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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-01-27 04:24:21 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000355
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00355
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Hydroxymethylglutaric acid
Description3-Hydroxymethylglutaric acid is a metabolite that accumulates in the urine of patients affected by 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria, a rare inborn error of metabolism (OMIM 246450). 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria is caused by reduced enzyme activity of the intramitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4), the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of leucine degradation and plays a key role in ketone body formation. The profile of urinary organic acids is different from that of the other identified defects of leucine degradation--maple syrup urine disease (OMIM 248600), isovaleric acidemia (OMIM 243500), and methylcrotonylglycinemia (OMIM 210200). Clinical manifestations include hepatomegaly, lethargy or coma and apnoea. Biochemically there is a characteristic absence of ketosis with hypoglycemia, acidosis, hipertransaminasemia and variable hyperammoniemia. The urinary organic acid profile includes elevated concentrations of 3-hydroxy-3-isovaleric, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric, 3-methylglutaconic and 3-methylglutaric acids. (PMID: 10916782, 9658458, 3063529).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidChEBI
(S)-MeglutolChEBI
3-HYDROXY-3-methyl-glutarIC ACIDChEBI
3-Hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioic acidChEBI
beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylglutaric acidChEBI
Dicrotalic acidChEBI
MeglutolChEBI
MeglutolumChEBI
(S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutarateGenerator
3-HydroxymethylglutarateGenerator
3-HYDROXY-3-methyl-glutarateGenerator
3-Hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioateGenerator
b-Hydroxy-b-methylglutarateGenerator
b-Hydroxy-b-methylglutaric acidGenerator
beta-Hydroxy-beta-methylglutarateGenerator
β-hydroxy-β-methylglutarateGenerator
β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaric acidGenerator
DicrotalateGenerator
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutarateHMDB
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidHMDB
3-Methyl-3-hydroxyglutarateHMDB
3-Methyl-3-hydroxyglutaric acidHMDB
CB 337HMDB
3 Hydroxy 3 methylpentanedioic acidMeSH
Acid, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaricMeSH
Acid, 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioicMeSH
beta Hydroxy beta methylglutarateMeSH
3 Hydroxy 3 methylglutaric acidMeSH
Chemical FormulaC6H10O5
Average Molecular Weight162.1406
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight162.05282343
IUPAC Name3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioic acid
Traditional Namemeglutol
CAS Registry Number503-49-1
SMILES
CC(O)(CC(O)=O)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O5/c1-6(11,2-4(7)8)3-5(9)10/h11H,2-3H2,1H3,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)
InChI KeyNPOAOTPXWNWTSH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Source:

  Biological:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point105 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility275 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.88ALOGPS
logP-0.75ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area94.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity34.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0930000000-67cdb23f1a51498bb80dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-05nb-2950000000-10da019551eceff729ecView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0960000000-75a1f0bc3ffb60117676View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0930000000-67cdb23f1a51498bb80dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-05nb-2950000000-10da019551eceff729ecView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0920000000-77008c8c7fb6eb798e79View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-ae0329f185525bab6028View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-9253000000-af0bf7551c9147193ed4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05fr-2900000000-d5b3d7ccc3617f392a63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9800000000-1a510972071bf02a23f7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0kdi-9300000000-6afee652d0eb18e589c3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-ae679b03ae8cdbc1cc40View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9300000000-8d7565d3b9cbed5d13acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d06ad8ce44567793a49dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f3c4c2c0cb3ff49db482View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-98c0337e0bebe4fefe6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-01qa-2900000000-182405b2867309ab7df8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03dj-5900000000-d9ffa79e6b62296f2626View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-2847ca367167b7cf107bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-9300000000-f9ab44912911fd1e9ec7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-589bf77ae5f575911b64View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f3c4c2c0cb3ff49db482View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-98c0337e0bebe4fefe6cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-03dj-5900000000-d9ffa79e6b62296f2626View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-01qa-2900000000-182405b2867309ab7df8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a3631689983e6d6a3be7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002b-2900000000-54e16eaede819dea2bdcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9600000000-31a4e319505eebd3d1d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03xr-2900000000-405383db70ec0564b916View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-07bg-5900000000-dfc057320722ae1d926cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4m-9300000000-e5a720c14cbc5de82d4dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0201 +/- 0.0639 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0917 +/- 0.0851 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<200 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6-4.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.788 +/- 4.222 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.0 (6.0-73.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.7-3.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3 (0-10) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<50 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4-3.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<31.61 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<200 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 (1.1 -5.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified28.1 (10.7-57.5) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.3 (4.3-31.4) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.9 (5.7-14.4) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified51.7 (13.1-101.1) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.1 (2.2-24.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.2(1.1-5.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.098 +/- 6.49 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified481 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Female3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified1028.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Male3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric- coenzyme A lyase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.581 +/- 10.628 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1028.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Male3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified481 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Female3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.227 +/- 8.202 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified31.947 +/- 39.294 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency
  1. Bischof F, Nagele T, Wanders RJ, Trefz FK, Melms A: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency in an adult with leukoencephalopathy. Ann Neurol. 2004 Nov;56(5):727-30. [PubMed:15505778 ]
  2. Santarelli F, Cassanello M, Enea A, Poma F, D'Onofrio V, Guala G, Garrone G, Puccinelli P, Caruso U, Porta F, Spada M: A neonatal case of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric-coenzyme A lyase deficiency. Ital J Pediatr. 2013 May 24;39:33. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-33. [PubMed:23705938 ]
  3. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 246450 (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency)
DrugBank IDDB04377
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB005950
KNApSAcK IDC00001187
Chemspider ID1600
KEGG Compound IDC03761
BioCyc IDCPD-547
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5344
PubChem Compound1662
PDB IDMAH
ChEBI ID16831
References
Synthesis ReferenceKlosterman, Harold J.; Smith, F. The isolation of b-hydroxy-b-methylglutaric acid from the seed of flax (Linum usitatissimum). Journal of the American Chemical Society (1954), 76 1229-30.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Fu Z, Runquist JA, Forouhar F, Hussain M, Hunt JF, Miziorko HM, Kim JJ: Crystal structure of human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase: insights into catalysis and the molecular basis for hydroxymethylglutaric aciduria. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 17;281(11):7526-32. Epub 2005 Dec 5. [PubMed:16330550 ]
  2. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  3. Mitchell GA, Jakobs C, Gibson KM, Robert MF, Burlina A, Dionisi-Vici C, Dallaire L: Molecular prenatal diagnosis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase deficiency. Prenat Diagn. 1995 Aug;15(8):725-9. [PubMed:7479590 ]
  4. Wysocki SJ, Wilkinson SP, Hahnel R, Wong CY, Panegyres PK: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria, combined with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Aug 2;70(3):399-406. [PubMed:947633 ]
  5. Tuchman M, McCann MT, Johnson PE, Lemieux B: Screening newborns for multiple organic acidurias in dried filter paper urine samples: method development. Pediatr Res. 1991 Oct;30(4):315-21. [PubMed:1956713 ]
  6. Truscott RJ, Halpern B, Wysocki SJ, Hahnel R, Wilcken B: Studies on a child suspected of having a dficiency in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A lyase. Clin Chim Acta. 1979 Jul 2;95(1):11-16. [PubMed:509721 ]
  7. Koling S, Kalhoff H, Schauerte P, Lehnert W, Diekmann L: [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaraciduria (case report of a female Turkish sisters with 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A lyase deficiency]. Klin Padiatr. 2000 May-Jun;212(3):113-6. [PubMed:10916782 ]
  8. Eiris J, Ribes A, Fernandez-Prieto R, Rodriguez-Garcia J, Rodriguez-Segade S, Castro-Gago M: [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria and recurrent Reye-like syndrome]. Rev Neurol. 1998 Jun;26(154):911-4. [PubMed:9658458 ]
  9. Gibson KM, Breuer J, Nyhan WL: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency: review of 18 reported patients. Eur J Pediatr. 1988 Dec;148(3):180-6. [PubMed:3063529 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in ketogenesis (ketone body formation). Terminal step in leucine catabolism.
Gene Name:
HMGCL
Uniprot ID:
P35914
Molecular weight:
34359.84