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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 18:56:17 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000637
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0004013
  • HMDB00637
  • HMDB04013
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate
DescriptionChenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). This compound usually exists as the sodium salt and acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(23R)-HydroxychenodeoxycholylglycineHMDB
12-DeoxycholylglycineHMDB
12-DesoxycholylglycineHMDB
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5b-cholan-24-amideHMDB
ChenodeoxycholylglycineHMDB
Glycine chenodeoxycholateHMDB
GlycochenodeoxycholateHMDB
Glycochenodeoxycholic acidHMDB
GlycylchenodeoxycholateHMDB
Glycylchenodeoxycholic acidHMDB
N-(3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oyl)-glycineHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3a,7a-dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-amideHMDB
Acid, glycochenodeoxycholicMeSH
Chenodeoxycholate, glycineMeSH
Chemical FormulaC26H43NO5
Average Molecular Weight449.6233
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight449.314123491
IUPAC Name2-[(4R)-4-[(2S,5R,7S,9R,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]acetic acid
Traditional Name[(4R)-4-[(2S,5R,7S,9R,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]acetic acid
CAS Registry Number640-79-9
SMILES
[H][C@@]12C[C@H](O)CC[C@]1(C)C1CC[C@]3(C)[C@H](CCC3C1[C@H](O)C2)[C@H](C)CCC(=O)NCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C26H43NO5/c1-15(4-7-22(30)27-14-23(31)32)18-5-6-19-24-20(9-11-26(18,19)3)25(2)10-8-17(28)12-16(25)13-21(24)29/h15-21,24,28-29H,4-14H2,1-3H3,(H,27,30)(H,31,32)/t15-,16+,17-,18-,19?,20?,21-,24?,25+,26-/m1/s1
InChI KeyGHCZAUBVMUEKKP-AHBZRTSYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycinated bile acids and derivatives. These are compounds with a structure characterized by the presence of a glycine linked to a bile acid skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentGlycinated bile acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycinated bile acid
  • Dihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • Hydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 7-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Fatty amide
  • Fatty acyl
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0032 mg/mLNot Available
LogP2.12RODA,A ET AL. (1990)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0079 g/LALOGPS
logP2.4ALOGPS
logP2.61ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity122.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability52.04 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0560-0224900000-2c3ac66a1eb5dd4be992View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-1001029000-2c90d59630fb6b214a2eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00e9-7001900000-5c674a4196bbe5921395View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9002100000-4253862988128e5343dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9001000000-8c0e27e07cce4587ddaaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0001900000-1e432b0f0b5728b038dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-008a-3104900000-5e705b527c1bedaf73b8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00dl-9101000000-bfc254147e11f3a6e4d2View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Bile
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BileDetected and Quantified>0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.06 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.3(1.1-1.4) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified22.28 +/- 15.65 nmol/g dry fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0013 +/- 0.0026 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified6.5(3.3-13.3) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Severe acute malnutrition
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIleal Crohn's disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothClostridium difficile infection details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.032 +/- 0.058 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothBiliary atresia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Biliary atresia
  1. Nittono H, Obinata K, Nakatsu N, Watanabe T, Niijima S, Sasaki H, Arisaka O, Kato H, Yabuta K, Miyano T: Sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids in urine of patients with biliary atresia: analysis of bile acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986 Jan;5(1):23-9. [PubMed:3944741 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022157
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17215984
KEGG Compound IDC05466
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID45866
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5610
PubChem Compound22833540
PDB ID1FMC
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceParmentier G; Eyssen H Synthesis and characteristics of the specific monosulfates of chenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate and their taurine or glycine conjugates. Steroids (1977), 30(5), 583-90.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Hepner GW, Demers LM: Dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation of the glycine conjugates of cholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic, and sulfolithocholic acid in man. Gastroenterology. 1977 Mar;72(3):499-501. [PubMed:832799 ]
  3. Bloch CA, Watkins JB: Determination of conjugated bile acids in human bile and duodenal fluid by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Lipid Res. 1978 May;19(4):510-3. [PubMed:659989 ]
  4. Demers LM, Hepner G: Radioimmunoassay of bile acids in serum. Clin Chem. 1976 May;22(5):602-6. [PubMed:1261008 ]
  5. Makino I, Shinozaki K, Nakagawa S, Mashimo K: Measurement of sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids in human serum and urine. J Lipid Res. 1974 Mar;15(2):132-8. [PubMed:4832755 ]
  6. Goto T, Myint KT, Sato K, Wada O, Kakiyama G, Iida T, Hishinuma T, Mano N, Goto J: LC/ESI-tandem mass spectrometric determination of bile acid 3-sulfates in human urine 3beta-Sulfooxy-12alpha-hydroxy-5beta-cholanoic acid is an abundant nonamidated sulfate. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Feb 1;846(1-2):69-77. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16949895 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in thiolester hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoASH), and conjugates glycine to these acyl-CoAs.
Gene Name:
BAAT
Uniprot ID:
Q14032
Molecular weight:
46298.865
Reactions
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + Glycine → Chenodeoxycholic acid glycine conjugate + Coenzyme Adetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N- terminus of glycine
Gene Name:
GLYATL3
Uniprot ID:
Q5SZD4
Molecular weight:
32703.3