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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 08:01:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000359
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0001974
  • HMDB00359
  • HMDB01974
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid
Description3α,7α-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid is a bile acid excreted in small amounts in the urine of healthy subjects (PMID: 864325 ). 3α,7α-Dihydroxycoprostanic acid is the precursor to chenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depending only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine, and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH, and consequently require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g. membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanateChEBI
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanic acidChEBI
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoateChEBI
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acidChEBI
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanateGenerator
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanic acidGenerator
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestanateGenerator
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestanic acidGenerator
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoateGenerator
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanoic acidGenerator
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestanoateGenerator
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestanoic acidGenerator
3a,7a-DihydroxycoprostanateGenerator
3a,7a-Dihydroxycoprostanic acidGenerator
3alpha,7alpha-DihydroxycoprostanateGenerator
3α,7α-dihydroxycoprostanateGenerator
3α,7α-dihydroxycoprostanic acidGenerator
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oateHMDB
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oic acidHMDB
3a,7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-OateHMDB
3a,7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-Oic acidHMDB
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oateHMDB
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-Oic acidHMDB
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oateGenerator
3α,7α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oic acidGenerator
(3α,5β,7α)-3,7-Dihydroxycholestan-26-oic acidCAS
(3a,5b,7a)-3,7-Dihydroxycholestan-26-oic acidCAS
(3alpha,5beta,7alpha)-3,7-Dihydroxycholestan-26-oic acidCAS
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxycoprostanic acidCAS
3α,7α-Hydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oic acidCAS
3a,7a-Hydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oic acidCAS
3alpha,7alpha-Hydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oic acidCAS
Chemical FormulaC27H46O4
Average Molecular Weight434.661
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight434.339609961
IUPAC Name(6R)-6-[(1S,2S,5R,7S,9R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-2-methylheptanoic acid
Traditional Name(6R)-6-[(1S,2S,5R,7S,9R,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-yl]-2-methylheptanoic acid
CAS Registry Number17974-66-2
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(CC[C@@]2([H])[C@]3([H])[C@H](O)C[C@]4([H])C[C@H](O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])CC[C@]12C)[C@H](C)CCCC(C)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C27H46O4/c1-16(6-5-7-17(2)25(30)31)20-8-9-21-24-22(11-13-27(20,21)4)26(3)12-10-19(28)14-18(26)15-23(24)29/h16-24,28-29H,5-15H2,1-4H3,(H,30,31)/t16-,17?,18+,19-,20-,21+,22+,23-,24+,26+,27-/m1/s1
InChI KeyITZYGDKGRKKBSN-HKFUITGCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. These are compounds containing or derived from a bile acid or alcohol, and which bears exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentDihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • Steroid acid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • 7-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0044 g/LALOGPS
logP4.02ALOGPS
logP5.15ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity123.05 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability52.21 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.403 - 0.842 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleClassicle Refsum's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothInflammatory bowel disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Refsum's disease
  1. Poll-The BT, Saudubray JM, Ogier H, Schutgens RB, Wanders RJ, Schrakamp G, van den Bosch H, Trijbels JM, Poulos A, Moser HW, et al.: Infantile Refsum's disease: biochemical findings suggesting multiple peroxisomal dysfunction. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1986;9(2):169-74. [PubMed:2427795 ]
Inflammatory bowel disease
  1. Lee T, Clavel T, Smirnov K, Schmidt A, Lagkouvardos I, Walker A, Lucio M, Michalke B, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Fedorak R, Haller D: Oral versus intravenous iron replacement therapy distinctly alters the gut microbiota and metabolome in patients with IBD. Gut. 2017 May;66(5):863-871. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309940. Epub 2016 Feb 4. [PubMed:26848182 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021979
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4447327
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5348
PubChem Compound53477686
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16577
References
Synthesis ReferenceHanson, Russell Floyd. Isolation, identification, formation, and metabolism of 3a, 7a-hydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-oic acid in man. (1972), 73 pp. CAN 78:27152 AN 1973:27152
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Alme B, Bremmelgaard A, Sjovall J, Thomassen P: Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine using a lipophilic anion exchanger and computerized gas-liquid chromatorgaphy-mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res. 1977 May;18(3):339-62. [PubMed:864325 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SLC27A5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2P5
Molecular weight:
75384.375
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Seems to be able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. Isoform 2 is essential for the survival of colon cancer cells to bile acid-induced apoptosis
Gene Name:
FABP6
Uniprot ID:
P51161
Molecular weight:
14371.2
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [PubMed:12486725 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP)
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular weight:
77402.2
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular weight:
76448.0
References
  1. Michalski C, Cui Y, Nies AT, Nuessler AK, Neuhaus P, Zanger UM, Klein K, Eichelbaum M, Keppler D, Konig J: A naturally occurring mutation in the SLC21A6 gene causing impaired membrane localization of the hepatocyte uptake transporter. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 8;277(45):43058-63. Epub 2002 Aug 23. [PubMed:12196548 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular weight:
146405.8
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism
Gene Name:
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12908
Molecular weight:
37697.4
References
  1. Kramer W, Girbig F, Glombik H, Corsiero D, Stengelin S, Weyland C: Identification of a ligand-binding site in the Na+/bile acid cotransporting protein from rabbit ileum. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):36020-7. Epub 2001 Jul 10. [PubMed:11447228 ]
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular weight:
38118.64
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Molecular weight:
77192.5

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 12 proteins in total.