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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 18:49:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000228
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00228
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhenol
DescriptionPhenol, is a toxic, colourless crystalline solid with a sweet tarry odor that resembles a hospital smell. It is commonly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. It has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. Phenol is also used in the preparation of cosmetics including sunscreens, hair dyes, and skin lightening preparations. It is also used in the production of drugs (it is the starting material in the industrial production of aspirin), weedkillers, and synthetic resins. Phenol can be found in areas with high levels of motor traffic, therefore, people living in crowded urban areas are frequently exposed to traffic-derived phenol vapor. The average (mean +/- SD) phenol concentration in urine among normal individuals living in urban areas is 7.4 +/- 2.2 mg/g of creatinine. Exposure of the skin to concentrated phenol solutions causes chemical burns which may be severe; in laboratories where it is used, it is usually recommended that polyethylene glycol solution is kept available for washing off splashes. Notwithstanding the effects of concentrated solutions, it is also used in cosmetic surgery as an exfoliant, to remove layers of dead skin (Wikipedia). In some bacteria phenol can be directly synthesized from tyrosine via the enzyme tyrosine phenol-lyase [EC:4.1.99.2].
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acide carboliqueChEBI
Acide pheniqueChEBI
BenzenolChEBI
Carbolic acidChEBI
CarbolsaeureChEBI
HydroxybenzeneChEBI
KarbolsaeureChEBI
OxybenzeneChEBI
Phenic acidChEBI
Phenylic acidChEBI
Phenylic alcoholChEBI
PHOHChEBI
CarbolateGenerator
PhenateGenerator
PhenylateGenerator
AnbesolHMDB
BenzophenolHMDB
campho-Phenique cold sore gelHMDB
campho-Phenique gelHMDB
campho-Phenique liquidHMDB
Carbolic acid liquidHMDB
Carbolic oilHMDB
Carbolicum acidumHMDB
CarbolsaureHMDB
Cepastat lozengesHMDB
Cuticura pain relieving ointmentHMDB
FenolHMDB
FenoloHMDB
FenosmolinHMDB
FenosmolineHMDB
Hydroxy-benzeneHMDB
IPHHMDB
IZALHMDB
Liquefied phenolHMDB
Liquid phenolHMDB
Liquified phenolHMDB
Monohydroxy benzeneHMDB
MonohydroxybenzeneHMDB
MonophenolHMDB
PaoscleHMDB
PhenicHMDB
Phenic alcoholHMDB
Phenol alcoholHMDB
Phenol homopolymerHMDB
Phenol liquidHMDB
Phenol moltenHMDB
Phenol polymer-boundHMDB
Phenol solutionHMDB
Phenol syntheticHMDB
Phenolated waterHMDB
Phenolated water for disinfectionHMDB
PhenoleHMDB
PhenosmolinHMDB
Synthetic phenolHMDB
Tea polyphenolHMDB
Phenol, sodium saltMeSH
Phenolate sodiumMeSH
CarbolMeSH
Phenolate, sodiumMeSH
Sodium phenolateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H6O
Average Molecular Weight94.1112
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight94.041864814
IUPAC Namephenol
Traditional Namephenol
CAS Registry Number108-95-2
SMILES
OC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H6O/c7-6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5,7H
InChI KeyISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that are unsubstituted at the 4-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub Class1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Direct Parent1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point40.9 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility82.8 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.46HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility46.6 g/LALOGPS
logP1.39ALOGPS
logP1.67ChemAxon
logS-0.31ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity28.04 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.81 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0udi-3900000000-97dfa3be718a9ee7ace4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9000000000-6fb456992902a13931f9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-78c83ab6ff1d3dfdbec6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-89b0c430b8924ee2afdeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-fc01d0ad6740cfd70e13View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-006w-9000000000-c8b41f2899ca8cc9d4bcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-db80d8b605e20595c679View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-3900000000-97dfa3be718a9ee7ace4View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-c35c89484e2499c62a49View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0g4i-9300000000-afd565a878ea36c74defView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-e67da0571423f0e6b4b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-e0f57b1e970d0d46597eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-e67da0571423f0e6b4b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-00kf-9000000000-7bfe3b897e928a8f3a2cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-01-SG-2) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-78c83ab6ff1d3dfdbec6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-89b0c430b8924ee2afdeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-fc01d0ad6740cfd70e13View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ca4fa5905cccbfeab33aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-2c7201e803e029dd1aefView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-3fb3990dfbfbde2b8d57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gba-9000000000-d3da8db6579f32d02c6cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a74494cda18ab9fb8055View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-a74494cda18ab9fb8055View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-03a61ff7da92cb08edf8View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kf-9000000000-40b376f4e58c23369a01View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified6.38 +/- 2.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.86 +/- 0.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.5 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.8 (0.6-12.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.065 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.0 (5.6-9.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.7 (0.4-53.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (1.0-6.7) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (0.7-8.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified58.44 +/- 39.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-16434.459 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.000138 (0.000053-0.000234) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.000223 (0.000053-0.00191) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.000723 (0.000223-0.00200) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohns disease
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothCeliac disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.787 +/- 2.501 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Silva CL, Passos M, Camara JS: Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Talanta. 2012 Jan 30;89:360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.12.041. Epub 2011 Dec 22. [PubMed:22284503 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Francavilla R, Ercolini D, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Filippis F, De Pasquale I, Di Cagno R, Di Toma M, Gozzi G, Serrazanetti DI, De Angelis M, Gobbetti M: Salivary microbiota and metabolome associated with celiac disease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Jun;80(11):3416-25. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00362-14. Epub 2014 Mar 21. [PubMed:24657864 ]
  2. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  2. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
Uremia
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [PubMed:22626821 ]
  2. Guo K, Li L: Differential 12C-/13C-isotope dansylation labeling and fast liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for absolute and relative quantification of the metabolome. Anal Chem. 2009 May 15;81(10):3919-32. doi: 10.1021/ac900166a. [PubMed:19309105 ]
  3. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  4. Bouatra S, Aziat F, Mandal R, Guo AC, Wilson MR, Knox C, Bjorndahl TC, Krishnamurthy R, Saleem F, Liu P, Dame ZT, Poelzer J, Huynh J, Yallou FS, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bogumil R, Roehring C, Wishart DS: The human urine metabolome. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 4;8(9):e73076. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073076. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24023812 ]
  5. (). Geigy Scientific Tables, 8th Rev edition, pp. 165-177. Edited by C. Lentner, West Cadwell, N.J.: Medical education Div., Ciba-Geigy Corp., Basel, Switzerland c1981-1992.. .
  6. (). Geigy Scientific Tables, 8th Rev edition, pp. 130. Edited by C. Lentner, West Cadwell, N.J.: Medical education Div., Ciba-Geigy Corp. Basel, Switzerland c1981-1992.. .
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  3. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03255
Phenol Explorer Compound ID657
FoodDB IDFDB000893
KNApSAcK IDC00002664
Chemspider ID971
KEGG Compound IDC15584
BioCyc ID24-DICHLOROPHENOL
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhenol
METLIN ID128
PubChem Compound996
PDB IDIPH
ChEBI ID15882
References
Synthesis ReferenceBlanchi, Daniele. New process for direct synthesis of phenol from benzene. Chimica e l'Industria (Milan, Italy) (2005), 87(8), 90-93.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Jones AL, Hagen M, Coughtrie MW, Roberts RC, Glatt H: Human platelet phenolsulfotransferases: cDNA cloning, stable expression in V79 cells and identification of a novel allelic variant of the phenol-sulfating form. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Mar 17;208(2):855-62. [PubMed:7695643 ]
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  3. Kilic SS, Aydin S, Kilic N, Erman F, Aydin S, Celik I: Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 14;11(46):7351-4. [PubMed:16437641 ]
  4. Tanaka T, Kasai K, Kita T, Tanaka N: Distribution of phenol in a fatal poisoning case determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Sep;43(5):1086-8. [PubMed:9729832 ]
  5. McDonald TA, Holland NT, Skibola C, Duramad P, Smith MT: Hypothesis: phenol and hydroquinone derived mainly from diet and gastrointestinal flora activity are causal factors in leukemia. Leukemia. 2001 Jan;15(1):10-20. [PubMed:11243376 ]
  6. Blades KJ, Patel S: The dynamics of tear flow within a phenol red impregnated thread. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1996 Sep;16(5):409-15. [PubMed:8944185 ]
  7. Miller WL, Doughty MJ, Narayanan S, Leach NE, Tran A, Gaume AL, Bergmanson JP: A comparison of tear volume (by tear meniscus height and phenol red thread test) and tear fluid osmolality measures in non-lens wearers and in contact lens wearers. Eye Contact Lens. 2004 Jul;30(3):132-7. [PubMed:15499232 ]
  8. Hume R, Barker EV, Coughtrie MW: Differential expression and immunohistochemical localisation of the phenol and hydroxysteroid sulphotransferase enzyme families in the developing lung. Histochem Cell Biol. 1996 Feb;105(2):147-52. [PubMed:8852436 ]
  9. Slatkin NE, Rhiner M: Phenol saddle blocks for intractable pain at end of life: report of four cases and literature review. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2003 Jan-Feb;20(1):62-6. [PubMed:12568439 ]
  10. Bauer M, Patzelt D: A method for simultaneous RNA and DNA isolation from dried blood and semen stains. Forensic Sci Int. 2003 Sep 9;136(1-3):76-8. [PubMed:12969623 ]
  11. Norberg J, Emneus JA, Jonsson JA, Mathiasson L, Burestedt E, Knutsson M, Marko-Varga G: On-line supported liquid membrane-liquid chromatography with a phenol oxidase-based biosensor as a selective detection unit for the determination of phenols in blood plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Nov 7;701(1):39-46. [PubMed:9389336 ]
  12. Tucker IG: A method to study the kinetics of oral mucosal drug absorption from solutions. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;40(10):679-83. [PubMed:2907532 ]
  13. Achterrath-Tuckermann U, Saano V, Minker E, Stroman F, Arny I, Joki S, Nuutinen J, Szelenyi I: Influence of azelastine and some selected drugs on mucociliary clearance. Lung. 1992;170(4):201-9. [PubMed:1522740 ]
  14. Tatsumi H, Shimada N, Kuramoto R, Mochizuki Y, Nishizima M, Arai M, Osanai K, Ishihara K, Goso K, Hotta K: [The phenol turbidity test for measurement of pulmonary surfactants in amniotic fluid--rapid test for fetal lung maturity (author's transl)]. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Jpn. 1981 May;33(5):643-50. [PubMed:6894513 ]
  15. Bartholomew LE, Bartholomew FN: Antigenic bacterial polysaccharide in rheumatoid synovial effusions. Arthritis Rheum. 1979 Sep;22(9):969-77. [PubMed:314293 ]
  16. Le Poole IC, Yang F, Brown TL, Cornelius J, Babcock GF, Das PK, Boissy RE: Altered gene expression in melanocytes exposed to 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP): upregulation of the A2b adenosine receptor 1. J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Nov;113(5):725-31. [PubMed:10571726 ]
  17. Bukowska B, Kowalska S: Phenol and catechol induce prehemolytic and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Aug 30;152(1):73-84. [PubMed:15294349 ]
  18. Asai Y, Ohyama Y, Taiji Y, Makimura Y, Tamai R, Hashimoto M, Ogawa T: Treponema medium glycoconjugate inhibits activation of human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with phenol-water extracts of periodontopathic bacteria. J Dent Res. 2005 May;84(5):456-61. [PubMed:15840783 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.
Gene Name:
PON3
Uniprot ID:
Q15166
Molecular weight:
39607.185
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.
Gene Name:
PON1
Uniprot ID:
P27169
Molecular weight:
39730.99
General function:
Involved in arylesterase activity
Specific function:
Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.
Gene Name:
PON2
Uniprot ID:
Q15165
Molecular weight:
39380.535
General function:
Involved in 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactone to 6-phosphogluconate.
Gene Name:
PGLS
Uniprot ID:
O95336
Molecular weight:
27546.495
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Produces pentose sugars for nucleic acid synthesis and main producer of NADPH reducing power.
Gene Name:
G6PD
Uniprot ID:
P11413
Molecular weight:
62467.88
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Has also estrogen sulfotransferase activity. responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Is Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk.
Gene Name:
SULT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P50225
Molecular weight:
34165.13
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Is also responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk.
Gene Name:
SULT1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50226
Molecular weight:
34310.43
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P50224
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Phenol → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-phenoxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate to ribulose 5-phosphate and CO(2), with concomitant reduction of NADP to NADPH (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PGD
Uniprot ID:
P52209
Molecular weight:
53139.56

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.