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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-13 02:06:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00005
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB06544
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Ketobutyric acid
Description2-Ketobutyric acid is a substance that is involved in the metabolism of many amino acids (glycine, methionine, valine, leucine, serine, threonine, isoleucine) as well as propanoate metabolism and C-5 branched dibasic acid metabolism. More specifically, alpha-ketobutyric acid is a product of the lysis of cystathionine. It is also one of the degradation products of threonine. It can be converted to propionyl-CoA (and subsequently methylmalonyl CoA, which can be converted to succinyl CoA, a citric acid cycle intermediate), and thus enter the citric acid cycle.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Ketobutanoic acidChEBI
2-Ketobutyric acidChEBI
2-Oxobutyric acidChEBI
3-Methyl pyruvic acidChEBI
alpha-KetobutyrateChEBI
alpha-Ketobutyric acidChEBI
alpha-oxo-N-Butyric acidChEBI
2-KetobutanoateGenerator
2-OxobutanoateGenerator
2-KetobutyrateGenerator
2-OxobutyrateGenerator
3-Methyl pyruvateGenerator
a-KetobutyrateGenerator
a-Ketobutyric acidGenerator
α-ketobutyrateGenerator
α-ketobutyric acidGenerator
a-oxo-N-ButyrateGenerator
a-oxo-N-Butyric acidGenerator
alpha-oxo-N-ButyrateGenerator
α-oxo-N-butyrateGenerator
α-oxo-N-butyric acidGenerator
2-oxo-ButanoateHMDB
2-oxo-Butanoic acidHMDB
2-oxo-ButyrateHMDB
2-oxo-Butyric acidHMDB
2-oxo-N-ButyrateHMDB
2-oxo-N-Butyric acidHMDB
3-MethylpyruvateHMDB
3-Methylpyruvic acidHMDB
a-keto-N-ButyrateHMDB
a-keto-N-Butyric acidHMDB
a-OxobutyrateHMDB
a-Oxobutyric acidHMDB
alpha-keto-N-ButyrateHMDB
alpha-keto-N-Butyric acidHMDB
alpha-Ketobutric acidHMDB
alpha-OxobutyrateHMDB
alpha-Oxobutyric acidHMDB
Methyl-pyruvateHMDB
Methyl-pyruvic acidHMDB
Propionyl-formateHMDB
Propionyl-formic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6O3
Average Molecular Weight102.0886
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight102.031694058
IUPAC Name2-oxobutanoic acid
Traditional Name2-oxobutanoic acid
CAS Registry Number600-18-0
SMILES
CCC(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6O3/c1-2-3(5)4(6)7/h2H2,1H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyInChIKey=TYEYBOSBBBHJIV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point33 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility119 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility79.2 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.07ALOGPS
logP0.77ChemAxon
logS-0.11ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity22.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.2 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0gbj-1900000000-8daa299f5bc38a7f9b3eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014s-1910000000-d01bcd7b41fdcc634eeaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-000i-9200000000-3b3816ffee5771215904View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-000i-6910000000-5b264d5f7e53f3e80b12View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-6950000000-db7f6a0f03a8cce59baeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0pb9-9600000000-53ebb7164f74d7d92a4dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-5900000000-1db864754705beb79b55View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9800000000-5ba5b9ede5b1bc389b87View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-bfdcad5bc3ed586bdedeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0k9i-9400000000-0061f4635858d851f127View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-b943445194fb5f8e3a0fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bc5920b9bd140be6b06dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-5900000000-f7dfb4554f0b9e1499c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a59-9200000000-e54106ad5bf45a9f072cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-7bbba57578cf720974e3View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Gamma-cystathionase deficiency (CTH)SMP00514Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Homocysteine DegradationSMP00455Not Available
Homocystinuria, cystathionine beta-synthase deficiencySMP00515Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismSMP00029map00450
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.33 +/- 5.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.4 (3.4-15.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.6 (6.0-11.2) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.8 (3.4-6.2) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0412 +/- 0.214 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.62 +/- 4.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.06 +/- 8.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.12 +/- 4.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.39 (0.05-2.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 (0.04-0.51) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.476 +/- 6.626 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.9 (0.7-5.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6 (1.1-4.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified6.564 +/- 7.802 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04553
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003359
KNApSAcK IDC00019675
Chemspider ID57
KEGG Compound IDC00109
BioCyc ID2-OXOBUTANOATE
BiGG ID33889
Wikipedia LinkAlpha-ketobutyric_acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00005
Metagene LinkHMDB00005
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound58
PDB ID2KT
ChEBI ID30831
References
Synthesis ReferenceFigge, Rainer; Lux, Fabien; Raynaud, Celine; Soucaille, Philippe. Production of a-ketobutyrate by engineered Escherichia coli.PCT Int. Appl. (2006), 31pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sprague CL, Elfarra AA: Detection of carboxylic acids and inhibition of hippuric acid formation in rats treated with 3-butene-1,2-diol, a major metabolite of 1,3-butadiene. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):986-92. [12867486 ]
  2. Yaegaki K, Sanada K: Biochemical and clinical factors influencing oral malodor in periodontal patients. J Periodontol. 1992 Sep;63(9):783-9. [1474480 ]
  3. Yaegaki K, Sanada K: Effects of a two-phase oil-water mouthwash on halitosis. Clin Prev Dent. 1992 Jan-Feb;14(1):5-9. [1499240 ]
  4. Yang W, Roth KS: Defect in alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism: a new inborn error. Clin Chim Acta. 1985 Jan 30;145(2):173-82. [3918815 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
References
  1. Paxton R, Scislowski PW, Davis EJ, Harris RA: Role of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in 2-oxobutyrate metabolism. Biochem J. 1986 Mar 1;234(2):295-303. [3718468 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
References
  1. Paxton R, Scislowski PW, Davis EJ, Harris RA: Role of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in 2-oxobutyrate metabolism. Biochem J. 1986 Mar 1;234(2):295-303. [3718468 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
References
  1. Paxton R, Scislowski PW, Davis EJ, Harris RA: Role of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase in 2-oxobutyrate metabolism. Biochem J. 1986 Mar 1;234(2):295-303. [3718468 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21953
Molecular weight:
43122.065
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
BCKDHA
Uniprot ID:
P12694
Molecular weight:
50470.58
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
Gene Name:
OGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q02218
Molecular weight:
48179.59
General function:
Involved in pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and so contributes to the regulation of blood pressure. Acts as a cysteine-protein sulfhydrase by mediating sulfhydration of target proteins: sulfhydration consists of converting -SH groups into -SSH on specific cysteine residues of target proteins such as GAPDH, PTPN1 and NF-kappa-B subunit RELA, thereby regulating their function.
Gene Name:
CTH
Uniprot ID:
P32929
Molecular weight:
41259.91
Reactions
L-Cystathionine + Water → L-Cysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
Selenomethionine + Water → Methaneselenol + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
Selenocystathionine + Water → Selenocysteine + Ammonia + 2-Ketobutyric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SDS
Uniprot ID:
P20132
Molecular weight:
34625.105
Reactions
L-Threonine → 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular weight:
36507.015
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in urocanate hydratase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UROC1
Uniprot ID:
Q96N76
Molecular weight:
80911.275
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation and inactivation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, the key regulatory enzyme of the valine, leucine and isoleucine catabolic pathways. Key enzyme that regulate the activity state of the BCKD complex
Gene Name:
BCKDK
Uniprot ID:
O14874
Molecular weight:
46360.0
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular weight:
36638.225
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular weight:
36310.965
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular weight:
30204.975
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular weight:
41942.53
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular weight:
44048.895
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA containing 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Can also repair alkylated DNA containing 1-ethenoadenine (in vitro). Has strong preference for double-stranded DNA. Has low efficiency with single-stranded substrates. Requires molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate and iron.
Gene Name:
ALKBH2
Uniprot ID:
Q6NS38
Molecular weight:
29322.22
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA containing 1- methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Has a strong preference for single-stranded DNA. May also act on RNA. Requires molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate and iron
Gene Name:
ALKBH3
Uniprot ID:
Q96Q83
Molecular weight:
33374.5
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has low serine dehydratase and threonine dehydratase activity.
Gene Name:
SDSL
Uniprot ID:
Q96GA7
Molecular weight:
34674.01
Reactions
L-Threonine → 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
OGDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULD0
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for alpha-ketoglutarate. Seems to act exclusively through a G(q)-mediated pathway
Gene Name:
OXGR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96P68
Molecular weight:
38250.6