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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-20 20:32:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001318
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01318
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Methylpentanal
Description4-Methylpentanal, also known as isocaproaldehyde or isohexanal, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-hydrogen aldehydes. These are aldehydes with the general formula HC(H)(R)C(=O)H, where R is an organyl group. 4-Methylpentanal is slightly soluble (in water) and an extremely weak acidic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Within the cell, 4-methylpentanal is primarily located in the mitochondria and cytoplasm. 4-Methylpentanal participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, Pregnenolone and 4-methylpentanal can be biosynthesized from 20a,22b-dihydroxycholesterol through its interaction with the enzyme cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. In addition, 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone and 4-methylpentanal can be biosynthesized from 17a,20a-dihydroxycholesterol; which is mediated by the enzyme cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. In humans, 4-methylpentanal is involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. 4-Methylpentanal is also involved in several metabolic disorders, some of which include 21-hydroxylase deficiency (cyp21), 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (cyp11b1), corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - cmo II, and adrenal hyperplasia type 5 or congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-Methyl valeraldehydeChEBI
IsocaproaldehydeChEBI
IsohexanalChEBI
4-Methyl-valeraldehydeHMDB
4-MethylvaleraldehydeHMDB
Isocaproaldehyde: 4-methyl-pentanalHMDB
IsohexanaHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O
Average Molecular Weight100.1589
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight100.088815006
IUPAC Name4-methylpentanal
Traditional Nameisocaproaldehyde
CAS Registry Number1119-16-0
SMILES
CC(C)CCC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O/c1-6(2)4-3-5-7/h5-6H,3-4H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyJGEGJYXHCFUMJF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-hydrogen aldehydes. These are aldehydes with the general formula HC(H)(R)C(=O)H, where R is an organyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlpha-hydrogen aldehydes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydrogen aldehyde
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.8 g/LALOGPS
logP1.92ALOGPS
logP1.49ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity30.1 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-bca9e68c6009fa9d2c06View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-fb4261b2e4f6e3a98960View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-9600000000-55f36997fe423e576d10View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-f50d789cecc6faada43dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-8d50a1d5a37313cc062aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-c2f12b63b2a31cb18f8fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-16c6cae0f1217d0ae1a5View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022551
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID126
KEGG Compound IDC02373
BioCyc ID4-METHYLPENTANAL
BiGG ID39716
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID6155
PubChem Compound129
PDB IDMOP
ChEBI ID17998
References
Synthesis ReferenceMatsuura K; Deyashiki Y; Bunai Y; Ohya I; Hara A Aldose reductase is a major reductase for isocaproaldehyde, a product of side-chain cleavage of cholesterol, in human and animal adrenal glands. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics (1996), 328(2), 265-71.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular weight:
60101.87
Reactions
Cholesterol + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → Pregnenolone + 4-Methylpentanal + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
20a,22b-Dihydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Hydrogen Ion → 4-Methylpentanal + Pregnenolone + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails
17a,20a-Dihydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + 4-Methylpentanal + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxindetails