You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:45:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001492
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0002634
  • HMDB01492
  • HMDB02634
Metabolite Identification
Common Namegamma-Tocopherol
DescriptionGamma-Tocopherol is a collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
Structure
Data?1563860702
Synonyms
ValueSource
DL-alpha-TocopherolKegg
DL-a-TocopherolGenerator
DL-Α-tocopherolGenerator
g-TocopherolGenerator
Γ-tocopherolGenerator
3,4-Dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-olHMDB
7,8-DimethyltocolHMDB
7,8-Dimethyltocolo-xylotocopherolHMDB
MethyltocolsHMDB
O-XylotocopherolHMDB
TocopherolHMDB
TocopherolsHMDB
Vitamin e gammaHMDB
BioweyxinHMDB
e-MulsinHMDB
EmbialHMDB
GNR-Pharma brand OF tocopherol actetateHMDB
Organon brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Schwarzhaupt brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Snow-e muscle, energy and feritilityHMDB
SpondyvitHMDB
TocolionHMDB
Tocopherol rodisma-med brandHMDB
Tocopherol worwag brandHMDB
Togasan vitamin eHMDB
Unique eHMDB
VibolexHMDB
Vita-eHMDB
Vitamin e drageesHMDB
Atarost brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Biocur brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Cambridge laboratories brand OF tocopherol actetateHMDB
Dal eHMDB
DetulinHMDB
e Vitamin eHMDB
EVI-mirale, vitamin-eHMDB
Elex verlaHMDB
EplonatHMDB
Richelet brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Roche nicholas brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Rodisma med brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Sciencex brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Steigerwald brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Strathmann brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Tocopherol grunwalder brandHMDB
Tocopherol stadapharm brandHMDB
Verla brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Vit. e stadaHMDB
VitaPlus eHMDB
Vitamin-e evi-miraleHMDB
Vitamine e GNRHMDB
VitazellHMDB
Worwag brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Alcala brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Bio eHMDB
Biopto-eHMDB
e VicotratHMDB
e-FerolHMDB
EUNOVA vitamin eHMDB
Equivit eHMDB
EvionHMDB
Internation animal health brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
MIP brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Sanum-kehlbeck brand OF tocopherol actetateHMDB
Tocopherol infirmarius-rovit brandHMDB
Tocopherol twardy brandHMDB
TocovitalHMDB
Vitamin-e drageesHMDB
Wiedemann brand OF tocopherolHMDB
AbortosanHMDB
Arkopharma brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Dal vita brand OF vitamin e succinateHMDB
Eu rho brand OF tocopherolHMDB
EusovitHMDB
Infirmarius-rovit brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Richtavit eHMDB
Riemser brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Tocopherol ausrichter brandHMDB
Tocopherol balkanpharma brandHMDB
Vitagutt vitamin eHMDB
Vitamin e naturHMDB
Vitamin e, togasanHMDB
Ratiopharm brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Aliud brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Bottger brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
DermorelleHMDB
e FerolHMDB
e-Vitamin-ratiopharmHMDB
Heyl brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Kohler brand OF tocopherolHMDB
LasarHMDB
Puncto eHMDB
Rodisma-med brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Sanum kehlbeck brand OF tocopherol actetateHMDB
Scot tussin brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Stadapharm brand OF tocopherolHMDB
TocopaHMDB
Tocopherol bayerHMDB
Tocopherol grace brandHMDB
Tocopherol ratiopharm brandHMDB
Twardy brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Uno vitHMDB
Uno-vitHMDB
Veyx brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Vit e hydrosolHMDB
Vita eHMDB
Vitamin e alHMDB
Wiedemann brand OF vitamin e succinateHMDB
Ausrichter brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Auxina eHMDB
Balkanpharma brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Blackmores brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Dal-eHMDB
DavitamonHMDB
e-VicotratHMDB
EcoroHMDB
EphynalHMDB
Grunwalder brand OF tocopherolHMDB
ICN brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Mucos brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Tocopherol togal brandHMDB
Tocopherol verla brandHMDB
Togal brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Troyapharm brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Vita-plus eHMDB
Vitamin e sanumHMDB
Vitamin e MPHMDB
Vitamin empHMDB
Woelm brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Bayer brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
GNR Pharma brand OF tocopherol actetateHMDB
Grace brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Malton eHMDB
Merck brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Mowivit vitamin eHMDB
Tocopherol wiedemann brandHMDB
UnoVitHMDB
Vitamin e evi miraleHMDB
Vitamin e suspensionHMDB
Vitamin e, mowivitHMDB
Vitamin e, vitaguttHMDB
Vitamin e-MPHMDB
Adisseo brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Antioxidans e-hevertHMDB
Aquasol eHMDB
AstraZeneca brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
BiosanHMDB
Dal-vita brand OF vitamin e succinateHMDB
Dragees, vitamin-eHMDB
e MulsinHMDB
Hervert brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
Hydrovit eHMDB
Infirmarius rovit brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Jenapharm brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Kentucky brand OF tocopherolHMDB
Micorvit eHMDB
Sanavitan SHMDB
Scot-tussin brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
TocopharmHMDB
Tocopherol kentucky brandHMDB
Vita plus eHMDB
VitaEHMDB
Medphano brand OF tocopherol acetateHMDB
VitaminE evimiraleHMDB
Chemical FormulaC28H48O2
Average Molecular Weight416.6795
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight416.36543078
IUPAC Name2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
Traditional Name2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-3,4-dihydro-1-benzopyran-6-ol
CAS Registry Number1406-66-2
SMILES
CC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC1(C)CCC2=CC(O)=C(C)C(C)=C2O1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C28H48O2/c1-20(2)11-8-12-21(3)13-9-14-22(4)15-10-17-28(7)18-16-25-19-26(29)23(5)24(6)27(25)30-28/h19-22,29H,8-18H2,1-7H3
InChI KeyQUEDXNHFTDJVIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassQuinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct ParentTocopherols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tocopherol
  • Diterpenoid
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzopyran
  • Chromane
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility128 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.4e-06 g/LALOGPS
logP8.81ALOGPS
logP9.99ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity130.33 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability54.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0lyo-7964200000-f0d5087bb29d80c38248JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-5644900000-85c7bfa3df1a86febfebJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1842900000-c0a3ade1f225f3c78ac2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-1910000000-db436d443f9dc640b979JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pb9-5930000000-1cbe4445929c9b90be47JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0110900000-23d01b80a965180b27d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014j-0931800000-70e6ff42d0190b91ef52JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0932000000-e16b76b24d1cd56f30b1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.41 (2.3-2.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.29 (0.63-2.63) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified36.920 +/- 11.540 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.100 +/- 11.940 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.500 +/- 3.0700 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified42.380 +/- 14.790 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified47.670 +/- 18.690 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.320 +/- 3.620 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.360 +/- 3.0700 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.390 +/- 2.880 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified40.540 +/- 12.450 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified42.280 +/- 16.230 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.600 +/- 3.0400 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.970 +/- 3.510 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.0600 +/- 2.690 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.440 +/- 3.0400 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified41.120 +/- 14.950 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified43.650 +/- 17.390 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.720 +/- 3.360 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.458 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.469 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.508 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.440 +/- 0.720 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.0159 +/- 0.696 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.360 +/- 0.760 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.600 +/- 0.100 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.700 +/- 0.100 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.806 +/- 1.721 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0367 +/- 10.384 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.351 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.473 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.63 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00576 +/- 0.00240 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.440 +/- 0.790 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.280 +/- 0.980 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.700 +/- 0.100 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified7.2 (3.8-11.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified0.5430037 +/- 0.0966421 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.3 (2.2-2.43) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothProstate cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.2 (3.6-8.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEndometrial cancer details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Prostate cancer
  1. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Jenab M, Egevad L, Tjonneland A, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S, Boeing H, Pischon T, Psaltopoulou T, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Vineis P, Tumino R, Berrino F, Kiemeney L, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Quiros JR, Gonzalez CA, Martinez C, Larranaga N, Chirlaque MD, Ardanaz E, Stattin P, Hallmans G, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Slimani N, Ferrari P, Rinaldi S, Riboli E: Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):672-81. [PubMed:17823432 ]
Endometrial cancer
  1. Jeong NH, Song ES, Lee JM, Lee KB, Kim MK, Yun YM, Lee JK, Son SK, Lee JP, Kim JH, Hur SY, Kwon YI: Preoperative levels of plasma micronutrients are related to endometrial cancer risk. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):434-9. doi: 10.1080/00016340902767187. [PubMed:19235557 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Xuan J, Pan G, Qiu Y, Yang L, Su M, Liu Y, Chen J, Feng G, Fang Y, Jia W, Xing Q, He L: Metabolomic profiling to identify potential serum biomarkers for schizophrenia and risperidone action. J Proteome Res. 2011 Dec 2;10(12):5433-43. doi: 10.1021/pr2006796. Epub 2011 Nov 8. [PubMed:22007635 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002431
KNApSAcK IDC00007365
Chemspider ID14266
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID2296479
Wikipedia LinkGamma-Tocopherol
METLIN ID6276
PubChem Compound14986
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID298402
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Reiter N, Jonsson B, Jansen E, Espersen K: [Vitamin E and excessive bleeding]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005 Dec 5;167(49):4664-5. [PubMed:16336861 ]
  2. Zhan X, Wang SY, Wang L, Qu P: [Decreased peripheral nerve conduction velocity may be associated with lower-serum level of vitamin E in patients with infantile hepatitis syndrome]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2004 May;42(5):362-6. [PubMed:15189696 ]
  3. Chelchowska M, Laskowska-Klita T, Leibschang J: [The effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on concentration of vitamin E in blood of mothers and their newborns in umbilical cord blood]. Ginekol Pol. 2006 Apr;77(4):263-8. [PubMed:16875031 ]
  4. Vatassery GT, Adityanjee, Quach HT, Smith WE, Kuskowski MA, Melnyk D: Alpha and gamma tocopherols in cerebrospinal fluid and serum from older, male, human subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):233-8. [PubMed:15190048 ]
  5. Clarke MW, Ward NC, Wu JH, Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD: Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell gamma-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):95-102. [PubMed:16400056 ]
  6. Nair S, Norkus EP, Hertan H, Pitchumoni CS: Micronutrient antioxidants in gastric mucosa and serum in patients with gastritis and gastric ulcer: does Helicobacter pylori infection affect the mucosal levels? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2000 Jun;30(4):381-5. [PubMed:10875465 ]
  7. Chow CK: Distribution of tocopherols in human plasma and red blood cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 1975 Jul;28(7):756-60. [PubMed:1146729 ]
  8. Tauler P, Sureda A, Cases N, Aguilo A, Rodriguez-Marroyo JA, Villa G, Tur JA, Pons A: Increased lymphocyte antioxidant defences in response to exhaustive exercise do not prevent oxidative damage. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 Oct;17(10):665-71. Epub 2005 Nov 28. [PubMed:16481153 ]
  9. Hozyasz KK, Chelchowska M, Laskowska-Klita T: [Vitamin E levels in patients with celiac disease]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2003 Oct-Dec;7(4 Pt 2):593-604. [PubMed:15213374 ]
  10. Sokol RJ, Heubi JE, Iannaccone S, Bove KE, Balistreri WF: Mechanism causing vitamin E deficiency during chronic childhood cholestasis. Gastroenterology. 1983 Nov;85(5):1172-82. [PubMed:6618108 ]
  11. Ble-Castillo JL, Carmona-Diaz E, Mendez JD, Larios-Medina FJ, Medina-Santillan R, Cleva-Villanueva G, Diaz-Zagoya JC: Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the metabolic control and oxidative stress in female type 2 diabetics. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Jul;59(6):290-5. [PubMed:15932790 ]
  12. Kontush K, Schekatolina S: Vitamin E in neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1031:249-62. [PubMed:15753151 ]
  13. Kayden HJ, Hatam LJ, Traber MG: The measurement of nanograms of tocopherol from needle aspiration biopsies of adipose tissue: normal and abetalipoproteinemic subjects. J Lipid Res. 1983 May;24(5):652-6. [PubMed:6875389 ]
  14. Guggenheim MA, Ringel SP, Silverman A, Grabert BE, Neville HE: Progressive neuromuscular disease in children with chronic cholestasis and vitamin E deficiency: clinical and muscle biopsy findings and treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;393:84-95. [PubMed:6959572 ]
  15. Burton GW, Traber MG, Acuff RV, Walters DN, Kayden H, Hughes L, Ingold KU: Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Apr;67(4):669-84. [PubMed:9537614 ]
  16. Jeanes YM, Hall WL, Proteggente AR, Lodge JK: Cigarette smokers have decreased lymphocyte and platelet alpha-tocopherol levels and increased excretion of the gamma-tocopherol metabolite gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman (gamma-CEHC). Free Radic Res. 2004 Aug;38(8):861-8. [PubMed:15493460 ]
  17. Leo MA, Rosman AS, Lieber CS: Differential depletion of carotenoids and tocopherol in liver disease. Hepatology. 1993 Jun;17(6):977-86. [PubMed:8514270 ]
  18. Yeum KJ, Ahn SH, Rupp de Paiva SA, Lee-Kim YC, Krinsky NI, Russell RM: Correlation between carotenoid concentrations in serum and normal breast adipose tissue of women with benign breast tumor or breast cancer. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1920-6. [PubMed:9808643 ]
  19. Jeanes YM, Hall WL, Lodge JK: Comparative (2)H-labelled alpha-tocopherol biokinetics in plasma, lipoproteins, erythrocytes, platelets and lymphocytes in normolipidaemic males. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jul;94(1):92-9. [PubMed:16115338 ]
  20. Fischer CP, Hiscock NJ, Basu S, Vessby B, Kallner A, Sjoberg LB, Febbraio MA, Pedersen BK: Vitamin E isoform-specific inhibition of the exercise-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006 May;100(5):1679-87. Epub 2005 Dec 29. [PubMed:16384840 ]