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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 18:56:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000407
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00407
  • HMDB0062584
  • HMDB62584
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid
Description2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid (also known as 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid) is a metabolite found in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria (PMID: 7978272 ), methylmalonic acidemia, propionic acidemia, 3-ketothiolase deficiency, isovaleric acidemia, 3-methylcrotonylglycemia, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency, glutaric aciduria, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, glyceroluria, tyrosinemia type I, galactosemia, and maple syrup urine disease (PMID: 11048741 ). 2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid has also been identified in the urine of patients with lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis (PMID: 884872 ), and in the urine of severely asphyxiated babies (PMID: 1610944 ). 2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid originates mainly from ketogenesis and from the metabolism of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (PMID: 6434570 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Hydroxyisopentanoic acidChEBI
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acidChEBI
3-Methyl-2-hydroxybutyric acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxyisovaleric acidChEBI
2-HydroxyisopentanoateGenerator
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyrateGenerator
2-HydroxyisovalerateGenerator
3-Methyl-2-hydroxybutyrateGenerator
a-HydroxyisovalerateGenerator
a-Hydroxyisovaleric acidGenerator
alpha-HydroxyisovalerateGenerator
α-hydroxyisovalerateGenerator
α-hydroxyisovaleric acidGenerator
2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-butyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutanoateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
2-OxyisovalerateHMDB
2-Oxyisovaleric acidHMDB
DL-2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutanoateHMDB
DL-2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
DL-2-HydroxyisovalerateHMDB
DL-2-Hydroxyisovaleric acidHMDB
DL-a-HydroxyisovalerateHMDB
DL-a-Hydroxyisovaleric acidHMDB
DL-alpha-HydroxyisovalerateHMDB
DL-alpha-Hydroxyisovaleric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid, monosodium salt, (S)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid, (S)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid, calcium (2:1) saltMeSH
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acid, (R)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC5H10O3
Average Molecular Weight118.1311
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight118.062994186
IUPAC Name2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional Name2-hydroxyisovaleric acid
CAS Registry Number4026-18-0
SMILES
CC(C)C(O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O3/c1-3(2)4(6)5(7)8/h3-4,6H,1-2H3,(H,7,8)
InChI KeyNGEWQZIDQIYUNV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility350 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility215 g/LALOGPS
logP0.1ALOGPS
logP0.42ChemAxon
logS0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity27.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.77 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9100000000-3ceb85540106a01209a9View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00g1-9520000000-27e47b254facef447ecfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-01b9-9800000000-34c80f5b3cfe512db815View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-006t-9100000000-62b5dd0328186489f167View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00kb-9400000000-4b607be60b20b11a9328View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-053084615922d2811fc0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-c74232c34d7c991de0c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gi0-6900000000-9c5d211acf2118d6a136View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9100000000-fd55205401dd434cfdccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05fu-9000000000-44a71cd407c65a176f7dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-01b9-6900000000-977b23edb76b18575dc2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00xr-9400000000-a265e0ef4d3a3366c0beView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-a258a01f539f2e2cd1e7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13.7 +/- 6.3 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.5 (2.9-6.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified7.7 (0.0-19.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified8 +/- 6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.6 +/- 2.3 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified6.8 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.13 +/- 0.24 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.21-0.48 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.0 (0.0-4.5) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.23-0.42 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified6.9 (4.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.1 (2.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified1237 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleMaple syrup urine disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified809 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleMaple syrup urine disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.375 +/- 2.017 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified407.016 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)MaleDihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Maple syrup urine disease
  1. Shigematsu Y, Kikuchi K, Momoi T, Sudo M, Kikawa Y, Nosaka K, Kuriyama M, Haruki S, Sanada K, Hamano N, et al.: Organic acids and branched-chain amino acids in body fluids before and after multiple exchange transfusions in maple syrup urine disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1983;6(4):183-9. [PubMed:6422161 ]
  2. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Kuhara T, Shinka T, Inoue Y, Matsumoto M, Yoshino M, Sakaguchi Y, Matsumoto I: Studies of urinary organic acid profiles of a patient with dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase deficiency. Clin Chim Acta. 1983 Sep 30;133(2):133-40. [PubMed:6688766 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 248600 (Maple syrup urine disease)
  • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
  • 610247 (Eosinophilic esophagitis)
  • 246900 (Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022023
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID90190
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5396
PubChem Compound99823
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID60645
References
Synthesis ReferencePerekalin, V. V.; Petryaeva, A. K.; Zobacheva, M. M.; Metelkina, E. L. A new method of synthesis of a-hydroxy and a-oxo acids. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1966), 166(5), 1129-31.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Bergstrom T, Greter J, Levin AH, Steen G, Tryding N, Wass U: Propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: case report, effect of low-protein diet and identification of 3-oxo-2-methylvaleric acid 3-hydroxy-2-methylvaleric acid, and maleic acid in urine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1981 Apr;41(2):117-26. [PubMed:7313494 ]
  2. Landaas S, Jakobs C: The occurrence of 2-hydroxyisovaleric acid in patients with lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis. Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Aug 1;78(3):489-93. [PubMed:884872 ]
  3. Magni F, Arnoldi L, Galati G, Galli Kienle M: Simultaneous determination of plasma levels of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid and leucine and evaluation of alpha-[1-13C]ketoisocaproic acid and [1-13C]leucine enrichment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 1994 Aug 1;220(2):308-14. [PubMed:7978272 ]
  4. Ohie T, Fu X, Iga M, Kimura M, Yamaguchi S: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivation: use of the simplified sample preparations and the automated data system to screen for organic acidemias. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2000 Sep 1;746(1):63-73. [PubMed:11048741 ]
  5. Liebich HM, Forst C: Hydroxycarboxylic and oxocarboxylic acids in urine: products from branched-chain amino acid degradation and from ketogenesis. J Chromatogr. 1984 Aug 10;309(2):225-42. [PubMed:6434570 ]
  6. Walker V, Mills GA: Effects of birth asphyxia on urinary organic acid excretion. Biol Neonate. 1992;61(3):162-72. [PubMed:1610944 ]
  7. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  8. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  9. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  10. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  11. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular weight:
39598.595
Reactions
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid → 3-methyl-2-(sulfooxy)butanoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid → 6-(1-carboxy-2-methylpropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-[(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)oxy]oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails