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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-16 14:07:20 UTC
Update Date2018-05-19 21:39:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001377
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01377
Metabolite Identification
Common NameOxygen
DescriptionOxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.9% of the volume of air. All major classes of structural molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, contain oxygen, as do the major inorganic compounds that comprise animal shells, teeth, and bone. Oxygen in the form of O2 is produced from water by cyanobacteria, algae and plants during photosynthesis and is used in cellular respiration for all living organisms. Green algae and cyanobacteria in marine environments provide about 70% of the free oxygen produced on earth and the rest is produced by terrestrial plants. Oxygen is used in mitochondria to help generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during oxidative phosphorylation. For animals, a constant supply of oxygen is indispensable for cardiac viability and function. To meet this demand, an adult human, at rest, inhales 1.8 to 2.4 grams of oxygen per minute. This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen inhaled by humanity per year. At a resting pulse rate, the heart consumes approximately 8-15 ml O2/min/100 g tissue. This is significantly more than that consumed by the brain (approximately 3 ml O2/min/100 g tissue) and can increase to more than 70 ml O2/min/100 g myocardial tissue during vigorous exercise. As a general rule, mammalian heart muscle cannot produce enough energy under anaerobic conditions to maintain essential cellular processes; thus, a constant supply of oxygen is indispensable to sustain cardiac function and viability. However, the role of oxygen and oxygen-associated processes in living systems is complex, and they and can be either beneficial or contribute to cardiac dysfunction and death (through reactive oxygen species). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a family of oxygen-derived free radicals that are produced in mammalian cells under normal and pathologic conditions. Many ROS, such as the superoxide anion (O2-)and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), act within blood vessels, altering mechanisms mediating mechanical signal transduction and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in cellular signaling in blood vessels in both normal and pathologic states. The major pathway for the production of ROS is by way of the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to form an oxygen radical, the superoxide anion (O2-). Within the vasculature there are several enzymatic sources of O2-, including xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and nitric oxide (NO) synthases. Studies in recent years, however, suggest that the major contributor to O2- levels in vascular cells is the membrane-bound enzyme NADPH-oxidase. Produced O2- can react with other radicals, such as NO, or spontaneously dismutate to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In cells, the latter reaction is an important pathway for normal O2- breakdown and is usually catalyzed by the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Once formed, H2O2 can undergo various reactions, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic. The antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase act to limit ROS accumulation within cells by breaking down H2O2 to H2O. Metabolism of H2O2 can also produce other, more damaging ROS. For example, the endogenous enzyme myeloperoxidase uses H2O2 as a substrate to form the highly reactive compound hypochlorous acid. Alternatively, H2O2 can undergo Fenton or Haber-Weiss chemistry, reacting with Fe2+/Fe3+ ions to form toxic hydroxyl radicals (-.OH). (PMID: 17027622 , 15765131 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[oo]ChEBI
DioxygeneChEBI
DisauerstoffChEBI
e 948ChEBI
e-948ChEBI
e948ChEBI
Molecular oxygenChEBI
O2ChEBI
OXYGEN moleculeChEBI
DioxygenHMDB
Chemical FormulaO2
Average Molecular Weight31.9988
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight31.989829244
IUPAC Nameoxidanone
Traditional Namesinglet oxygen
CAS Registry Number7782-44-7
SMILES
O=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/O2/c1-2
InChI KeyMYMOFIZGZYHOMD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassOther non-metal organides
Sub ClassOther non-metal oxides
Direct ParentOther non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Other non-metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-218.4 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility37.5 mg/mL at 21 °CNot Available
LogP0.65HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.28ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity2.89 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.53 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-2e78a9ed80eede2ed33aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5e864878b295db174473View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5e864878b295db174473View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-5e864878b295db174473View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified6960.0 +/- 410.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5760.0 +/- 580.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5490.0 (2780.0-7410.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB09140
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022589
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID952
KEGG Compound IDC00007
BioCyc IDOXYGEN-MOLECULE
BiGG ID33493
Wikipedia LinkOxygen
METLIN ID3195
PubChem Compound977
PDB IDOXY
ChEBI ID15379
References
Synthesis ReferenceWynn, Richard L. Production of hydrogen and oxygen by thermal disassociation of water. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2007), 26pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Carrier M, Denault A, Lavoie J, Perrault LP: Randomized controlled trial of pericardial blood processing with a cell-saving device on neurologic markers in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Jul;82(1):51-5. [PubMed:16798186 ]
  2. Valadka AB, Furuya Y, Hlatky R, Robertson CS: Global and regional techniques for monitoring cerebral oxidative metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2000 Nov 15;9(5):e3. [PubMed:16821755 ]
  3. Armonda RA, Vo AH, Bell R, Neal C, Campbell WW: Multimodal monitoring during emergency hemicraniectomy for vein of Labbe thrombosis. Neurocrit Care. 2006;4(3):241-4. [PubMed:16757831 ]
  4. Sassaroli A, deB Frederick B, Tong Y, Renshaw PF, Fantini S: Spatially weighted BOLD signal for comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared imaging of the brain. Neuroimage. 2006 Nov 1;33(2):505-14. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16945553 ]
  5. Zhang YT, Geng ZJ, Zhang Q, Li W, Zhang J: Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography. Chin Med J (Engl). 2006 Sep 20;119(18):1548-54. [PubMed:16996009 ]
  6. Ketcham EM, Cairns CB: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: development and clinical potential. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;33(3):326-37. [PubMed:10036348 ]
  7. Capelli-Schellpfeffer M, Gerber GS: The use of hyperbaric oxygen in urology. J Urol. 1999 Sep;162(3 Pt 1):647-54. [PubMed:10458334 ]
  8. Weaver LK, Howe S, Hopkins R, Chan KJ: Carboxyhemoglobin half-life in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients treated with 100% oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):801-8. [PubMed:10713010 ]
  9. Rooth G: Transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements in newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1975 Feb;55(2):232-5. [PubMed:1090895 ]
  10. Nath KA, Norby SM: Reactive oxygen species and acute renal failure. Am J Med. 2000 Dec 1;109(8):665-78. [PubMed:11099687 ]
  11. Kotecha S, Allen J: Oxygen therapy for infants with chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 Jul;87(1):F11-4. [PubMed:12091281 ]
  12. Van Heerebeek L, Meischl C, Stooker W, Meijer CJ, Niessen HW, Roos D: NADPH oxidase(s): new source(s) of reactive oxygen species in the vascular system? J Clin Pathol. 2002 Aug;55(8):561-8. [PubMed:12147646 ]
  13. Forman HJ, Torres M: Reactive oxygen species and cell signaling: respiratory burst in macrophage signaling. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 2):S4-8. [PubMed:12471082 ]
  14. Kemp PJ, Lewis A, Hartness ME, Searle GJ, Miller P, O'Kelly I, Peers C: Airway chemotransduction: from oxygen sensor to cellular effector. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec 15;166(12 Pt 2):S17-24. [PubMed:12471084 ]
  15. Frey B, Shann F: Oxygen administration in infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Mar;88(2):F84-8. [PubMed:12598492 ]
  16. Wang C, Schwaitzberg S, Berliner E, Zarin DA, Lau J: Hyperbaric oxygen for treating wounds: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Surg. 2003 Mar;138(3):272-9; discussion 280. [PubMed:12611573 ]
  17. Ho AM, Lee A, Karmakar MK, Dion PW, Chung DC, Contardi LH: Heliox vs air-oxygen mixtures for the treatment of patients with acute asthma: a systematic overview. Chest. 2003 Mar;123(3):882-90. [PubMed:12628892 ]
  18. Rodrigo GJ, Rodrigo C, Pollack CV, Rowe B: Use of helium-oxygen mixtures in the treatment of acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2003 Mar;123(3):891-6. [PubMed:12628893 ]
  19. Wangsa-Wirawan ND, Linsenmeier RA: Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Apr;121(4):547-57. [PubMed:12695252 ]
  20. Cohn SM: Oxygen therapeutics in trauma and surgery. J Trauma. 2003 May;54(5 Suppl):S193-8. [PubMed:12768124 ]
  21. Gordillo GM, Sen CK: Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing. Am J Surg. 2003 Sep;186(3):259-63. [PubMed:12946829 ]
  22. Deedwania PC, Carbajal EV: Role of myocardial oxygen demand in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia during daily life. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Nov 16;70(16):19F-24F. [PubMed:1442597 ]
  23. Listello D, Glauser F: COPD: primary care management with drug and oxygen therapies. Geriatrics. 1992 Dec;47(12):28-30, 35-8. [PubMed:1446842 ]
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  25. Davis PG, Tan A, O'Donnell CP, Schulze A: Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2004 Oct 9-15;364(9442):1329-33. [PubMed:15474135 ]
  26. Roeckl-Wiedmann I, Bennett M, Kranke P: Systematic review of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of chronic wounds. Br J Surg. 2005 Jan;92(1):24-32. [PubMed:15635604 ]
  27. Goldstein BJ, Mahadev K, Wu X: Redox paradox: insulin action is facilitated by insulin-stimulated reactive oxygen species with multiple potential signaling targets. Diabetes. 2005 Feb;54(2):311-21. [PubMed:15677487 ]
  28. Giordano FJ: Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure. J Clin Invest. 2005 Mar;115(3):500-8. [PubMed:15765131 ]
  29. Jallali N, Withey S, Butler PE: Hyperbaric oxygen as adjuvant therapy in the management of necrotizing fasciitis. Am J Surg. 2005 Apr;189(4):462-6. [PubMed:15820462 ]
  30. Domachevsky L, Adir Y, Grupper M, Keynan Y, Bentur Y: Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43(3):181-8. [PubMed:15902792 ]
  31. Burkhoff D, Lefer DJ: Cardioprotection before revascularization in ischemic myocardial injury and the potential role of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Am Heart J. 2005 Apr;149(4):573-9. [PubMed:15990736 ]
  32. Glazier JJ: Attenuation of reperfusion microvascular ischemia by aqueous oxygen: experimental and clinical observations. Am Heart J. 2005 Apr;149(4):580-4. [PubMed:15990737 ]
  33. Kevin LG, Novalija E, Stowe DF: Reactive oxygen species as mediators of cardiac injury and protection: the relevance to anesthesia practice. Anesth Analg. 2005 Nov;101(5):1275-87. [PubMed:16243980 ]
  34. Bennett M, Kertesz T, Yeung P: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Laryngol Otol. 2005 Oct;119(10):791-8. [PubMed:16259656 ]
  35. Levy MM: Pathophysiology of oxygen delivery in respiratory failure. Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5 Suppl 2):547S-553S. [PubMed:16306052 ]
  36. Huang YC: Monitoring oxygen delivery in the critically ill. Chest. 2005 Nov;128(5 Suppl 2):554S-560S. [PubMed:16306053 ]
  37. Liu Z, Xiong T, Meads C: Clinical effectiveness of treatment with hyperbaric oxygen for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: systematic review of Chinese literature. BMJ. 2006 Aug 19;333(7564):374. Epub 2006 May 11. [PubMed:16690641 ]
  38. Friedman HI, Fitzmaurice M, Lefaivre JF, Vecchiolla T, Clarke D: An evidence-based appraisal of the use of hyperbaric oxygen on flaps and grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jun;117(7 Suppl):175S-190S; discussion 191S-192S. [PubMed:16799386 ]
  39. Terashvili M, Pratt PF, Gebremedhin D, Narayanan J, Harder DR: Reactive oxygen species cerebral autoregulation in health and disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2006 Oct;53(5):1029-37, xi. [PubMed:17027622 ]
  40. Colebourn CL, Barber V, Young JD: Use of helium-oxygen mixture in adult patients presenting with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Anaesthesia. 2007 Jan;62(1):34-42. [PubMed:17156225 ]
  41. Bradley JM, Lasserson T, Elborn S, Macmahon J, O'neill B: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the short-term benefit of ambulatory oxygen in COPD. Chest. 2007 Jan;131(1):278-85. [PubMed:17218587 ]
  42. Tin W, Gupta S: Optimum oxygen therapy in preterm babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Mar;92(2):F143-7. [PubMed:17337663 ]
  43. Higgins RD, Bancalari E, Willinger M, Raju TN: Executive summary of the workshop on oxygen in neonatal therapies: controversies and opportunities for research. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr;119(4):790-6. [PubMed:17403851 ]
  44. Ness PM, Cushing MM: Oxygen therapeutics: pursuit of an alternative to the donor red blood cell. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007 May;131(5):734-41. [PubMed:17488158 ]
  45. Shelley KH: Photoplethysmography: beyond the calculation of arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S31-6, tables of contents. [PubMed:18048895 ]
  46. Claure N: Automated regulation of inspired oxygen in preterm infants: oxygenation stability and clinician workload. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S37-41. [PubMed:18048896 ]
  47. Toffaletti J, Zijlstra WG: Misconceptions in reporting oxygen saturation. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec;105(6 Suppl):S5-9. [PubMed:18048899 ]
  48. Ferrari R, Ceconi C, Curello S, Cargnoni A, Pasini E, De Giuli F, Albertini A: Role of oxygen free radicals in ischemic and reperfused myocardium. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):215S-222S. [PubMed:1845919 ]
  49. Kindwall EP, Gottlieb LJ, Larson DL: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in plastic surgery: a review article. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991 Nov;88(5):898-908. [PubMed:1924583 ]
  50. Cain SM, Curtis SE: Experimental models of pathologic oxygen supply dependency. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):603-12. [PubMed:2026022 ]
  51. Weg JG: Oxygen transport in adult respiratory distress syndrome and other acute circulatory problems: relationship of oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):650-7. [PubMed:2026027 ]
  52. Edwards JD: Oxygen transport in cardiogenic and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):658-63. [PubMed:2026028 ]
  53. Tuchschmidt J, Oblitas D, Fried JC: Oxygen consumption in sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1991 May;19(5):664-71. [PubMed:2026029 ]
  54. Reilly PM, Schiller HJ, Bulkley GB: Pharmacologic approach to tissue injury mediated by free radicals and other reactive oxygen metabolites. Am J Surg. 1991 Apr;161(4):488-503. [PubMed:2035771 ]
  55. Burton GG, Wagshul FA, Henderson D, Kime SW: Fatal airway obstruction caused by a mucous ball from a transtracheal oxygen catheter. Chest. 1991 Jun;99(6):1520-3. [PubMed:2036843 ]
  56. McCord JM, Fridovich I: The biology and pathology of oxygen radicals. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Jul;89(1):122-7. [PubMed:208444 ]
  57. Ardehali A, Ports TA: Myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Chest. 1990 Sep;98(3):699-705. [PubMed:2203620 ]
  58. Edwards JD: Practical application of oxygen transport principles. Crit Care Med. 1990 Jan;18(1 Pt 2):S45-8. [PubMed:2403513 ]
  59. Kloner RA, Przyklenk K, Whittaker P: Deleterious effects of oxygen radicals in ischemia/reperfusion. Resolved and unresolved issues. Circulation. 1989 Nov;80(5):1115-27. [PubMed:2553296 ]
  60. Dart RC, Sanders AB: Oxygen free radicals and myocardial reperfusion injury. Ann Emerg Med. 1988 Jan;17(1):53-8. [PubMed:3276245 ]
  61. Cross CE, Halliwell B, Borish ET, Pryor WA, Ames BN, Saul RL, McCord JM, Harman D: Oxygen radicals and human disease. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Oct;107(4):526-45. [PubMed:3307585 ]
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  63. Jackson RM: Pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Chest. 1985 Dec;88(6):900-5. [PubMed:3905287 ]
  64. Vik-Mo H, Mjos OD: Influence of free fatty acids on myocardial oxygen consumption and ischemic injury. Am J Cardiol. 1981 Aug;48(2):361-5. [PubMed:6115579 ]
  65. Klebanoff SJ: Oxygen metabolism and the toxic properties of phagocytes. Ann Intern Med. 1980 Sep;93(3):480-9. [PubMed:6254418 ]
  66. Tinits P: Oxygen therapy and oxygen toxicity. Ann Emerg Med. 1983 May;12(5):321-8. [PubMed:6414343 ]
  67. Lucey JF, Dangman B: A reexamination of the role of oxygen in retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatrics. 1984 Jan;73(1):82-96. [PubMed:6419199 ]
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  69. DeVenuto F: Hemoglobin solutions as oxygen-delivering resuscitation fluids. Crit Care Med. 1982 Apr;10(4):238-45. [PubMed:7039970 ]
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Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 203 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Dopa + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
Hydroquinone + Oxygen → Quinone + Waterdetails
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Dopamine + NAD + Waterdetails
(S)-N-Methylcoclaurine + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → (S)-3-Hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine + Water + Acceptordetails
5,6-Dihydroxyindole + Oxygen → Indole-5,6-quinone + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name:
PIPOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0Z9
Molecular weight:
44065.515
Reactions
Sarcosine + Water + Oxygen → Glycine + Formaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
L-Pipecolic acid + Oxygen → (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of N(1)-acetylspermine to spermidine and is thus involved in the polyamine back-conversion. Can also oxidize N(1)-acetylspermidine to putrescine. Substrate specificity: N(1)-acetylspermine = N(1)-acetylspermidine > N(1),N(12)-diacylspermine >> spermine. Does not oxidize spermidine. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs.
Gene Name:
PAOX
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHF9
Molecular weight:
55512.64
Reactions
N1-Acetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → Spermidine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N1-Acetylspermidine + Oxygen + Water → Putrescine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N1,N12-Diacetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → N1-Acetylspermidine + 3-Acetamidobutanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
Reactions
An aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → a carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxal + Oxygen + Water → 4-Pyridoxic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Gentisic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → Gentisate aldehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
Methylmalonic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Oxygen + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Citalopram aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram propionic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes a dehydrogenation to introduce C5-6 double bond into lathosterol.
Gene Name:
SC5DL
Uniprot ID:
O75845
Molecular weight:
35300.55
Reactions
Lathosterol + NAD(P)H + Oxygen → 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD(P)(+) + Waterdetails
Lathosterol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD + Waterdetails
Lathosterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in flavin-containing monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
In contrast with other forms of FMO it does not seem to be a drug-metabolizing enzyme.
Gene Name:
FMO5
Uniprot ID:
P49326
Molecular weight:
32480.04
Reactions
N,N-Dimethylaniline + NADPH + Oxygen → Dimethylaniline-N-oxide + NADP + Waterdetails
Trimethylamine + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → Trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP + Waterdetails
Tamoxifen + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Tamoxifen N-oxide + NADP + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q15067
Molecular weight:
70135.205
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Oxygen → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.
Gene Name:
DDO
Uniprot ID:
Q99489
Molecular weight:
40992.53
Reactions
D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in heme oxygenase (decyclizing) activity
Specific function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed. Heme oxygenase 2 could be implicated in the production of carbon monoxide in brain where it could act as a neurotransmitter.
Gene Name:
HMOX2
Uniprot ID:
P30519
Molecular weight:
36032.615
Reactions
Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen → Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Waterdetails
Hemoglobin + FADH + Oxygen → Globin + Biliverdin + Carbon monoxide + Fe3+ + FAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is suggested to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway.
Gene Name:
SQLE
Uniprot ID:
Q14534
Molecular weight:
63922.505
Reactions
Squalene + NADPH + Oxygen → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Waterdetails
Squalene + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + Acceptor + Waterdetails
Squalene + Oxygen + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → (3S)-2,3-epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene + NADP + Waterdetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 203 proteins in total.