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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:22 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000666
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00666
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHeptanoic acid
DescriptionHeptanoic acid, also known as enanthic acid or heptylic acid, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms. Heptanoic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Heptanoic acid is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Data?1563860662
Synonyms
ValueSource
CH3-[CH2]5-COOHChEBI
Enanthic acidChEBI
Enanthylic acidChEBI
HeptansaeureChEBI
Heptoic acidChEBI
Heptylic acidChEBI
N-Heptanoic acidChEBI
N-Heptoic acidChEBI
N-Heptylic acidChEBI
Oenanthic acidChEBI
Oenanthylic acidChEBI
OenanthsaeureChEBI
EnanthateGenerator
EnanthylateGenerator
HeptoateGenerator
HeptylateGenerator
N-HeptanoateGenerator
N-HeptoateGenerator
N-HeptylateGenerator
OenanthateGenerator
OenanthylateGenerator
HeptanoateGenerator
1-HexanecarboxylateHMDB
1-Hexanecarboxylic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H14O2
Average Molecular Weight130.1849
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight130.099379692
IUPAC Nameheptanoic acid
Traditional Nameheptanoic acid
CAS Registry Number111-14-8
SMILES
CCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H14O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7(8)9/h2-6H2,1H3,(H,8,9)
InChI KeyMNWFXJYAOYHMED-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-7.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.82 mg/mLNot Available
LogP2.42SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.98 g/LALOGPS
logP2.41ALOGPS
logP2.26ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity35.67 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.33 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00nr-2900000000-ea3133b536a060a54d63JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03kc-9000000000-ebeb37b8d3c0ca55826dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00nr-2900000000-ea3133b536a060a54d63JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-054o-9100000000-f83f087877bc00c1bf89JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-060c-9200000000-6742cd6a2fc81a9fd298JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03kc-9000000000-dd314f04ab9a0b9e69faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-38e4cc872df89a4f1b5dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-114ac7aafecf82ea7ee8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0059-6900000000-cac9929bce7bc7db12daJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d6d7beafc7ee2bb2a192JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-38e4cc872df89a4f1b5dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-114ac7aafecf82ea7ee8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0059-6900000000-cac9929bce7bc7db12daJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-d6d7beafc7ee2bb2a192JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-7eff9c485d9469e2f1d3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-3900000000-ae2b3da90b6357cae350JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01p9-9300000000-5d57856d6ca04a669715JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-90d9a6e21321195238f2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-bbcf5780b4a67eea07f0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004r-7900000000-6827e95ea7177e2e192bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-6133dc79fa399bb2fe8cJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03kc-9000000000-5a89b9e0efcfe419c505JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Saliva
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified51.9 +/- 82 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.111 +/- 0.139 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.189 +/- 0.155 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.218 +/- 0.144 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.338 +/- 0.0993 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  3. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  4. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
Autism
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified
  1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  2. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02938
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008051
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID7803
KEGG Compound IDC17714
BioCyc IDCPD-7619
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHeptanoic_acid
METLIN ID5636
PubChem Compound8094
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID45571
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceJain, R. K.; Venkatesan, T. K. Heptanoic acid from heptaldehyde. Journal of the Oil Technologists' Association of India (Mumbai, India) (1984), 16(4), 111-12.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Jones PM, Butt YM, Bennett MJ: Effects of odd-numbered medium-chain fatty acids on the accumulation of long-chain 3-hydroxy-fatty acids in long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficient skin fibroblasts. Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Feb;81(2):96-9. [PubMed:14741189 ]
  2. Grislain L, Gele P, Bromet N, Luijten W, Volland JP, Mocaer E, Kamoun A: Metabolism of amineptine in rat, dog and man. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1990 Oct-Dec;15(4):339-45. [PubMed:2088771 ]
  3. Buccellati C, Sala A, Rossoni G, Capra V, Rovati GE, Di Gennaro A, Folco G, Colli S, Casagrande C: Pharmacological characterization of 2NTX-99 [4-methoxy-N1-(4-trans-nitrooxycyclohexyl)-N3-(3-pyridinylmethyl)-1,3-benzenedica rboxamide], a potential antiatherothrombotic agent with antithromboxane and nitric oxide donor activity in platelet and vascular preparations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 May;317(2):830-7. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16399881 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in phospholipase A2 activity
Specific function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular weight:
16359.535
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro). Functions as GTP-dependent lipoate-activating enzyme that generates the substrate for lipoyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM1
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH1
Molecular weight:
65272.74
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACSM6
Uniprot ID:
Q6P461
Molecular weight:
53584.545
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM2A
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH3
Molecular weight:
64223.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro).
Gene Name:
ACSM2B
Uniprot ID:
Q68CK6
Molecular weight:
64270.78
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM3
Uniprot ID:
Q53FZ2
Molecular weight:
66152.235
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM5
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUN0
Molecular weight:
64759.55
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM4
Uniprot ID:
P0C7M7
Molecular weight:
65702.225