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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:38 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000965
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00965
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHypotaurine
DescriptionHypotaurine belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfinic acids. Sulfinic acids are compounds containing a sulfinic acid functional group, with the general structure RS(=O)OH (R = organyl, not H). Hypotaurine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Like taurine, it also acts as an endogenous neurotransmitter via action on the glycine receptors. Hypotaurine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In mammals, the biosynthesis of hypotaurine from cysteine occurs in the pancreas. Within humans, hypotaurine participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, hypotaurine can be biosynthesized from cysteamine; which is catalyzed by the enzyme 2-aminoethanethiol dioxygenase. In addition, hypotaurine can be biosynthesized from 3-sulfinoalanine through the action of the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. In humans, hypotaurine is involved in taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. Cysteine sulfinic acid, in turn, is decarboxylated by sulfinoalanine decarboxylase to form hypotaurine. Hypotaurine is enzymatically oxidized to yield taurine by hypotaurine dehydrogenase. Hypotaurine is a sulfinic acid that is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of taurine. Hypotaurine is derived from cysteine (and homocysteine). In the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase.
Structure
Data?1563860678
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Aminoethanesulfinic acidChEBI
2-AminoethanesulfinateGenerator
2-AminoethanesulphinateGenerator
2-Aminoethanesulphinic acidGenerator
2-Amino-ethanesulfinateHMDB
2-Amino-ethanesulfinic acidHMDB
2-AminoethylsulfinateHMDB
2-Aminoethylsulfinic acidHMDB
CystaminesulfinateHMDB
Cystaminesulfinic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H7NO2S
Average Molecular Weight109.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight109.019749163
IUPAC Name2-aminoethane-1-sulfinic acid
Traditional Namehypotaurine
CAS Registry Number300-84-5
SMILES
NCCS(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H7NO2S/c3-1-2-6(4)5/h1-3H2,(H,4,5)
InChI KeyVVIUBCNYACGLLV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfinic acids. Sulfinic acids are compounds containing a sulfinic acid functional group, with the general structure RS(=O)OH (R = organyl, not H).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassSulfinic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassSulfinic acids
Direct ParentSulfinic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sulfinic acid
  • Alkanesulfinic acid
  • Alkanesulfinic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility38.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-2.7ChemAxon
logS-0.45ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity23.16 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.16 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udr-0900000000-6d1ec3a7649c0e7a704bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-468e3da761e4d86223b1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fki-5900000000-0569fb6d8502d22d2b7eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0f79-0900000000-457c0f4ff1563d09a208JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-31e0a7f3a4c3fd20ce3cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udr-0900000000-6d1ec3a7649c0e7a704bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-468e3da761e4d86223b1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fki-5900000000-0569fb6d8502d22d2b7eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f79-0900000000-457c0f4ff1563d09a208JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9000000000-ebfa02ce7482006f53d1JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9800000000-f121cbb956b42fc5e20eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9300000000-eec8c8d22a33d4e8da3bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9200000000-f461253126e9b74c7d80JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0940100000-886905799c16b4d25a5fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a34ee572b02492eaefefJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-ff53f17dcba5f9b8c507JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-a3ccc18b5af8fddfdffaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-9c1032a24816a6221477JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-6354cd263d6d293f1d61JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-45a36787ef1f00274735JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-318c8a0e0325b2e98a06JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-123846d2dc8e7cf97137JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-6b0caea8d77740b01ec0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-a5ce3fbe0fd14222c3c8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-32fdc560d98f6fd6be25JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-5d74861c832bbb4f97fcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-6900000000-26d55a4c69512ce8ae79JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9100000000-8fec2539fc653f7bc4d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-6efe1a9b61e6af3e4d54JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-519623b6e74aa699cb3bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-6f298f33310e539b113fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-6f2416e3d3c5aa1f0fffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-9300000000-85302e310b341400f079JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dl-6900000000-b26fa2070e91be8f8792JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-2252807899b1b8ebfc8eJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Prostate
  • Sperm
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.842 +/- 1.41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.240 +/- 0.461 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.614 +/- 0.660 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB022342
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID96959
    KEGG Compound IDC00519
    BioCyc IDHYPOTAURINE
    BiGG ID35230
    Wikipedia LinkHypotaurine
    METLIN ID281
    PubChem Compound107812
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID16668
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceOwen, Terence C.; Wilbraham, A. C. Convenient preparation and characterization of hypotaurine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1965), (Jan.), 826-7.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Dominy J, Eller S, Dawson R Jr: Building biosynthetic schools: reviewing compartmentation of CNS taurine synthesis. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):97-103. [PubMed:14992267 ]
    2. Fontana M, Pecci L, Dupre S, Cavallini D: Antioxidant properties of sulfinates: protective effect of hypotaurine on peroxynitrite-dependent damage. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):111-6. [PubMed:14992269 ]
    3. Pitari G, Dupre S, Spirito A, Antonini G, Amicarelli F: Hypotaurine protection on cell damage by singlet oxygen. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;483:157-62. [PubMed:11787593 ]
    4. Grafe F, Wohlrab W, Neubert RH, Brandsch M: Functional characterization of sodium- and chloride-dependent taurine transport in human keratinocytes. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004 Mar;57(2):337-41. [PubMed:15018993 ]
    5. Krieg RC, Uihlein D, Murthum T, Endlicher E, Hausmann F, Messmann H, Knuechel R: Improving the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) for the gastrointestinal tract by esterification--an in vitro study. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2002 Dec;48(8):917-23. [PubMed:12699251 ]
    6. Guerin P, Menezo Y: Hypotaurine and taurine in gamete and embryo environments: de novo synthesis via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway in oviduct cells. Zygote. 1995 Nov;3(4):333-43. [PubMed:8730898 ]
    7. Masuoka N, Yao K, Kinuta M, Ohta J, Wakimoto M, Ubuka T: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of taurine and hypotaurine using 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride as derivatizing reagent. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Oct 3;660(1):31-5. [PubMed:7858721 ]
    8. Guerin P, Guillaud J, Menezo Y: Hypotaurine in spermatozoa and genital secretions and its production by oviduct epithelial cells in vitro. Hum Reprod. 1995 Apr;10(4):866-72. [PubMed:7650134 ]
    9. Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Shihabi ZK, Jarow JP: The taurine and hypotaurine content of human semen. J Androl. 1992 May-Jun;13(3):289-92. [PubMed:1601750 ]
    10. Mahadevan MM, Trounson AO: Removal of the cumulus oophorus from the human oocyte for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1985 Feb;43(2):263-7. [PubMed:3967784 ]
    11. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    CSAD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9Y600
    Molecular weight:
    55022.79
    Reactions
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + CO(2)details
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in cysteamine dioxygenase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ADO
    Uniprot ID:
    Q96SZ5
    Molecular weight:
    29750.535
    Reactions
    Cysteamine + Oxygen → Hypotaurinedetails