You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-15 22:23:21 UTC
Update Date2018-05-19 23:13:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000598
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00598
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSulfide
DescriptionA sulfide or sulphide (UK) is an anion of sulfur in its lowest oxidation state of 2-. Sulfide is also a slightly archaic term for thioethers, a common type oforganosulfur compound that are well known for their bad odors. Sulfides are moderately strong reducing agents. They react with oxygen in the air in elevated temperatures to form higher-valence sulfur salts, such as sulfates and sulfur dioxide. (Wikipedia). Sulfur (Greek is theion) is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, tasteless, odorless, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life, and is widely used in biochemical processes. Sulfur is an important part of many enzymes and also in antioxidant molecules like glutathione and thioredoxin. The amino acids cysteine and methionine contain sulfur, as do all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes which contain these amino acids. This makes sulfur a necessary component of all living cells. Disulfide bonds between polypeptides are very important in protein assembly and structure. They are largely responsible for the mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers, and the element contributes to their pungent odor when burned. (Wikipedia). Homocysteine and taurine are also sulfur containing amino acids but are not coded for by DNA nor are they part of the primary structure of proteins. Some forms of bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the place of water as the electron donor in a primitive photosynthesis-like process. Sulfur is absorbed by plants via the roots from soil as the sulfate ion and reduced to sulfide before it is incorporated into cysteine and other organic sulfur compounds (sulfur assimilation). Inorganic sulfur forms a part of iron-sulfur clusters, and sulfur is the bridging ligand in the CuA site of cytochrome c oxidase. Sulfur is an important component of coenzyme A. At room temperature, sulfur is a soft bright yellow solid. Although sulfur is blamed for the smell of rotten eggs elemental sulfur has only the faintest odor (the odor associated with rotten eggs is actually due to hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfur compounds). It burns with a blue flame that emits sulfur dioxide, notable for its peculiar suffocating odor. Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and to a lesser extent in other organic solvents such as benzene. Through its major derivative, sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfur ranks as one of the more important industrial raw materials. It is of prime importance to every sector of the world's economies. The Latin name of the element is sulfur with an F. Since it is an original Latin name and not a Classical Greek loan, the fricative phoneme is indeed denoted with f rather than ph. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides; A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed.) The burning of coal and petroleum by industry and power plants liberates huge amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) which reacts with atmospheric water and oxygen to produce sulfuric acid. This sulfuric acid is a component of acid rain, which lowers the pH of soil and freshwater bodies, resulting in substantial damage to the natural environment and chemical weathering of statues and architecture.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
S(2-)ChEBI
SulphideChEBI
SulfanediideHMDB
SulfurHMDB
Chemical FormulaS
Average Molecular Weight32.065
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight31.97207069
IUPAC Namesulfanediide
Traditional Namesulfanediide
CAS Registry Number18496-25-8
SMILES
[S--]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/S/q-2
InChI KeyUCKMPCXJQFINFW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal sulfides. These are inorganic compounds containing a sulfur atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of other non-metals.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal sulfides
Direct ParentOther non-metal sulfides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Other non-metal sulfide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point112 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.038ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.76 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-05710009cb2405db27bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-1ca61b38a516c734a4dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-1ca61b38a516c734a4dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-1ca61b38a516c734a4dbView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Cartilage
  • Hair
  • Liver
  • Lymph Node
  • Platelet
  • Skin
  • Tongue
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified< 0.003 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified30 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning details
BloodDetected and Quantified7000-95000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning
details
BloodDetected and Quantified102.14 (9.98-291.91) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hydrogen sulfide poisoning
  1. Kage S, Ikeda H, Ikeda N, Tsujita A, Kudo K: Fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning at a dye works. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2004 Jul;6(3):182-6. [PubMed:15231289 ]
  2. Kage S, Takekawa K, Kurosaki K, Imamura T, Kudo K: The usefulness of thiosulfate as an indicator of hydrogen sulfide poisoning: three cases. Int J Legal Med. 1997;110(4):220-2. [PubMed:9274948 ]
  3. Daldal H, Beder B, Serin S, Sungurtekin H: Hydrogen sulfide toxicity in a thermal spring: a fatal outcome. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Aug;48(7):755-6. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2010.508044. [PubMed:20704456 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022136
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID27079
KEGG Compound IDC00087
BioCyc IDCPD-7046
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSulfide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound29109
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15138
References
Synthesis ReferenceGreen, Martina; Verkoczy, Bela; Lown, Elizabeth M.; Strausz, Otto P. The reactions of sulfur atoms with propadiene and 1,2-butadiene. Canadian Journal of Chemistry (1985), 63(3), 667-75.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Codipilly DP, Kaufman HW, Kleinberg I: Use of a novel group of oral malodor measurements to evaluate an anti-oral malodor mouthrinse (TriOralTM) in humans. J Clin Dent. 2004;15(4):98-104. [PubMed:15794454 ]
  2. Yoshida K, Kuroda K, Zhou X, Inoue Y, Date Y, Wanibuchi H, Fukushima S, Endo G: Urinary sulfur-containing metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria following oral administration of dimethylarsinic acid to rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003 Sep;16(9):1124-9. [PubMed:12971800 ]
  3. Vargas HI, Vargas MP, Gonzalez KD, Burla M, Venegas R, Diggles L, Mishkin F, Klein SR, Khalkhali I: Immediate preoperative injection of 99m-Tc sulfur colloid is effective in the detection of breast sentinel lymph nodes. Am Surg. 2002 Dec;68(12):1083-7. [PubMed:12516814 ]
  4. Yonezawa H, Takasaki K, Teraoka K, Asaka T, Sato C, Tsuchiya K: Effects of tongue and oral mucosa cleaning on oral Candida species and production of volatile sulfur compounds in the elderly in a nursing home. J Med Dent Sci. 2003 Mar;50(1):1-8. [PubMed:12715913 ]
  5. Pandit-Taskar N, Dauer LT, Montgomery L, St Germain J, Zanzonico PB, Divgi CR: Organ and fetal absorbed dose estimates from 99mTc-sulfur colloid lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node localization in breast cancer patients. J Nucl Med. 2006 Jul;47(7):1202-8. [PubMed:16818956 ]
  6. Dauphine CE, Khalkhali I, Vargas MP, Isaac NM, Haukoos J, Vargas HI: Intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid is effective in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2006 Oct;192(4):423-6. [PubMed:16978942 ]
  7. Koshimune S, Awano S, Gohara K, Kurihara E, Ansai T, Takehara T: Low salivary flow and volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003 Jul;96(1):38-41. [PubMed:12847442 ]
  8. Walash MI, Metwally ME, El-Brashy AM, Abdelal AA: Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of some sulfur containing compounds in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum. Farmaco. 2003 Dec;58(12):1325-32. [PubMed:14630247 ]
  9. Macone A, Matarese RM, Gentili V, Antonucci A, Dupre S, Nardini M: Effect of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer, a natural sulfur compound present in human plasma, on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in human monocytic U937 cells. Free Radic Res. 2004 Jul;38(7):705-14. [PubMed:15453636 ]
  10. Lee CH, Kho HS, Chung SC, Lee SW, Kim YK: The relationship between volatile sulfur compounds and major halitosis-inducing factors. J Periodontol. 2003 Jan;74(1):32-7. [PubMed:12593593 ]
  11. de la Flor St Remy RR, Montes-Bayon M, Sanz-Medel A: Determination of total homocysteine in human serum by capillary gas chromatography with sulfur-specific detection by double focusing ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003 Sep;377(2):299-305. Epub 2003 Jul 3. [PubMed:12844208 ]
  12. Joseph UA, Barron BJ, Lamki LM: Rim sign in Tc-99m sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 2005 Apr;30(4):284-5. [PubMed:15764894 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 48 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in flavin-containing monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the oxidative metabolism of a variety of xenobiotics such as drugs and pesticides. It N-oxygenates primary aliphatic alkylamines as well as secondary and tertiary amines. Plays an important role in the metabolism of trimethylamine (TMA), via the production of TMA N-oxide (TMAO). Is also able to perform S-oxidation when acting on sulfide compounds.
Gene Name:
FMO3
Uniprot ID:
P31513
Molecular weight:
60032.975
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular weight:
17042.82
General function:
Involved in electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Accepts electrons from ETF and reduces ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
ETFDH
Uniprot ID:
Q16134
Molecular weight:
68494.96
General function:
Involved in protein transporter activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA11
Uniprot ID:
Q86Y39
Molecular weight:
14852.0
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID:
O75251
Molecular weight:
23563.3
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular weight:
35660.055
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND2
Uniprot ID:
P03891
Molecular weight:
38960.47
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4
Uniprot ID:
P03905
Molecular weight:
51580.26
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4L
Uniprot ID:
P03901
Molecular weight:
10741.005
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND6
Uniprot ID:
P03923
Molecular weight:
18622.045

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 48 proteins in total.