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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 10:21:14 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000954
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0000537
  • HMDB00537
  • HMDB00954
Metabolite Identification
Common Nametrans-Ferulic acid
Descriptiontrans-Ferulic acid is a highly abundant phenolic phytochemical which is present in plant cell walls. trans-Ferulic acid is a phenolic acid that can be absorbed by the small intestine and excreted through the urine. It is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in plants, varying from 5 g/Kg in wheat bran to 9 g/kg in sugar-beet pulp and 50 g/kg in corn kernel. It occurs primarily in seeds and leaves both in its free form (rarely) and covalently linked to lignin and other biopolymers. It is usually found as ester cross-links with polysaccharides in the cell wall, such as arabinoxylans in grasses, pectin in spinach and sugar beet and xyloglucans in bamboo. It also can cross-link with proteins. Due to its phenolic nucleus and an extended side chain conjugation (carbohydrates and proteins), it readily forms a resonance stabilized phenoxy radical which accounts for its potent antioxidant potential. Food supplementation with curcumin and ferulic acid is considered a nutritional approach to reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in Alzheimer disease. (PMID: 17127365 , 1398220 , 15453708 , 9878519 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(e)-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acidChEBI
(e)-4'-Hydroxy-3'-methoxycinnamic acidChEBI
(e)-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acidChEBI
(e)-Ferulic acidChEBI
3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propenoic acidChEBI
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acidChEBI
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acidChEBI
trans-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acidChEBI
(e)-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoateGenerator
trans-FerulateGenerator
(e)-4'-Hydroxy-3'-methoxycinnamateGenerator
(e)-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamateGenerator
(e)-FerulateGenerator
3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propenoateGenerator
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamateGenerator
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamateGenerator
trans-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamateGenerator
(2E)-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoateHMDB
(2E)-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acidHMDB
(e)-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamateHMDB
(e)-4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acidHMDB
FerulateHMDB
Ferulic acidHMDB
Ferulic acid, (e)-isomerMeSH
Ferulic acid, monosodium saltMeSH
Sodium ferulateMeSH
Ferulic acid, (Z)-isomerMeSH
8,8'-Diferulic acidMeSH
Chemical FormulaC10H10O4
Average Molecular Weight194.184
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.057908808
IUPAC Name(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
Traditional Nameferulic acid
CAS Registry Number537-98-4
SMILES
COC1=C(O)C=CC(\C=C\C(O)=O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H10O4/c1-14-9-6-7(2-4-8(9)11)3-5-10(12)13/h2-6,11H,1H3,(H,12,13)/b5-3+
InChI KeyKSEBMYQBYZTDHS-HWKANZROSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxycinnamic acids. These are compounds containing an cinnamic acid where the benzene ring is hydroxylated.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCinnamic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxycinnamic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cinnamic acid
  • Coumaric acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxycinnamic acid
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Anisole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Styrene
  • Phenol ether
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Phenol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point168 - 171 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP1.51HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.91 g/LALOGPS
logP1.58ALOGPS
logP1.67ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity51.5 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability19.18 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-05g4-1978000000-1097d5b300514a0489dfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00kv-2964000000-3d20d62c97c33247cfcfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ku-1965000000-ebee2a916fe97f0270a1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9654000000-b3f1759076cffd2ac235View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-000m-3975000000-5a41c311d78f7219474cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-1900000000-5dffac87fe7c815de4ceView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-2900000000-8db541bacfe47b9e0c8bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-2900000000-a338415bd30d4e62e664View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05g4-1978000000-1097d5b300514a0489dfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kv-2964000000-3d20d62c97c33247cfcfView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00ku-1965000000-ebee2a916fe97f0270a1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9654000000-b3f1759076cffd2ac235View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000m-3975000000-5a41c311d78f7219474cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kv-1954000000-9dae07505bd18466be87View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002e-0900000000-d76b7991f2d90cb58bd5View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-6094000000-b805979df23a0d890d7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-d193da7a6efffdab2dbbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kr-7900000000-b5b8d28b28c8067c3932View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-002r-9000000000-d3616a5367a7a2a9b3c6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-52) , Positivesplash10-0006-1900000000-5dffac87fe7c815de4ceView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-c173873ef0d975be6c34View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-0b9174ecaba08b2f01b9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-eff77e27aef254928643View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-001r-9700000000-18946fad05ffb1f78a7dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-001r-9300000000-e2221a73d3d078bf6e03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-653c9a454414dd8b8b50View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-002b-0900000000-62b2ee8bf9571be3d97fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-a7cded21e6010eb8bce2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-c173873ef0d975be6c34View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-0b9174ecaba08b2f01b9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-eff77e27aef254928643View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001r-9700000000-18946fad05ffb1f78a7dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001r-9300000000-e2221a73d3d078bf6e03View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-a7cded21e6010eb8bce2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-002b-0900000000-cdced9ddbcdaedf2f1b9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-002b-0900000000-434fdd914ca34cd68f41View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-0dcbcad8bf6cb403f4f8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0g31-5900000000-4fa9ed831b4e0d1573e5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-29c8691e15490f8d88acView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-e940f09e099b7acf3772View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00o1-1900000000-ee61087a069406e459c7View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-5900000000-8c81de6c352294475072View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.053 +/- 0.017 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.031 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.052 +/- 0.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.13 +/- 0.054 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.027 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.031 +/- 0.008 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.029 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.157 +/- 0.129 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.039 +/- 0.020 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0-1.581 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified8.549 +/- 0.978 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified11.793 +/- 6.952 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified13.801 +/- 11.844 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified13.853 +/- 11.0720 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.340 (0.00515-5.0210) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.80-1.3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.626 +/- 2.711 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified36.3 +/- 11.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.78-0.98 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.814 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.376-9.270 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.364 +/- 0.108 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.481 +/- 0.188 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.557 +/- 2.039 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.245 +/- 0.061 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.181 +/- 5.131 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.261 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.18 +/- 3.519 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB07767
Phenol Explorer Compound ID499
FoodDB IDFDB012802
KNApSAcK IDC00002743
Chemspider ID393368
KEGG Compound IDC01494
BioCyc IDFERULIC-ACID
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFerulic_Acid
METLIN ID4156
PubChem Compound445858
PDB IDFER
ChEBI ID17620
References
Synthesis ReferenceOu, Shiyi; Zhang, Jing; Bao, Huiyan; Zhang, Ning; Li, Aijun. Method for preparing oligosaccharide and trans-ferulic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 8 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Homma K, Hasegawa T, Masumoto M, Takeshita E, Watanabe K, Chiba H, Kurosawa T, Takahashi T, Matsuo N: Reference values for urinary steroids in Japanese newborn infants: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring. Endocr J. 2003 Dec;50(6):783-92. [PubMed:14709852 ]
  2. Nakazawa T, Ohsawa K: Metabolites of orally administered Perilla frutescens extract in rats and humans. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 Jan;23(1):122-7. [PubMed:10706426 ]
  3. Schindler AE, Siiteri PK: Isolation and quantitation of steroids from normal human amniotic fluid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1968 Aug;28(8):1189-98. [PubMed:4234060 ]
  4. Harder H, Tetens I, Let MB, Meyer AS: Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Aug;43(4):230-6. Epub 2004 Jan 6. [PubMed:15309442 ]
  5. Choudhary G, Chakel J, Hancock W, Torres-Duarte A, McMahon G, Wainer I: Investigation of the potential of capillary electrophoresis with off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for clinical analysis: examination of a glycoprotein factor associated with cancer cachexia. Anal Chem. 1999 Feb 15;71(4):855-9. [PubMed:10051848 ]
  6. Tringali C, Spatafora C, Longo OD: Bioactive constituents of the bark of Parkia biglobosa. Fitoterapia. 2000 Apr;71(2):118-25. [PubMed:10727806 ]
  7. Saija A, Tomaino A, Trombetta D, De Pasquale A, Uccella N, Barbuzzi T, Paolino D, Bonina F: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of caffeic and ferulic acids as topical photoprotective agents. Int J Pharm. 2000 Apr 10;199(1):39-47. [PubMed:10794925 ]
  8. Kang J, Liu Y, Xie MX, Li S, Jiang M, Wang YD: Interactions of human serum albumin with chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Sep 24;1674(2):205-14. [PubMed:15374625 ]
  9. Baba S, Osakabe N, Natsume M, Yasuda A, Muto Y, Hiyoshi K, Takano H, Yoshikawa T, Terao J: Absorption, metabolism, degradation and urinary excretion of rosmarinic acid after intake of Perilla frutescens extract in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Feb;44(1):1-9. Epub 2004 Feb 18. [PubMed:15309457 ]
  10. Tapia A, Rodriguez J, Theoduloz C, Lopez S, Feresin GE, Schmeda-Hirschmann G: Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Baccharis grisebachii. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):155-61. [PubMed:15507329 ]
  11. Trombino S, Serini S, Di Nicuolo F, Celleno L, Ando S, Picci N, Calviello G, Palozza P: Antioxidant effect of ferulic acid in isolated membranes and intact cells: synergistic interactions with alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 21;52(8):2411-20. [PubMed:15080655 ]
  12. Mancuso C, Scapagini G, Curro D, Giuffrida Stella AM, De Marco C, Butterfield DA, Calabrese V: Mitochondrial dysfunction, free radical generation and cellular stress response in neurodegenerative disorders. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:1107-23. [PubMed:17127365 ]
  13. Graf E: Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 1992 Oct;13(4):435-48. [PubMed:1398220 ]
  14. Fukuoka K, Sawabe A, Sugimoto T, Koga M, Okuda H, Kitayama T, Shirai M, Komai K, Komemushi S, Matsuda K: Inhibitory actions of several natural products on proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells induced by Hsp60 from Chlamydia pneumoniae J138. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6326-9. [PubMed:15453708 ]
  15. Bourne LC, Rice-Evans C: Bioavailability of ferulic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Dec 18;253(2):222-7. [PubMed:9878519 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
trans-Ferulic acid → 6-{4-[(1E)-2-carboxyeth-1-en-1-yl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
trans-Ferulic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-{[(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy}oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
trans-Ferulic acid → Ferulic acid 4-sulfatedetails