBI
C16ChEBI
C16 Fatty acidChEBI
C16:0ChEBI
Cetylic acidChEBI
CH3-[CH2]14-COOHChEBI
HexadecanoateChEBI
Hexadecoic acidChEBI
Hexadecylic acidChEBI
Hexaectylic acidChEBI
N-Hexadecanoic acidChEBI
N-Hexadecoic acidChEBI
PalmitateChEBI
Palmitinic acidChEBI
PalmitinsaeureChEBI
Pentadecanecarboxylic acidChEBI
1-HexyldecanoateGenerator
1-PentadecanecarboxylateGenerator
CetylateGenerator
Hexadecanoic acidGenerator
HexadecoateGenerator
HexadecylateGenerator
HexaectylateGenerator
N-HexadecanoateGenerator
N-HexadecoateGenerator
PalmitinateGenerator
PentadecanecarboxylateGenerator
Edenor C16HMDB
Emersol 140HMDB
Emersol 143HMDB
Glycon P-45HMDB
Hexadecanoate (N-C16:0)HMDB
Hexadecanoic acid palmitic acidHMDB
HydrofolHMDB
Hydrofol acid 1690HMDB
Hystrene 8016HMDB
Hystrene 9016HMDB
Industrene 4516HMDB
Kortacid 1698HMDB
Loxiol ep 278HMDB
Lunac P 95HMDB
Lunac P 95KCHMDB
Lunac P 98HMDB
PalmitoateHMDB
Palmitoic acidHMDB
PAMHMDB
PLMHMDB
Prifac 2960HMDB
Prifrac 2960HMDB
Pristerene 4934HMDB
Univol u332HMDB
Acid, hexadecanoicMeSH
Acid, palmiticMeSH
FA(16:0)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H32O2
Average Molecular Weight256.4241
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight256.240230268
IUPAC Namehexadecanoic acid
Traditional Namepalmitic acid
CAS Registry Number57-10-3
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h2-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)
InChI KeyIPCSVZSSVZVIGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point61.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.0e-05 mg/mLNot Available
LogP7.17SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00041 g/LALOGPS
logP7.23ALOGPS
logP6.26ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity77.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0abc-9110000000-6d7f0dbe5b588850b941View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1900000000-d7638a578d846871e670View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9610000000-f75185fa40c090817f46View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-022i-9440000000-7d3a81432d58729f9f98View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0090000000-39c3a0e17432781e9760View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0090000000-8ec1a6953701fc22ce27View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0fba-9200000000-23c995bf81d5ef609489View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0abc-9110000000-12f1884d67998fb924a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0091010000-6922411e48d747e592b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0091000000-4f6858c1cc0f04cbabf5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-14e58eecd83ba52123c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-c3f9f4d5c336137b7fcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-47919da3faa8e0f52bbcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-fdd9e98416da12470fe9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480ccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-06xx-9100000000-7ac9cd088cb9cb9f7560View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified122 +/- 48 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified66.010 +/- 9.879 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1060.743 +/- 35.0981 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.0 +/- 2.8 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1064.643 +/- 50.697 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.5 +/- 2.8 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1052.943 +/- 54.597 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified26.7 +/- 4.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1029.544 +/- 62.397 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified52 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified53 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified74 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified95 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified114 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified129 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified131 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified147 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.3-31.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified347 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.7-32.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified366 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified424 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1415.468 +/- 323.410 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1215.798 +/- 212.0316 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2500 +/- 630 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2360 +/- 430 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.8 +/- 0.400 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.49 +/- 2.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified18.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified122.219 +/- 200.254 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified421.957 +/- 602.517 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified11.09 +/- 2.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.903 +/- 12.225 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.8 (2.6-32.7) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.1-7.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.46-1.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11 (6.0-23) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.30 +/- 0.09 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.2 (6.0-26.1) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (0.8-8.2) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.1-3.8) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.45-0.73 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.7(2.6-24.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Breast cancer
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothInflammatory bowel disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIleal Crohn's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Premature neonates
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.852 +/- 19.074 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.703 +/- 11.558 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Lv W, Yang T: Identification of possible biomarkers for breast cancer from free fatty acid profiles determined by GC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis. Clin Biochem. 2012 Jan;45(1-2):127-33. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.10.011. Epub 2011 Oct 26. [PubMed:22061338 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  4. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Yang J, Chen T, Sun L, Zhao Z, Qi X, Zhou K, Cao Y, Wang X, Qiu Y, Su M, Zhao A, Wang P, Yang P, Wu J, Feng G, He L, Jia W, Wan C: Potential metabolite markers of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;18(1):67-78. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.131. Epub 2011 Oct 25. [PubMed:22024767 ]
  2. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
Inflammatory bowel disease
  1. Lee T, Clavel T, Smirnov K, Schmidt A, Lagkouvardos I, Walker A, Lucio M, Michalke B, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Fedorak R, Haller D: Oral versus intravenous iron replacement therapy distinctly alters the gut microbiota and metabolome in patients with IBD. Gut. 2017 May;66(5):863-871. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309940. Epub 2016 Feb 4. [PubMed:26848182 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03796
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011679
KNApSAcK IDC00030479
Chemspider ID960
KEGG Compound IDC00249
BioCyc IDPALMITATE
BiGG ID34386
Wikipedia LinkPalmitic_acid
METLIN ID187
PubChem Compound985
PDB IDPLM
ChEBI ID15756
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Yan; Ling, Li. A method for preparing conjugated linoleic acid and palmitic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  3. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  4. A J, Trygg J, Gullberg J, Johansson AI, Jonsson P, Antti H, Marklund SL, Moritz T: Extraction and GC/MS analysis of the human blood plasma metabolome. Anal Chem. 2005 Dec 15;77(24):8086-94. [PubMed:16351159 ]
  5. Cater NB, Denke MA: Behenic acid is a cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan;73(1):41-4. [PubMed:11124748 ]
  6. Lloyd B, Halter RJ, Kuchan MJ, Baggs GE, Ryan AS, Masor ML: Formula tolerance in postbreastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants. Pediatrics. 1999 Jan;103(1):E7. [PubMed:9917487 ]
  7. Katsuta Y, Iida T, Inomata S, Denda M: Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):1008-13. [PubMed:15854043 ]
  8. Mensink RP: Nutrition in lipid disorders. Ther Umsch. 1995 Aug;52(8):509-14. [PubMed:7676394 ]
  9. Mesiha MS, Ponnapula S, Plakogiannis F: Oral absorption of insulin encapsulated in artificial chyles of bile salts, palmitic acid and alpha-tocopherol dispersions. Int J Pharm. 2002 Dec 5;249(1-2):1-5. [PubMed:12433429 ]
  10. Dubinin DM, Naidina VP, Zaloguev SN: [Evaluation of human skin function in a sealed room by a chromatographic method]. Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1985 Nov-Dec;19(6):69-73. [PubMed:2868151 ]
  11. Okun JG, Kolker S, Schulze A, Kohlmuller D, Olgemoller K, Lindner M, Hoffmann GF, Wanders RJ, Mayatepek E: A method for quantitative acylcarnitine profiling in human skin fibroblasts using unlabelled palmitic acid: diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders and differentiation between biochemical phenotypes of MCAD deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Oct 10;1584(2-3):91-8. [PubMed:12385891 ]
  12. Otsuki T, Oku M: [A study on the effect of cortisol and progesterone on cytosolic arachidonic and palmitic acid concentrations in cultured human myometrial cells]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1995 Jun;47(6):531-8. [PubMed:7608616 ]
  13. Draisey TF, Gagneja GL, Thibert RJ: Pulmonary surfactant and amniotic fluid insulin. Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Aug;50(2):197-9. [PubMed:577607 ]
  14. Florentin E, Athias A, Lagrost L: Modulation of the activity of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein by carboxylated derivatives. Evidence for 13-cis-retinoic acid as a potent activator of the protein's activity in plasma. Eur J Biochem. 1996 Sep 15;240(3):699-706. [PubMed:8856073 ]
  15. Urien S, Morin D, Tillement JP: Effect of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin and palmitic acid on the brain and salivary gland extraction of warfarin in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Feb;248(2):781-5. [PubMed:2918479 ]
  16. Wang J, Zhu F, Pan G: [Diagnosis of chylous ascites with oral administration of 13C-palmitic acid]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 1996 Jun;35(6):382-4. [PubMed:9387625 ]
  17. Ip MP, Draisey TF, Thibert RJ, Gagneja GL, Jasey GM: Fetal lung maturity, as assessed by gas-liquid chromatographic determination of phospholipid palmitic acid in amniotic fluid. Clin Chem. 1977 Jan;23(1):35-40. [PubMed:832370 ]
  18. Messner T, Erkstam UB, Gustafsson IB, Nilsson SB, Vessby B: Diet and dietary markers in Kiruna and Uppsala, Sweden--a comparison. Int J Circumpolar Health. 1997 Apr;56(1-2):21-9. [PubMed:9300843 ]
  19. Vessby B, Tengblad S, Lithell H: Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia. 1994 Oct;37(10):1044-50. [PubMed:7851683 ]
  20. Liau YH, Slomiany BL, Slomiany A, Piasek A, Palmer D, Rosenthal WS: Identification of mucus glycoprotein fatty acyltransferase activity in human gastric mucosa. Digestion. 1985;32(1):57-62. [PubMed:4018446 ]
  21. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
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  23. Jensen RG, Hagerty MM, McMahon KE: Lipids of human milk and infant formulas: a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Jun;31(6):990-1016. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/31.6.990. [PubMed:352132 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 86 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
Gene Name:
FASN
Uniprot ID:
P49327
Molecular weight:
273424.06
Reactions
Hexadecanoyl-[acp] + Water → Acyl-carrier protein + Palmitic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes fatty acids from S-acylated cysteine residues in proteins such as trimeric G alpha proteins or HRAS. Has depalmitoylating activity and also low lysophospholipase activity.
Gene Name:
LYPLA1
Uniprot ID:
O75608
Molecular weight:
24669.355
Reactions
Palmitoyl-protein + Water → Palmitic acid + proteindetails
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. This isozyme hydrolyzes more efficiently L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine than L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylethanolamine, or L-alpha-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylinositol. May be involved in the production of lung surfactant, the remodeling or regulation of cardiac muscle.
Gene Name:
PLA2G5
Uniprot ID:
P39877
Molecular weight:
15674.065
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Hydrolyzes phosphatidylglycerol versus phosphatidylcholine with a 15-fold preference.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2F
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZM2
Molecular weight:
23256.29
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
Gene Name:
PLA2G4A
Uniprot ID:
P47712
Molecular weight:
85210.19
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular weight:
16359.535
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a powerful potency for releasing arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids. Prefers phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine liposomes to those of phosphatidylserine.
Gene Name:
PLA2G10
Uniprot ID:
O15496
Molecular weight:
18153.04
General function:
Involved in sugar binding
Specific function:
Has lysophospholipase activity.
Gene Name:
LGALS13
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHV8
Molecular weight:
16118.44
General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Has a preference for arachidonic-containing phospholipids.
Gene Name:
PLA2G2E
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK7
Molecular weight:
15988.525
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
May hydrolyze fatty acids from S-acylated cysteine residues in proteins such as trimeric G alpha proteins or HRAS. Has lysophospholipase activity (By similarity). Deacylates GAP43.
Gene Name:
LYPLA2
Uniprot ID:
O95372
Molecular weight:
24736.71
Reactions
Palmitoyl-protein + Water → Palmitic acid + proteindetails

Transporters

General function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids (LFCA) across the plasma membrane. The LFCA import appears to be hormone-regulated in a tissue-specific manner. In adipocytes, but not myocytes, insulin induces a rapid translocation of FATP1 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane, paralleled by increased LFCA uptake. May act directly as a bona fide transporter, or alternatively, in a cytoplasmic or membrane- associated multimeric protein complex to trap and draw fatty acids towards accumulation. Plays a pivotal role in regulating available LFCA substrates from exogenous sources in tissues undergoing high levels of beta-oxidation or triglyceride synthesis. May be involved in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Has acyl-CoA ligase activity for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids
Gene Name:
SLC27A1
Uniprot ID:
Q6PCB7
Molecular weight:
71107.5

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 86 proteins in total.