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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 17:05:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000008
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00008
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-Hydroxybutyric acid
Description2-Hydroxybutyric acid (alpha-hydroxybutyrate) is an organic acid derived from alpha-ketobutyrate. Alpha-ketobutyrate is produced by amino acid catabolism (threonine and methionine) and glutathione anabolism (cysteine formation pathway) and is metabolized to propionyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (PMID: 20526369 ). 2-Hydroxybutyric acid is formed as a by-product during the formation of Alpha-ketobutyrate via a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or alpha–hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (alpha–HBDH). Alpha-hydroxybutyric acid is primarily produced in mammalian hepatic tissues that catabolize L-threonine or synthesize glutathione. Oxidative stress or detoxification of xenobiotics in the liver can dramatically increase the rate of hepatic glutathione synthesis. Under such metabolic stress conditions, supplies of L-cysteine for glutathione synthesis become limiting, so homocysteine is diverted from the transmethylation pathway (which forms methionine) into the transsulfuration pathway (which forms cystathionine). 2-Hydroxybutyrate is released as a byproduct when cystathionine is cleaved to cysteine that is incorporated into glutathione. Chronic shifts in the rate of glutathione synthesis may be reflected by urinary excretion of 2-hydroxybutyrate. 2-hydroxybutyrate is an early marker for both insulin resistance and impaired glucose regulation that appears to arise due to increased lipid oxidation and oxidative stress (PMID: 20526369 ). 2-Hydroxybutyric acid is often found in the urine of patients suffering from lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis. 2-Hydroxybutyric acid generally appears at high concentrations in situations related to deficient energy metabolism (e.g., birth asphyxia) and also in inherited metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system during neonatal development, such as "cerebral" lactic acidosis, glutaric aciduria type II, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency, and propionic acidemia. More recently it has been noted that elevated levels of alpha-hydroxybutyrate in the plasma is a good marker for early stage type II diabetes (PMID:19166731 ). It was concluded from studies done in the mid 1970's that an increased NADH2/NAD ratio was the most important factor for the production of 2-hydroxybutyric acid (PMID:168632 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Hydroxybutanoic acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxybutanoic acidChEBI
alpha-Hydroxybutyric acidChEBI
2-HydroxybutanoateGenerator
2-HydroxybutyrateGenerator
a-HydroxybutanoateGenerator
a-Hydroxybutanoic acidGenerator
alpha-HydroxybutanoateGenerator
α-hydroxybutanoateGenerator
α-hydroxybutanoic acidGenerator
a-HydroxybutyrateGenerator
a-Hydroxybutyric acidGenerator
alpha-HydroxybutyrateGenerator
α-hydroxybutyrateGenerator
α-hydroxybutyric acidGenerator
(RS)-2-HydroxybutyrateHMDB
(RS)-2-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-butanoateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-butanoic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-DL-butyrateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-DL-butyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-N-butyrateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
a-Hydroxy-N-butyrateHMDB
a-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
alpha-Hydroxy-N-butyrateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxy-N-butyric acidHMDB
DL-2-HydroxybutanoateHMDB
DL-2-Hydroxybutanoic acidHMDB
DL-a-HydroxybutyrateHMDB
DL-a-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
DL-alpha-HydroxybutyrateHMDB
DL-alpha-Hydroxybutyric acidHMDB
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, (R)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, monosodium saltMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, (+-)-isomerMeSH
2-Hydroxybutyric acid, monosodium salt, (+-)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC4H8O3
Average Molecular Weight104.1045
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight104.047344122
IUPAC Name2-hydroxybutanoic acid
Traditional Nameα-hydroxybutyric acid
CAS Registry Number600-15-7
SMILES
CCC(O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H8O3/c1-2-3(5)4(6)7/h3,5H,2H2,1H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyAFENDNXGAFYKQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point44.2 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility484 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.16ALOGPS
logP0.051ChemAxon
logS0.67ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity23.36 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.98 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-0900000000-44dd1bf8072e5731bac4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00e9-9700000000-93eba027d5343e3d6ce1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-1910000000-3bc9898b26df33cad244View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-4d935da8e593ec61fd96View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-0900000000-44dd1bf8072e5731bac4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00e9-9700000000-93eba027d5343e3d6ce1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-1910000000-3bc9898b26df33cad244View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a6u-9000000000-0d95c1179b1b00650601View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00v0-9520000000-598a2bd61c303327bd8fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-9600000000-f688c3e6fdeb5f0270c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4j-9200000000-e3b371c29b9ebed3199bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfs-9700000000-bccfada2c97e04d34417View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4d935da8e593ec61fd96View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-3c7915ea71886873f024View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0zfr-7900000000-d91c840306a06d4ea513View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9500000000-8f04a5941997004743d2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-cef703dc6f30af7834a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-1e7e6e8a895c4c1d51dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-4900000000-d0907a0b08e0d829cecaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-9200000000-d826b54f814ac185b4dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-3727124ed618f038b514View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Malonic AciduriaPw000207Pw000207 greyscalePw000207 simpleNot Available
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencyPw000478Pw000478 greyscalePw000478 simpleNot Available
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersPw000208Pw000208 greyscalePw000208 simpleNot Available
Propanoate MetabolismPw000149Pw000149 greyscalePw000149 simpleMap00640
Displaying all 4 entries
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified26.9(32.92) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.00-80.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified54.0 (8.0-80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified40.0 +/- 24.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified85.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified37 +/- 21 (10 - 76) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified35.0 +/- 24.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10.42 +/- 9.20 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.31-0.69 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.445 (0-4.89) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.29 +/- 3.529 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 (1.2-6.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.0 (0.0-10.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.26-0.53 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified26.96 +/- 13.11 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.93 +/- 8.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.4 (5.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified19.5 (7.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.13 (7.48) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.69 (6.25) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified28.0 (14.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.14(10.18) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with reduced ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.2 (7.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified23.1 (14.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.0 (7.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.26 +/- 4.47 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.30 +/- 1.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.12 +/- 5.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified>25.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothPyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency
    • OMIM 238331
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.699 +/- 10.366 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal adenoma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Schizophrenia
  1. Yang J, Chen T, Sun L, Zhao Z, Qi X, Zhou K, Cao Y, Wang X, Qiu Y, Su M, Zhao A, Wang P, Yang P, Wu J, Feng G, He L, Jia W, Wan C: Potential metabolite markers of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;18(1):67-78. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.131. Epub 2011 Oct 25. [PubMed:22024767 ]
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency
  1. (). OMIM 238331. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021867
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10792
KEGG Compound IDC05984
BioCyc IDCPD-3564
BiGG ID47130
Wikipedia Link2-Hydroxybutyric acid
METLIN ID3783
PubChem Compound11266
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID1148
References
Synthesis ReferenceCarlier, J. P.; Henry, C.; Lorin, V.; Rouffignat, K. Conversion of DL-threonine, D-threonine and 2-oxobutyrate into propionate and 2-hydroxybutyrate by Fusobacterium species. Letters in Applied Microbiology (1997), 25(5), 371-374.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [PubMed:8257730 ]
  2. Landaas S, Pettersen JE: Clinical conditions associated with urinary excretion of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1975 May;35(3):259-66. [PubMed:168632 ]
  3. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  4. Li X, Xu Z, Lu X, Yang X, Yin P, Kong H, Yu Y, Xu G: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for metabonomics: Biomarker discovery for diabetes mellitus. Anal Chim Acta. 2009 Feb 9;633(2):257-62. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.11.058. Epub 2008 Dec 3. [PubMed:19166731 ]
  5. Gall WE, Beebe K, Lawton KA, Adam KP, Mitchell MW, Nakhle PJ, Ryals JA, Milburn MV, Nannipieri M, Camastra S, Natali A, Ferrannini E: alpha-hydroxybutyrate is an early biomarker of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a nondiabetic population. PLoS One. 2010 May 28;5(5):e10883. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010883. [PubMed:20526369 ]
  6. (). Aldrich Library of FT-IR Spectra, 1st edn., 1985, 1, 548D. .
  7. (). Mori, K. et al., Tetrahedron, 1979, 35, 1601. .
  8. (). Levene, P.A. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1941, 141, 391. .
  9. (). Duvillier, E., Ann. Chim. Phys., 1879, 17, 532. .
  10. (). Chenault, H.K. et al., J.O.C., 1987, 52, 2608. .
  11. (). Aldrich Library of 13C and 1H FT NMR Spectra, 1992, 1, 854B. .
  12. (). Horn, D.H.S. et al., J.C.S., 1954, 1460. .
  13. (). Wong, C.H. et al., J.O.C., 1985, 50, 1992. .

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
References
  1. Kuhara T, Shinka T, Inoue Y, Matsumoto M, Yoshino M, Sakaguchi Y, Matsumoto I: Studies of urinary organic acid profiles of a patient with dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase deficiency. Clin Chim Acta. 1983 Sep 30;133(2):133-40. [PubMed:6688766 ]
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular weight:
39598.595
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid → 2-(sulfooxy)butanoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid → 6-(1-carboxypropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
2-Hydroxybutyric acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-[(2-hydroxybutanoyl)oxy]oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Displays an lactate dehydrogenase activity. Significantly increases the transcriptional activity of JUN, when overexpressed.
Gene Name:
LDHAL6A
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZMR3
Molecular weight:
36507.015
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHB
Uniprot ID:
P07195
Molecular weight:
36638.225
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Possible role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
LDHC
Uniprot ID:
P07864
Molecular weight:
36310.965
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHA
Uniprot ID:
P00338
Molecular weight:
30204.975
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LDHAL6B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYZ2
Molecular weight:
41942.53
Reactions
2-Hydroxybutyric acid + NAD → 2-Ketobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails