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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-29 19:20:51 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000929
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00929
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Tryptophan
DescriptionTryptophan is an essential amino acid that is the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin. Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals, which regulates sleep and wakefulness. Serotonin is a brain neurotransmitter, platelet clotting factor, and neurohormone found in organs throughout the body. Metabolism of tryptophan into serotonin requires nutrients such as vitamin B6, niacin, and glutathione. Niacin (also known as vitamin B3) is an important metabolite of tryptophan. It is synthesized via kynurenine and quinolinic acids, which are products of tryptophan degradation. There are a number of conditions or diseases that are characterized by tryptophan deficiencies. For instance, fructose malabsorption causes improper absorption of tryptophan in the intestine, which reduces levels of tryptophan in the blood and leads to depression. High corn or other tryptophan-deficient diets can cause pellagra, which is a niacin-tryptophan deficiency disease with symptoms of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. Hartnup's disease is a disorder in which tryptophan and other amino acids are not absorbed properly. Symptoms of Hartnup's disease include skin rashes, difficulty coordinating movements (cerebellar ataxia), and psychiatric symptoms such as depression or psychosis. Tryptophan supplements may be useful for treating Hartnup's. Assessment of tryptophan deficiency is done through studying excretion of tryptophan metabolites in the urine or blood. Blood may be the most sensitive test because the amino acid tryptophan is transported in a unique way. Increased urination of tryptophan breakdown products (such as kynurenine) correlates with increased tryptophan degradation, which occurs with oral contraception, depression, mental retardation, hypertension, and anxiety states. The requirement for tryptophan and protein decreases with age. The minimum daily requirement for adults is 3 mg/kg/day or about 200 mg a day. There is 400 mg of tryptophan in a cup of wheat germ. A cup of low fat cottage cheese contains 300 mg of tryptophan and chicken and turkey contain up to 600 mg of tryptophan per pound (http://www.dcnutrition.com). Tryptophan plays a role in "feast-induced" drowsiness. Ingestion of a meal rich in carbohydrates triggers the release of insulin. Insulin, in turn, stimulates the uptake of large neutral branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) into muscle, increasing the ratio of tryptophan to BCAA in the bloodstream. The increased tryptophan ratio reduces competition at the large neutral amino acid transporter (which transports both BCAAs and tryptophan), resulting in greater uptake of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Once in the CSF, tryptophan is converted into serotonin and the resulting serotonin is further metabolized into melatonin by the pineal gland, which promotes sleep. Under certain situations, tryptophan can be a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that causes damage to the brain and nerve tissues. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of tryptophan can be found in glutaric aciduria type I (glutaric acidemia type I or GA1). GA1 is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan due to a deficiency of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.7, GCDH). Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (e.g. glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia. Babies with glutaric acidemia type I are often born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Other symptoms include spasticity (increased muscle tone/stiffness) and dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions resulting in abnormal movement or posture), but many affected individuals are asymptomatic. High levels of tryptophan have also been implicated in eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), an incurable and sometimes fatal flu-like neurological condition linked to the ingestion of large amounts of L-tryptophan. The risk of developing EMS increases with larger doses of tryptophan and increasing age. Some research suggests that certain genetic polymorphisms may be related to the development of EMS. The presence of eosinophilia is a core feature of EMS, along with unusually severe myalgia (muscle pain). It is thought that both tryptophan and certain unidentified tryptophan contaminants may contribute to EMS (PMID: 1763543 ). It has also been suggested that excessive tryptophan or elevation of its metabolites could play a role in amplifying some of the pathological features of EMS (PMID: 10721094 ). This pathological damage is further augmented by metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (a tryptophan degradation pathway).
Structure
Data?1563860676
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidChEBI
(S)-TryptophanChEBI
L-(-)-TryptophanChEBI
L-beta-3-IndolylalanineChEBI
TrpChEBI
TryptophanChEBI
WChEBI
(2S)-2-Amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-indole-3-propanoateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acidGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-b-(3-indolyl)-propionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-b-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-(3-indolyl)-propionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-β-(3-indolyl)-propionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-β-(3-indolyl)-propionic acidGenerator
L-b-3-IndolylalanineGenerator
L-Β-3-indolylalanineGenerator
(-)-TryptophanHMDB
(L)-TryptophanHMDB
(S)-1H-Indole-3-alanineHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-(3-indolyl)propionic acidHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-b-indolepropionateHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-b-indolepropionic acidHMDB
(S)-a-Aminoindole-3-propionateHMDB
(S)-a-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-indolepropionateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-indolepropionic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
1-beta-3-IndolylalanineHMDB
1beta-3-IndolylalanineHMDB
1H-Indole-3-alanineHMDB
2-Amino-3-indolylpropanoateHMDB
2-Amino-3-indolylpropanoic acidHMDB
3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-L-AlanineHMDB
3-indol-3-YlalanineHMDB
Alpha'-amino-3-indolepropionic acidHMDB
alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
ArdeytropinHMDB
H-TRP-OHHMDB
Indole-3-alanineHMDB
KalmaHMDB
L-alpha-Amino-3-indolepropionic acidHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acidHMDB
L-TryptofanHMDB
L-TryptophaneHMDB
Lopac-T-0254HMDB
LyphanHMDB
OptimaxHMDB
PacitronHMDB
SedanoctHMDB
TriptofanoHMDB
TrofanHMDB
TryptacinHMDB
TryptanHMDB
TryptophaneHMDB
TryptophanumHMDB
ArdeydormHMDB
L TryptophanHMDB
L-Tryptophan-ratiopharmHMDB
Merck brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Niddapharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
ICN brand OF tryptophanHMDB
LevotryptophanHMDB
PMS TryptophanHMDB
PMS-TryptophanHMDB
Ratiopharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Esparma brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Ratio-tryptophanHMDB
L Tryptophan ratiopharmHMDB
NaturruheHMDB
Tryptophan metabolism alterationsHMDB
Ardeypharm brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Kalma brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Pharmascience brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Upsher-smith brand OF tryptophanHMDB
Ratio tryptophanHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H12N2O2
Average Molecular Weight204.2252
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight204.089877638
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional NameL-tryptophan
CAS Registry Number73-22-3
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CNC2=C1C=CC=C2)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H12N2O2/c12-9(11(14)15)5-7-6-13-10-4-2-1-3-8(7)10/h1-4,6,9,13H,5,12H2,(H,14,15)/t9-/m0/s1
InChI KeyQIVBCDIJIAJPQS-VIFPVBQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an indole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentIndolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Indolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Azacycle
  • Amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point230 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility13.4 mg/mL at 25 °CYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP-1.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.36 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area79.11 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity56.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability21.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0190000000-feaec8547634dddcad8cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0390000000-45a6c4fd79081597d44aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0290000000-34f7274f31a4cb321a0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fk9-9270000000-9761607cbe821f87f172JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-001i-0900000000-3faeed7ad32e1755c03cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0290000000-9c57a732e337fade3cb6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-0900000000-d054a214c1717940989fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0290000000-9860799c854e5c9ac1c7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0190000000-feaec8547634dddcad8cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0390000000-45a6c4fd79081597d44aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0290000000-34f7274f31a4cb321a0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-3729000000-86129db57aaf1a245f93JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fk9-9270000000-9761607cbe821f87f172JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001i-0900000000-3faeed7ad32e1755c03cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-0290000000-9c57a732e337fade3cb6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0560-4900000000-fa932bc4cffed0ca66b7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00e9-9560000000-6829a8b2a2096883999fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0910000000-db5439a5499b19881720JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014m-0900000000-cc4a579a29d19a1c0d44JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kf-3900000000-a931a9df4c855603d06eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0290000000-5fa576241f151a3a01a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-417ea0b6e4e18e5fbde1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-38f5ce97d594f3e3f12dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-783ffff22f31096f238fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0290000000-3ced9d310dda312f8582JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a050919a36b995d34553JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-1ddec73daead0ffadce4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-a8c9c60f075a675f6629JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0290602010-c09c931538bff74ac400JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0fed327c2a56f556e04cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-98ec1c2c012e58eab924JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-fc77784da5d9b288d751JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0290601010-d6f94902c0cf639cb7bcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-27633a4f7ecfac45c730JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-ee6cb8392b2e8d644bc1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-d81c86eceee1c9824b02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0190000000-0e8b883dc8ab06c89d77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0uxu-2940000000-cb35b9680612e19d8b3aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-7cc592351cc616b1d75fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-987615a0add5eb2c3169JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-f150d9d1e19c72d337a8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0690000000-ea2d79df0b56be85abddJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Nerve Cells
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified54.5 +/- 9.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified78.4 +/- 15.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified18-55 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25-80 uMInfant (1 - 3 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21-80 uMChildren (3 months - 6 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified25-70 uMChildren (6 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified44.0 (37.0-51.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified81.3 +/- 3.36 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified87.4 (75.6-98.6) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Available
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.7 +/- 11.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified101.5 +/- 27.2 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified45.0 +/- 9.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified73.9 (63-87) uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not Available
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified69.71 +/- 0.99 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.0 +/- 10.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified36.5(20.6-51.8) uMChildren (1-13 uears old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0-95.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified3.2 +/- 1.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5 +/- 3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.3 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.96 +/- 8.83 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.18 +/- 1.15 uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.32 +/- 0.09 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.25 +/- 0.95 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified20.4 +/- 8.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.0 +/- 0.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.0 (1.2-2.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified15.9 +/- 4.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.64 +/- 0.52 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.5-8 uMChildren (0 - 10 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.5-9 uMAdolescent (>11 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.3 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified170 +/- 110 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified20 +/- 20 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4.80 +/- 3.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected but not Quantified Adult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.04 - 21.03 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.97 - 46.02 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (1 - 6 months old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.97 - 46.02 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (6 months - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.97 - 46.02 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 2 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.04 - 27.02 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (2 - 4 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.04 - 27.02 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (4 - 13 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.04 - 27.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13 - 21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.04 - 14.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>21 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.377 (3.917-12.274) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.45-29.40 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.52 +/- 7.37 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.6-6.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.62 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.931 +/- 6.642 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.6 (2.1-9.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.3 (3.4-11.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.4-6.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.263 (1.316-9.211) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Schizophrenia
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified63.6 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleNicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency details
    BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
    Ovarian cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified83.3 +/- 26.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSchizophrenia details
    BloodDetected and Quantified80.2 +/- 22.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleSchizophrenia details
    BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Oesophageal cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified76.2 +/- 15.4 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
    Obesity
      • Metabolomics reve...
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified84.6 +/- 16.7 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both
    Obesity
      • Metabolomics reve...
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified31.6 (29.6-33.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified37.2 (34.3-40.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified53.3 (50.3-56.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Epilepsy
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified101 +/- 4.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Schizophrenia
    details
    BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified63.51 +/- 2.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Schizophrenia
    details
    BloodDetected and Quantified33.06 +/- 8.99 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified36.7(25.2-50.8) uMChildren (1-13 uears old)Both
    Environmental enteric dysfunction
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.035 +/- 0.649 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedceliac disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0018 +/- 0.0003 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.6 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.0 +/- 0.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHartnup Disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.7 +/- 0.27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.6+/- 0.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.7 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.68 +/- 0.52 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.3 +/- 12.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified11.5 +/- 8.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEpilepsy details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified13.0 +/- 5.2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedLeukemia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified12.8 +/- 3.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Leukemia
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.42 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedOlivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.80 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAutosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguena details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHypothyroidism details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.3 +/- 0.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.4 +/- 0.13 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedFriedreich's ataxia details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.67 +/- 0.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIleal Crohn's disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Bothceliac disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femaleankylosing spondylitis details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Femalerheumatoid arthritis details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specifiedceliac disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not Specified
    Treated celiac disease
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothOral cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleBreast cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPancreatic cancer details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedPeriodontal diseases details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MaleAttachment loss  details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.40 +/- 0.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)MalePeriodontal Probing Depth details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.60 +/- 0.49 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
    UrineDetected and Quantified10.707-21.382 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleTryptophanuria with dwarfism details
    UrineDetected and Quantified7.83 +/- 7.48 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCachexia details
    UrineDetected and Quantified12.011 +/- 6.328 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
      • Mordechai, Hien, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified1.19 +/- 0.23 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Epilepsy
    1. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
    2. Botez MI, Young SN: Effects of anticonvulsant treatment and low levels of folate and thiamine on amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid. Brain. 1991 Feb;114 ( Pt 1A):333-48. [PubMed:1705463 ]
    Schizophrenia
    1. Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA: Monoamine metabolites and amino acids in serum from schizophrenic patients before and during sulpiride treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99(3):322-7. [PubMed:2480613 ]
    2. Do KQ, Lauer CJ, Schreiber W, Zollinger M, Gutteck-Amsler U, Cuenod M, Holsboer F: gamma-Glutamylglutamine and taurine concentrations are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug-naive patients with schizophrenic disorders. J Neurochem. 1995 Dec;65(6):2652-62. [PubMed:7595563 ]
    3. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25004141 ]
    4. Kim YK, Myint AM, Verkerk R, Scharpe S, Steinbusch H, Leonard B: Cytokine changes and tryptophan metabolites in medication-naive and medication-free schizophrenic patients. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59(2):123-9. doi: 10.1159/000213565. Epub 2009 Apr 22. [PubMed:19390223 ]
    5. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17031479 ]
    2. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Qiu Y, Cai G, Su M, Chen T, Zheng X, Xu Y, Ni Y, Zhao A, Xu LX, Cai S, Jia W: Serum metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer using GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS. J Proteome Res. 2009 Oct;8(10):4844-50. doi: 10.1021/pr9004162. [PubMed:19678709 ]
    2. Ni Y, Xie G, Jia W: Metabonomics of human colorectal cancer: new approaches for early diagnosis and biomarker discovery. J Proteome Res. 2014 Sep 5;13(9):3857-70. doi: 10.1021/pr500443c. Epub 2014 Aug 14. [PubMed:25105552 ]
    3. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    4. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
    5. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Ovarian cancer
    1. Zhang T, Wu X, Yin M, Fan L, Zhang H, Zhao F, Zhang W, Ke C, Zhang G, Hou Y, Zhou X, Lou G, Li K: Discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors by plasma metabolomic profiling using ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2012 May 18;413(9-10):861-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2012.01.026. Epub 2012 Jan 30. [PubMed:22309680 ]
    Obesity
    1. Simone Wahl, Christina Holzapfel, Zhonghao Yu, Michaela Breier, Ivan Kondofersky, Christiane Fuchs, Paula Singmann, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Harald Grallert, Thomas Illig, Rui Wang-Sattler, Thomas Reinehr (2013). Metabolomics reveals determinants of weight loss during lifestyle intervention in obese children. Metabolomics.
    Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency
    1. Shi H, Enriquez A, Rapadas M, Martin EMMA, Wang R, Moreau J, Lim CK, Szot JO, Ip E, Hughes JN, Sugimoto K, Humphreys DT, McInerney-Leo AM, Leo PJ, Maghzal GJ, Halliday J, Smith J, Colley A, Mark PR, Collins F, Sillence DO, Winlaw DS, Ho JWK, Guillemin GJ, Brown MA, Kikuchi K, Thomas PQ, Stocker R, Giannoulatou E, Chapman G, Duncan EL, Sparrow DB, Dunwoodie SL: NAD Deficiency, Congenital Malformations, and Niacin Supplementation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 10;377(6):544-552. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1616361. [PubMed:28792876 ]
    Hartnup disease
    1. Jonas AJ, Butler IJ: Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul;84(1):200-4. [PubMed:2472426 ]
    Leukemia
    1. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
    Olivopontocerebral atrophy
    1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
    Hereditary spastic paraplegia
    1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
    Hypothyroidism
    1. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
    Friedreich's ataxia
    1. Botez MI, Young SN: Biogenic amine metabolites and thiamine in cerebrospinal fluid in heredo-degenerative ataxias. Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 May;28(2):134-40. [PubMed:11383938 ]
    Celiac disease
    1. Hallert C, Allenmark S, Larsson-Cohn U, Sedvall G: High level of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid of adult celiac patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Nov;36(5):851-4. [PubMed:6182788 ]
    2. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
    3. De Angelis M, Vannini L, Di Cagno R, Cavallo N, Minervini F, Francavilla R, Ercolini D, Gobbetti M: Salivary and fecal microbiota and metabolome of celiac children under gluten-free diet. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016 Dec 19;239:125-132. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.07.025. Epub 2016 Jul 19. [PubMed:27452636 ]
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    Ulcerative colitis
    1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    2. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
    Autism
    1. De Angelis M, Piccolo M, Vannini L, Siragusa S, De Giacomo A, Serrazzanetti DI, Cristofori F, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e76993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076993. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24130822 ]
    Crohn's disease
    1. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
    Rheumatoid arthritis
    1. Tie-juan ShaoZhi-xing HeZhi-jun XieHai-chang LiMei-jiao WangCheng-ping Wen. Characterization of ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 1H NMR-based metabolomics of human fecal extracts. Metabolomics. April 2016, 12:70 [Link]
    Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
    1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
    Pancreatic cancer
    1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
    Periodontal disease
    1. Sugimoto M, Wong DT, Hirayama A, Soga T, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based saliva metabolomics identified oral, breast and pancreatic cancer-specific profiles. Metabolomics. 2010 Mar;6(1):78-95. Epub 2009 Sep 10. [PubMed:20300169 ]
    Frontotemporal dementia
    1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
    Lewy body disease
    1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
    Attachment loss
    1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
    Periodontal Probing Depth
    1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
    Cachexia
    1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D603-10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn810. Epub 2008 Oct 25. [PubMed:18953024 ]
    Eosinophilic esophagitis
    1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
    Tryptophanuria with dwarfism
    1. TADA K, ITO H, WADA Y, ARAKAWA T: CONGENITAL TRYPTOPHANURIA WITH DWARFISM ("H" DISEASE-LIKE CLINICAL FEATURES WITHOUT INDICANURIA AND GENERALIZED AMINOACIDURIA):--A PROBABLY NEW INBORN ERROR OF TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1963 Jul 25;80:118-34. [PubMed:14055140 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB00150
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB002250
    KNApSAcK IDC00001396
    Chemspider ID6066
    KEGG Compound IDC00078
    BioCyc IDTRP
    BiGG ID33772
    Wikipedia LinkTryptophan
    METLIN ID5879
    PubChem Compound6305
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID16828
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceAmir-Heidari, Bagher; Thirlway, Jenny; Micklefield, Jason. Stereochemical course of tryptophan dehydrogenation during biosynthesis of the calcium-dependent lipopeptide antibiotics. Organic Letters (2007), 9(8), 1513-1516.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Jonas AJ, Butler IJ: Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester. J Clin Invest. 1989 Jul;84(1):200-4. [PubMed:2472426 ]
    2. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [PubMed:15911239 ]
    3. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [PubMed:12297216 ]
    4. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [PubMed:14992292 ]
    5. Guchhait RB, Janson C, Price WH: Validity of plasma factor in schizophrenia as measured by tryptophan uptake. Biol Psychiatry. 1975 Jun;10(3):303-14. [PubMed:49200 ]
    6. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [PubMed:9849813 ]
    7. Koskiniemi M, Laakso J, Kuurne T, Laipio M, Harkonen M: Indole levels in human lumbar and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid and the effect of L-tryptophan administration. Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 Feb;71(2):127-32. [PubMed:2580417 ]
    8. Kennedy JS, Gwirtsman HE, Schmidt DE, Johnson BW, Fielstein E, Salomon RM, Shiavi RG, Ebert MH, Parris WC, Loosen PT: Serial cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan and 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid concentrations in healthy human subjects. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 23;71(14):1703-15. [PubMed:12137916 ]
    9. Bender KI, Lutsevich NF, Lutsevich AN, Kupchikov VV: [Endogenous metabolites as modulators of the transport of drugs by serum albumin]. Farmakol Toksikol. 1990 May-Jun;53(3):72-80. [PubMed:2201566 ]
    10. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. [PubMed:8884658 ]
    11. Heiman-Patterson TD, Bird SJ, Parry GJ, Varga J, Shy ME, Culligan NW, Edelsohn L, Tatarian GT, Heyes MP, Garcia CA, et al.: Peripheral neuropathy associated with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1990 Oct;28(4):522-8. [PubMed:2174666 ]
    12. Talbert AM, Tranter GE, Holmes E, Francis PL: Determination of drug-plasma protein binding kinetics and equilibria by chromatographic profiling: exemplification of the method using L-tryptophan and albumin. Anal Chem. 2002 Jan 15;74(2):446-52. [PubMed:11811421 ]
    13. Dunner DL, Heiber S, Perel JM: The effect of L-tryptophan administration on the concentration of probenecid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1977 Aug 16;53(3):305-8. [PubMed:408860 ]
    14. Heyes MP, Saito K, Crowley JS, Davis LE, Demitrack MA, Der M, Dilling LA, Elia J, Kruesi MJ, Lackner A, et al.: Quinolinic acid and kynurenine pathway metabolism in inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disease. Brain. 1992 Oct;115 ( Pt 5):1249-73. [PubMed:1422788 ]
    15. George CF, Millar TW, Hanly PJ, Kryger MH: The effect of L-tryptophan on daytime sleep latency in normals: correlation with blood levels. Sleep. 1989 Aug;12(4):345-53. [PubMed:2669092 ]
    16. Buczko W, Cylwik D, Stokowska W: [Metabolism of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway in saliva]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2005;59:283-9. [PubMed:15995595 ]
    17. Gutsche B, Grun C, Scheutzow D, Herderich M: Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine. Biochem J. 1999 Oct 1;343 Pt 1:11-9. [PubMed:10493906 ]
    18. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
    19. Milburn DS, Myers CW: Tryptophan toxicity: a pharmacoepidemiologic review of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. DICP. 1991 Nov;25(11):1259-62. [PubMed:1763543 ]
    20. Gross B, Ronen N, Honigman S, Livne E: Tryptophan toxicity--time and dose response in rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:507-16. [PubMed:10721094 ]

    Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
    Gene Name:
    DDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P20711
    Molecular weight:
    53893.755
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan → Tryptamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    References
    1. Tyce GM: Origin and metabolism of serotonin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1990;16 Suppl 3:S1-7. [PubMed:1369709 ]
    General function:
    Involved in heme binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of tryptophan and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen.
    Gene Name:
    IDO1
    Uniprot ID:
    P14902
    Molecular weight:
    45325.89
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Oxygen → L-Formylkynureninedetails
    References
    1. Agaugue S, Perrin-Cocon L, Coutant F, Andre P, Lotteau V: 1-Methyl-tryptophan can interfere with TLR signaling in dendritic cells independently of IDO activity. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 15;177(4):2061-71. [PubMed:16887964 ]
    2. Fallarino F, Gizzi S, Mosci P, Grohmann U, Puccetti P: Tryptophan catabolism in IDO+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Curr Drug Metab. 2007 Apr;8(3):209-16. [PubMed:17430109 ]
    3. Cozzi A, Zignego AL, Carpendo R, Biagiotti T, Aldinucci A, Monti M, Giannini C, Rosselli M, Laffi G, Moroni F: Low serum tryptophan levels, reduced macrophage IDO activity and high frequency of psychopathology in HCV patients. J Viral Hepat. 2006 Jun;13(6):402-8. [PubMed:16842443 ]
    4. Grohmann U, Volpi C, Fallarino F, Bozza S, Bianchi R, Vacca C, Orabona C, Belladonna ML, Ayroldi E, Nocentini G, Boon L, Bistoni F, Fioretti MC, Romani L, Riccardi C, Puccetti P: Reverse signaling through GITR ligand enables dexamethasone to activate IDO in allergy. Nat Med. 2007 May;13(5):579-86. Epub 2007 Apr 8. [PubMed:17417651 ]
    5. Zheng X, Koropatnick J, Li M, Zhang X, Ling F, Ren X, Hao X, Sun H, Vladau C, Franek JA, Feng B, Urquhart BL, Zhong R, Freeman DJ, Garcia B, Min WP: Reinstalling antitumor immunity by inhibiting tumor-derived immunosuppressive molecule IDO through RNA interference. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15;177(8):5639-46. [PubMed:17015752 ]
    6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
    7. Rafice SA, Chauhan N, Efimov I, Basran J, Raven EL: Oxidation of L-tryptophan in biology: a comparison between tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Apr;37(Pt 2):408-12. doi: 10.1042/BST0370408. [PubMed:19290871 ]
    General function:
    Involved in amino acid binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    TPH1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17752
    Molecular weight:
    50984.725
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Sapropterin + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
    Sapropterin + L-Tryptophan + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Waterdetails
    References
    1. Pavon JA, Fitzpatrick PF: Insights into the catalytic mechanisms of phenylalanine and tryptophan hydroxylase from kinetic isotope effects on aromatic hydroxylation. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 12;45(36):11030-7. [PubMed:16953590 ]
    2. Langfort J, Baranczuk E, Pawlak D, Chalimoniuk M, Lukacova N, Marsala J, Gorski J: The effect of endurance training on regional serotonin metabolism in the brain during early stage of detraining period in the female rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006 Oct-Nov;26(7-8):1327-42. Epub 2006 Aug 1. [PubMed:16897368 ]
    3. Nakamura K, Hasegawa H: Developmental role of tryptophan hydroxylase in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;35(1):45-54. [PubMed:17519505 ]
    4. Invernizzi RW: Role of TPH-2 in brain function: news from behavioral and pharmacologic studies. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 1;85(14):3030-5. [PubMed:17492791 ]
    5. Neckameyer WS, Coleman CM, Eadie S, Goodwin SF: Compartmentalization of neuronal and peripheral serotonin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Nov;6(8):756-69. Epub 2007 Mar 21. [PubMed:17376153 ]
    General function:
    Involved in amino acid binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    TPH2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8IWU9
    Molecular weight:
    56056.295
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Sapropterin + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterindetails
    Sapropterin + L-Tryptophan + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Waterdetails
    References
    1. Lopez VA, Detera-Wadleigh S, Cardona I, Kassem L, McMahon FJ: Nested association between genetic variation in tryptophan hydroxylase II, bipolar affective disorder, and suicide attempts. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 15;61(2):181-6. Epub 2006 Jun 27. [PubMed:16806105 ]
    2. Kraus MR, Al-Taie O, Schafer A, Pfersdorff M, Lesch KP, Scheurlen M: Serotonin-1A receptor gene HTR1A variation predicts interferon-induced depression in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2007 Apr;132(4):1279-86. Epub 2007 Feb 25. [PubMed:17408646 ]
    3. Nakamura K, Hasegawa H: Developmental role of tryptophan hydroxylase in the nervous system. Mol Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;35(1):45-54. [PubMed:17519505 ]
    4. Invernizzi RW: Role of TPH-2 in brain function: news from behavioral and pharmacologic studies. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 1;85(14):3030-5. [PubMed:17492791 ]
    5. Calcagno E, Canetta A, Guzzetti S, Cervo L, Invernizzi RW: Strain differences in basal and post-citalopram extracellular 5-HT in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus: relation with tryptophan hydroxylase-2 activity. J Neurochem. 2007 Nov;103(3):1111-20. Epub 2007 Jul 31. [PubMed:17666043 ]
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.
    Gene Name:
    WARS
    Uniprot ID:
    P23381
    Molecular weight:
    53164.91
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Tryptophanyl-tRNA(Trp)details
    References
    1. Tsuchiya W, Umehara T, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Determination of tryptophan tRNA recognition sites for tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2004;(48):185-6. [PubMed:17150540 ]
    2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5' tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17428498 ]
    3. Zhu L, Ji F, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Liu Q, Zhang JZ, Matsushima K, Cao Q, Zhang Y: Synovial autoreactive T cells in rheumatoid arthritis resist IDO-mediated inhibition. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 1;177(11):8226-33. [PubMed:17114500 ]
    4. Yadav MC, Burudi EM, Alirezaei M, Flynn CC, Watry DD, Lanigan CM, Fox HS: IFN-gamma-induced IDO and WRS expression in microglia is differentially regulated by IL-4. Glia. 2007 Oct;55(13):1385-96. [PubMed:17661345 ]
    5. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. [PubMed:16724112 ]
    General function:
    Involved in nucleotide binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    WARS2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UGM6
    Molecular weight:
    40146.265
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-tryptophyl-tRNA(Trp)details
    Adenosine triphosphate + L-Tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Tryptophanyl-tRNA(Trp)details
    References
    1. Paley EL, Denisova G, Sokolova O, Posternak N, Wang X, Brownell AL: Tryptamine induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase-mediated neurodegeneration with neurofibrillary tangles in human cell and mouse models. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):55-82. [PubMed:17114825 ]
    2. Retailleau P, Weinreb V, Hu M, Carter CW Jr: Crystal structure of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with adenosine-5' tetraphosphate: evidence for distributed use of catalytic binding energy in amino acid activation by class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Mol Biol. 2007 May 25;369(1):108-28. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17428498 ]
    3. Banin E, Dorrell MI, Aguilar E, Ritter MR, Aderman CM, Smith AC, Friedlander J, Friedlander M: T2-TrpRS inhibits preretinal neovascularization and enhances physiological vascular regrowth in OIR as assessed by a new method of quantification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May;47(5):2125-34. [PubMed:16639024 ]
    4. Yang XL, Otero FJ, Ewalt KL, Liu J, Swairjo MA, Kohrer C, RajBhandary UL, Skene RJ, McRee DE, Schimmel P: Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. EMBO J. 2006 Jun 21;25(12):2919-29. Epub 2006 May 25. [PubMed:16724112 ]
    5. Charriere F, Helgadottir S, Horn EK, Soll D, Schneider A: Dual targeting of a single tRNA(Trp) requires two different tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases in Trypanosoma brucei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 2;103(18):6847-52. Epub 2006 Apr 24. [PubMed:16636268 ]
    General function:
    Involved in tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity
    Specific function:
    Incorporates oxygen into the indole moiety of tryptophan. Has a broad specificity towards tryptamine and derivatives including D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    TDO2
    Uniprot ID:
    P48775
    Molecular weight:
    47871.215
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Oxygen → L-Formylkynureninedetails
    References
    1. Rafice SA, Chauhan N, Efimov I, Basran J, Raven EL: Oxidation of L-tryptophan in biology: a comparison between tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Apr;37(Pt 2):408-12. doi: 10.1042/BST0370408. [PubMed:19290871 ]
    General function:
    Involved in heme binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism.
    Gene Name:
    IDO2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q6ZQW0
    Molecular weight:
    47074.745
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Oxygen → L-Formylkynureninedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    IL4I1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96RQ9
    Molecular weight:
    65327.26
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan + Water + Oxygen → Indolepyruvate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails

    Transporters

    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A2
    Uniprot ID:
    P36021
    Molecular weight:
    59510.9
    References
    1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. [PubMed:12871948 ]
    General function:
    Involved in transmembrane transport
    Specific function:
    Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells
    Gene Name:
    SLC16A10
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TF71
    Molecular weight:
    55492.1
    References
    1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
    2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]

    Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 11 proteins in total.