You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:44:52 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001294
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01294
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid
Description2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG, also known as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate or 2,3-DPG) is a three carbon isomer of the glycolytic intermediate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and is present at high levels in the human red blood cell (RBC; erythrocyte)--at the same molar concentration as hemoglobin. It is notable because it binds to deoxygenated hemoglobin in RBCs. In doing so, it allosterically upregulates the ability of RBCs to release oxygen near tissues that need it most. Its function was discovered in 1967 by Reinhold Benesch and Ruth Benesch.
Structure
Data?1563860692
Synonyms
ValueSource
2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerateChEBI
2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acidChEBI
2,3-BPGChEBI
2,3-Disphospho-D-glycerateChEBI
D-Greenwald esterChEBI
DPGChEBI
Glyceric acid bis(dihydrogen phosphate)ChEBI
Glyceric acid diphosphateChEBI
2,3-Bisphospho-D-glyceric acidGenerator
2,3-BisphosphoglycerateGenerator
2,3-Disphospho-D-glyceric acidGenerator
Glycerate bis(dihydrogen phosphate)Generator
Glyceric acid bis(dihydrogen phosphoric acid)Generator
Glycerate diphosphateGenerator
Glyceric acid diphosphoric acidGenerator
2,3-DiphosphoglycerateGenerator
(2R)-2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoateHMDB
(2R)-2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoateHMDB
(R)-2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoic acidHMDB
2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoateHMDB
2,3-Bis(phosphonooxy)-propanoic acidHMDB
2,3-Diphospho-D-glycerateHMDB
2,3-Diphospho-D-glyceric acidHMDB
2,3-Diphospho-D-glyceric acid pentasodium saltHMDB
D-Glyceric acid bisHMDB
D-Glyceric acid bis(dihydrogen phosphate)HMDB
DiphosphoglycerateHMDB
Diphosphoglyceric acidHMDB
Glycerate 2,3-diphosphateHMDB
2,3 Diphosphoglyceric acidHMDB
2,3 BisphosphoglycerateHMDB
2,3 DiphosphoglycerateHMDB
2,3-DPGHMDB
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate, (D)-isomerHMDB
Glycerate 2,3-bisphosphateHMDB
2,3-Bisphosphate, glycerateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H8O10P2
Average Molecular Weight266.0371
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight265.9592695
IUPAC Name(2R)-2,3-bis(phosphonooxy)propanoic acid
Traditional Namediphosphoglycerate
CAS Registry Number138-81-8
SMILES
OC(=O)[C@@H](COP(O)(O)=O)OP(O)(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H8O10P2/c4-3(5)2(13-15(9,10)11)1-12-14(6,7)8/h2H,1H2,(H,4,5)(H2,6,7,8)(H2,9,10,11)/t2-/m1/s1
InChI KeyXOHUEYCVLUUEJJ-UWTATZPHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Glyceric_acid
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.69 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area170.82 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity42.13 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-9320000000-fbd8c78fd88d592fab56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006t-9410000000-ea4c253779009c08e1bdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0930000000-5127f7f7568a961a8078JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-2900000000-e9e3c8a32ece4b7f9fceJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-006t-9300000000-e09861cf36df495519f6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-4a9ded352d5912810741JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-066r-1960000000-0d244402e55e5ef9de1dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0ar0-5960000000-1d5a4352115c6c5eb82fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-056r-9330000000-70ae76c58e470fe3b594JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-6cacbc2756ef980dc5a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-1490000000-ddf502cfcfd4ff0bca0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00xr-6910000000-871a376b75658c914a1eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00xr-9200000000-ab1b55ce1ad971f1b3f8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-016r-9100000000-2af5a77daca9f7cef852JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-9100000000-1d6a9786ab78002b7ac2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-4a9ded352d5912810741JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-066r-1960000000-fcab8021959f67dc5a44JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0ar0-5960000000-1d5a4352115c6c5eb82fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-056r-9330000000-70ae76c58e470fe3b594JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-9100000000-37f228e9721638e33212JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0uxr-1490000000-ddf502cfcfd4ff0bca0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1930000000-6b2743652b0e2aa81960JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00r2-8890000000-64b460dbcc7be6d3e820JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-6900000000-7cbb7d86341bbdc1500aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03fr-5090000000-73e5bca24796a45bebafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9010000000-a07defbdfd47a3f23225JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-9f9abb79cd423f7b15f0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
Tissue Locations
  • Erythrocyte
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Red Blood Cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified530.0 +/- 800.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified4500.0 (4000.0-5000.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022538
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID161681
KEGG Compound IDC01159
BioCyc ID23-DIPHOSPHOGLYCERATE
BiGG ID1315507
Wikipedia Link2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid
METLIN ID153
PubChem Compound186004
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17720
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Mairbaurl H, Schobersberger W, Oelz O, Bartsch P, Eckardt KU, Bauer C: Unchanged in vivo P50 at high altitude despite decreased erythrocyte age and elevated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1990 Mar;68(3):1186-94. [PubMed:2111310 ]
  2. Luganova IS, Blinov MN, Abdulkadyrova AS: [Age composition of the erythrocyte population, ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate composition in erythrocytes in different forms of hemolytic anemia]. Vopr Med Khim. 1978 Jul-Aug;24(4):499-505. [PubMed:685194 ]
  3. Miwa S, Fujii H, Matsumoto N, Nakatsuji T, Oda S, Asano H, Asano S: A case of red-cell adenosine deaminase overproduction associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia found in Japan. Am J Hematol. 1978;5(2):107-15. [PubMed:736030 ]
  4. Sezdi M, Bayik M, Ulgen Y: Storage effects on the Cole-Cole parameters of erythrocyte suspensions. Physiol Meas. 2006 Jul;27(7):623-35. Epub 2006 Apr 28. [PubMed:16705260 ]
  5. Linko K, Hekali R: Influence of the Taurus radiowave blood warmer on human red cells. Hemolysis and erythrocyte ATP and 2,3 DPG concentrations following warming by radiowaves, microwaves and water bath. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1980;24(1):46-52. [PubMed:7376803 ]
  6. Shanoian SA, Gel'shtein GG, Sharova IuA, Metina RA, Lifliandskii DB: [Study of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid levels in artificial blood circulation with the use of a perfusate composed of defrosted erythrocytes and donor blood]. Probl Gematol Pereliv Krovi. 1976 Feb;21(2):41-3. [PubMed:1257232 ]
  7. Spodaryk K, Zoladz JA: The 2,3-DPG levels of human red blood cells during an incremental exercise test: relationship to the blood acid-base balance. Physiol Res. 1998;47(1):17-22. [PubMed:9708696 ]
  8. Springer RR, Clark DK, Lea AS, Solis RT: Effects of changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension on oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary bypass. Chest. 1979 May;75(5):549-54. [PubMed:35315 ]
  9. Coppola L, Giunta R, Verrazzo G, Luongo C, Sammartino A, Vicario C, Giugliano D: Influence of ozone on haemoglobin oxygen affinity in type-2 diabetic patients with peripheral vascular disease: in vitro studies. Diabete Metab. 1995 Oct;21(4):252-5. [PubMed:8529759 ]
  10. Nakano T, Fujioka H, Tamura S, Amuro Y, Nabeshima K, Hada T, Higashino K: Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in liver diseases. Am J Gastroenterol. 1987 Dec;82(12):1283-6. [PubMed:2825516 ]
  11. diBella G, Scandariato G, Suriano O, Rizzo A: Oxygen affinity and Bohr effect responses to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in equine and human blood. Res Vet Sci. 1996 May;60(3):272-5. [PubMed:8735521 ]
  12. Pas'ko SA, Volosheniuk TG: [Causes, sequelae and possible ways of preventing hypophosphatemia in patients with cerebral ischemia]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1990;90(10):25-7. [PubMed:1962992 ]
  13. Rosenmund A, Binswanger U, Straub PW: Oxidative injury to erythrocytes, cell rigidity, and splenic hemolysis in hemodialyzed uremic patients. Ann Intern Med. 1975 Apr;82(4):460-5. [PubMed:1119763 ]
  14. Antonowicz J, Andrzejak R, Smolik R: Influence of heavy metal mixtures on erythrocyte metabolism. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990;62(3):195-8. [PubMed:2347640 ]
  15. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  16. Krasomski G, Zachara B: [2,3-diphosphoglycerate level in the red blood cells, inorganic phosphorus in the blood serum and the acid-base equilibrium indicators in different periods of normal pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol. 1981 Aug;52(8):687-92. [PubMed:7308813 ]
  17. Wallas CH: Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors. Transfusion. 1978 Jan-Feb;18(1):108-12. [PubMed:625775 ]
  18. Hirszel P, Maher JF, Tempel GE, Mengel CE: Effect of hemodialysis on factors influencing oxygen transport. J Lab Clin Med. 1975 Jun;85(6):978-86. [PubMed:237054 ]
  19. Lijnen P, Hespel P, Van Oppens S, Fiocchi R, Goossens W, Vanden Eynde E, Amery A: Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and serum enzyme concentrations in trained and sedentary men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986 Apr;18(2):174-9. [PubMed:3702645 ]
  20. Yoneda S, Kako T, Kohketsu M, Fujinami T: Changes in blood viscosity following nifedipine administration and its relation to the contents of adenosine triphosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid in red blood cells in patients with angina pectoris. Arzneimittelforschung. 1989 Apr;39(4):504-6. [PubMed:2751737 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a major role in regulating hemoglobin oxygen affinity by controlling the levels of its allosteric effector 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG). Also exhibits mutase (EC 5.4.2.1) and phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.13) activities.
Gene Name:
BPGM
Uniprot ID:
P07738
Molecular weight:
30004.98
Reactions
Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate → 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric aciddetails
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 3-Phosphoglyceric acid + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Interconversion of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the primer of the reaction. Can also catalyze the reaction of EC 5.4.2.4 (synthase) and EC 3.1.3.13 (phosphatase), but with a reduced activity.
Gene Name:
PGAM2
Uniprot ID:
P15259
Molecular weight:
28765.96
Reactions
Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate → 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric aciddetails
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 3-Phosphoglyceric acid + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PGAM4
Uniprot ID:
Q8N0Y7
Molecular weight:
28776.605
Reactions
Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate → 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric aciddetails
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 3-Phosphoglyceric acid + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Interconversion of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the primer of the reaction. Can also catalyze the reaction of EC 5.4.2.4 (synthase) and EC 3.1.3.13 (phosphatase), but with a reduced activity.
Gene Name:
PGAM1
Uniprot ID:
P18669
Molecular weight:
28803.675
Reactions
Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate → 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric aciddetails
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 3-Phosphoglyceric acid + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Acts as a phosphoinositide 5- and phosphoinositide 6-phosphatase and regulates cellular levels of inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5) and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6). Also acts as a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphatase, by mediating the dephosphorylation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) to produce phospho-D-glycerate without formation of 3-phosphoglycerate. May play a role in bone development (endochondral ossification).
Gene Name:
MINPP1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNW1
Molecular weight:
34660.555
Reactions
2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid + Water → 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid + Phosphatedetails