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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001179
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01179
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide
DescriptionNicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, also known as deamido-NAD or NAAD, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage. NAAD is possibly soluble (in water) and a strong basic compound (based on its pKa). NAAD exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. L-Glutamine and NAAD can be converted into L-glutamic acid and NAD; which is catalyzed by the enzyme glutamine-dependent nad(+) synthetase. In humans, NAAD is involved in the nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism pathway. NAAD is also involved in the metabolic disorder called succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Outside of the human body, NAAD has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as japanese walnuts, cauliflowers, sparkleberries, komatsuna, and macadamia nut (m. tetraphylla). This could make NAAD a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. NAAD is the product of the degradation of Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) by a Ca2+-sensitive phosphatase. NAADP is a Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger which is synthesized, in response to extracellular stimuli, via the base-exchange reaction by an ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ARC) family members (such as CD38). NAADP binds to and opens Ca2+ channels on intracellular organelles, thereby increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration which, in turn, modulates a variety of cellular processes. Structurally, NAADP it is a dinucleotide that only differs from the house-keeping enzyme cofactor, NADP, by a hydroxyl group (replacing the nicotinamide amino group) and yet this minor modification converts it into the most potent Ca2+-mobilizing second messenger yet described. NAADP may also be broken down to 2-phosphoadenosine diphosphoribose (ADPRP) by CD38 or reduced to NAADPH.
Structure
Data?1563860686
Synonyms
ValueSource
Deamido-NADChEBI
Deamido-nad+ChEBI
Deamino-nad+ChEBI
Nicotinate adenine dinucleotideGenerator
Deamidonicotinamide adenine dinucleoetideHMDB
NAADHMDB
NaADNHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H27N6O15P2
Average Molecular Weight665.4178
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight665.100962248
IUPAC Name1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-[({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-3-carboxy-1λ⁵-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional Namedeamido-NAD(+)
CAS Registry Number6450-77-7
SMILES
NC1=C2N=CN([C@@H]3O[C@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]4O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]4O)[N+]4=CC=CC(=C4)C(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]3O)C2=NC=N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H26N6O15P2/c22-17-12-18(24-7-23-17)27(8-25-12)20-16(31)14(29)11(41-20)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(28)15(30)19(40-10)26-3-1-2-9(4-26)21(32)33/h1-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,19-20,28-31H,5-6H2,(H4-,22,23,24,32,33,34,35,36,37)/p+1/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,19-,20-/m1/s1
InChI KeySENPVEZBRZQVST-HISDBWNOSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Class(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • (5'->5')-dinucleotide
  • Purine nucleotide sugar
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Nicotinic-acid-nucleotide
  • Pyridine nucleotide
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyridine
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Monosaccharide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Amino acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Source:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.88 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.89ALOGPS
logP-9.9ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count16ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area312.47 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity140.17 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability58.26 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-1202903000-23becb537df72d0e35b9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0000009000-1ae9f4d0896b777b28c3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014j-0000009000-f1d50bdee2c40a519304JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9730204000-6e772ef6b1bb54fbe399JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0000009000-a61b90d48d56a74bb6c8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03xr-0100109000-b0e0147bb3637f905fd9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-01rt-9300000000-05f34f8e6f2c28916f6dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04099
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022469
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID145043
KEGG Compound IDC00857
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID36219
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID4234
PubChem Compound165491
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18304
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular weight:
104923.58
Reactions
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves a variety of phosphodiester and phosphosulfate bonds including deoxynucleotides, nucleotide sugars, and NAD (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENPP3
Uniprot ID:
O14638
Molecular weight:
100123.54
Reactions
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate with the same efficiency. Can use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity, prefers NAD(+) and NAAD as substrates and degrades NADH, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD) and nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD) less effectively. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+). Protects against axonal degeneration following mechanical or toxic insults.
Gene Name:
NMNAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAN9
Molecular weight:
31932.22
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + beta-nicotinate-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate with the same efficiency. Can use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Can also use GTP and ITP as nucleotide donors. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity, can use NAD (+), NADH, NAAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD), nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD) as substrates. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+). Protects against axonal degeneration following injury.
Gene Name:
NMNAT3
Uniprot ID:
Q96T66
Molecular weight:
18255.08
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + beta-nicotinate-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate but with a lower efficiency. Cannot use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity prefers NAD(+), NADH and NAAD as substrates and degrades nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD) less effectively. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+).
Gene Name:
NMNAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZQ4
Molecular weight:
34438.38
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + beta-nicotinate-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
Adenosine triphosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide → Pyrophosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NADSYN1
Uniprot ID:
Q6IA69
Molecular weight:
79283.945
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + L-Glutamine + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes NAD(P)H to NMNH and AMP (2',5'-ADP), and diadenosine diphosphate to AMP. Has also activity towards NAD(P)(+), ADP-ribose and diadenosine triphosphate. May act to regulate the concentration of peroxisomal nicotinamide nucleotide cofactors required for oxidative metabolism in this organelle.
Gene Name:
NUDT12
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQG2
Molecular weight:
52075.475
Reactions
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotidedetails