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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-20 22:13:15 UTC
Update Date2019-07-31 22:49:35 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001659
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01659
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetone
DescriptionAcetone is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis. Acetone is not regarded as a waste product of metabolism. However, its physiological role in biochemical machinery is not clear. A model for the role of acetone metabolism is presented that orders the events occurring in acetonemia in sequence: in diabetic ketosis or starvation, ketone body production (b-hydroxy-butyrate, acetoacetate) provides fuel for vital organs (heart, brain .) raising the chance of survival of the metabolic catastrophe. However, when ketone body production exceeds the degrading capacity, the accumulating acetoacetic acid presents a new challenge to the pH regulatory system. Acetone production and its further degradation to C3 fragments fulfill two purposes: the maintenance of pH buffering capacity and provision of fuel for peripheral tissues. Since ketosis develops under serious metabolic circumstances, all the mechanisms that balance or moderate the effects of ketosis enhance the chance for survival. From this point of view, the theory that transportable C3 fragments can serve as additional nutrients is a novel view of acetone metabolism which introduces a new approach to the study of acetone degradation, especially in understanding its physiological function and the interrelationship between liver and peripheral tissues. (PMID 10580530 ). Acetone is typically derived from acetoacetate through the action of microbial acetoacetate decarboxylases found in gut microflora. In chemistry, acetone is the simplest representative of the ketones. Acetone is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid readily soluble in water, ethanol, ether, etc., and itself serves as an important solvent. It is an irritant and inhalation may lead to hepatotoxic effects (causing liver damage). Acetone can be found in Clostridium (PMID: 685531 ) (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079635206800470).
Structure
Data?1563860706
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-PropanoneChEBI
AcetonChEBI
AzetonChEBI
beta-KetopropaneChEBI
Dimethyl ketoneChEBI
DimethylcetoneChEBI
DimethylketonChEBI
DimethylketoneChEBI
Methyl ketoneChEBI
PropanonChEBI
PropanoneChEBI
Pyroacetic etherChEBI
b-KetopropaneGenerator
Β-ketopropaneGenerator
DimethylformaldehydeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H6O
Average Molecular Weight58.0791
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight58.041864814
IUPAC Namepropan-2-one
Traditional Nameacetone
CAS Registry Number67-64-1
SMILES
CC(C)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O/c1-3(2)4/h1-2H3
InChI KeyCSCPPACGZOOCGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ketones. These are organic compounds in which a carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms R2C=O (neither R may be a hydrogen atom). Ketones that have one or more alpha-hydrogen atoms undergo keto-enol tautomerization, the tautomer being an enol.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentKetones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Industrial process:

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-94.8 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility193 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.29ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.51ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability6.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-14f33068e4ba092deb77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-23fa1a3953b34b4d17dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-5de48058c986d7c07ac3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-ac4e03d64a5d08cb0e2dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-14f33068e4ba092deb77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-23fa1a3953b34b4d17dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-5de48058c986d7c07ac3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-ac4e03d64a5d08cb0e2dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-bc353e3a40f83275872bJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-cbc26702df42f89389a4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052f-9000000000-76023af14a12c4b19cf9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9000000000-4a0900faf782fa344db9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-cd6003561b339cd9243fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-23fa1a3953b34b4d17dbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-5de48058c986d7c07ac3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-31f47c962fee2ab51810JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-29f0bd4f29c752b098b1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-44feb4a0693788e21f10JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e3c53a345dc69a6403f2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-786aa0674415a8c32182JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-3bc848ca563aa39df37eJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-e24ae6a1f2f0e7aac3e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Breath
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Myelin
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified35.00-170.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified47.3 (40.4 - 54.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.0 +/- 20.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified106.0 (35.0-170.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified54.4 +/- 29.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified10.3 +/- 6.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified20 +/- 21 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified67.1 (43.0-91.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified117.0 +/- 65.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-337126.436 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2-347 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-41 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified25.34 +/- 22.82 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17 (1-198) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17 (1-214) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10 (<1-45) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7 (<1-44) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.24 +/- 4.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.2 umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedMaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.23-86.14 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.92 (0.20-2.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.914 +/- 3.929 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.2 (0.98-15.3) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<6.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.9 (0.8-17.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13.2 +/- 5.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.6 (8.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.5 (3.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified1520.0 (206.6-5285.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlcohol intoxication details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.19 +/- 10.86 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.98 +/- 9.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.5 (3.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified17.2 (20.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified25.0 - 85.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified15 (4.34) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified18.46 (5.83) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Pancreatic
details
BloodDetected and Quantified22.1 (11.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.9 (8.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedAllergic asthma details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothAsthma details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Both
Transient wheezing
details
BreathDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)Both
Asthma
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2700 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHepatic encephalopathy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-188995.123 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00208 (0.00138-0.00415) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00117 (0.000620-0.00260) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.00143 (0.000654-0.00436) nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Crohns disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.931 +/- 9.374 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.0 +/- 5.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothParaquat poisoning details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetes details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Kidney disease
  1. Liebich HM, Woll J: Volatile substances in blood serum: profile analysis and quantitative determination. J Chromatogr. 1977 Nov 11;142:505-16. [PubMed:914932 ]
Alcoholism
  1. Jones AW, Lund M, Andersson E: Drinking drivers in Sweden who consume denatured alcohol preparations: an analytical-toxicological study. J Anal Toxicol. 1989 Jul-Aug;13(4):199-203. [PubMed:2779169 ]
Pancreatic cancer
  1. Zhang L, Jin H, Guo X, Yang Z, Zhao L, Tang S, Mo P, Wu K, Nie Y, Pan Y, Fan D: Distinguishing pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis and healthy individuals by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic profiles. Clin Biochem. 2012 Sep;45(13-14):1064-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.05.012. Epub 2012 May 19. [PubMed:22613268 ]
Early preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
  2. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
  3. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
  4. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Chelliah A, Mandal R, Dong E, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester trisomy 18 detection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;209(1):65.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.028. Epub 2013 Mar 25. [PubMed:23535240 ]
  5. Bahado-Singh RO, Ertl R, Mandal R, Bjorndahl TC, Syngelaki A, Han B, Dong E, Liu PB, Alpay-Savasan Z, Wishart DS, Nicolaides KH: Metabolomic prediction of fetal congenital heart defect in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):240.e1-240.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.056. Epub 2014 Apr 1. [PubMed:24704061 ]
Late-onset preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
Asthma
  1. Smolinska A, Klaassen EM, Dallinga JW, van de Kant KD, Jobsis Q, Moonen EJ, van Schayck OC, Dompeling E, van Schooten FJ: Profiling of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as a strategy to find early predictive signatures of asthma in children. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 21;9(4):e95668. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095668. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24752575 ]
  2. Caldeira M, Barros AS, Bilelo MJ, Parada A, Camara JS, Rocha SM: Profiling allergic asthma volatile metabolic patterns using a headspace-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography based methodology. J Chromatogr A. 2011 Jun 17;1218(24):3771-80. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.04.026. Epub 2011 Apr 16. [PubMed:21546028 ]
  3. Dragonieri S, Schot R, Mertens BJ, Le Cessie S, Gauw SA, Spanevello A, Resta O, Willard NP, Vink TJ, Rabe KF, Bel EH, Sterk PJ: An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with asthma and controls. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct;120(4):856-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.05.043. Epub 2007 Jul 20. [PubMed:17658592 ]
Hepatic encephalopathy
  1. Goldberg EM, Blendis LM, Sandler S: A gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric study of profiles of volatile metabolites in hepatic encephalopathy. J Chromatogr. 1981 Dec 11;226(2):291-9. [PubMed:7320160 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  3. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  4. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
  2. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
  3. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Walton C, Fowler DP, Turner C, Jia W, Whitehead RN, Griffiths L, Dawson C, Waring RH, Ramsden DB, Cole JA, Cauchi M, Bessant C, Hunter JO: Analysis of volatile organic compounds of bacterial origin in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Sep;19(10):2069-78. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e31829a91f6. [PubMed:23867873 ]
Paraquat poisoning
  1. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [PubMed:9625050 ]
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [PubMed:6321058 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D603-10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn810. Epub 2008 Oct 25. [PubMed:18953024 ]
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Silva CL, Passos M, Camara JS: Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Talanta. 2012 Jan 30;89:360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.12.041. Epub 2011 Dec 22. [PubMed:22284503 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008301
KNApSAcK IDC00048304 C00048954
Chemspider ID175
KEGG Compound IDC00207
BioCyc IDACETONE
BiGG ID34257
Wikipedia LinkAcetone
METLIN ID3745
PubChem Compound180
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15347
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceIshizaki, Fumiaki. Acetone and butanol fermentation. Baiomasu Handobukku (2002), 166-175.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [PubMed:15627241 ]
  2. Robinson RC, Shorr RG, Varrichio A, Park SS, Gelboin HV, Miller H, Friedman FK: Human liver cytochrome P-450 related to a rat acetone-inducible, nitrosamine-metabolizing cytochrome P-450: identification and isolation. Pharmacology. 1989;39(3):137-44. [PubMed:2587619 ]
  3. Yamane N, Tsuda T, Nose K, Yamamoto A, Ishiguro H, Kondo T: Relationship between skin acetone and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Mar;365(1-2):325-9. Epub 2005 Oct 11. [PubMed:16223475 ]
  4. Palamanda J, Feng WW, Lin CC, Nomeir AA: Stimulation of tolbutamide hydroxylation by acetone and acetonitrile in human liver microsomes and in a cytochrome P-450 2C9-reconstituted system. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jan;28(1):38-43. [PubMed:10611138 ]
  5. Crawley SC, Hindsgaul O, Alton G, Pierce M, Palcic MM: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V. Anal Biochem. 1990 Feb 15;185(1):112-7. [PubMed:2160776 ]
  6. Bairaktari E, Katopodis K, Siamopoulos KC, Tsolas O: Paraquat-induced renal injury studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Jun;44(6 Pt 1):1256-61. [PubMed:9625050 ]
  7. Inoue S, Sato Y, Hasegawa H, Noguchi A, Yamada A, Kurata T, Iwasaki T: Cross-reactive antigenicity of nucleoproteins of lyssaviruses recognized by a monospecific antirabies virus nucleoprotein antiserum on paraffin sections of formalin-fixed tissues. Pathol Int. 2003 Aug;53(8):525-33. [PubMed:12895231 ]
  8. Meiser JB, Nelson HS: Comparing conventional and acetone-precipitated dog allergen extract skin testing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Apr;107(4):744-5. [PubMed:11295672 ]
  9. Baum HP, Reichrath J, Theobald A, Schock G: Fixation requirements for the immunohistochemical reactivity of PCNA antibody PC10 on cryostat sections. Histochem J. 1994 Dec;26(12):929-33. [PubMed:7896568 ]
  10. Benz J: Antidiabetic agents and lactation. J Hum Lact. 1992 Mar;8(1):27-8. [PubMed:1558654 ]
  11. Benfeldt E, Serup J, Menne T: Effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous salicylic acid penetration in human skin: in vivo pharmacokinetics using microdialysis and non-invasive quantification of barrier function. Br J Dermatol. 1999 Apr;140(4):739-48. [PubMed:10233334 ]
  12. Paweska JT, Barnard BJ, Williams R: The use of sucrose-acetone-extracted Rift Valley fever virus antigen derived from cell culture in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination-inhibition test. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1995 Dec;62(4):227-33. [PubMed:8668320 ]
  13. Wittmann S, Gilg T, Dietz HG, Grantzow R, Peschel O, von Meyer L: [Isopropanol and acetone level in serum after preoperative surface disinfection with antiseptics containing isopropanol]. Blutalkohol. 1992 Sep;29(5):326-35. [PubMed:1389018 ]
  14. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. [PubMed:6321058 ]
  15. Bird AR, Kossew B, Mulligan TP, Jacobs P: Regional thromboplastin standardisation using a human brain extract. S Afr Med J. 1989 Jun 3;75(11):538-40. [PubMed:2727843 ]
  16. Kalapos MP: Possible physiological roles of acetone metabolism in humans. Med Hypotheses. 1999 Sep;53(3):236-42. [PubMed:10580530 ]
  17. Abou-Zeid AA, Fouad M, Yassein M: Microbiological production of acetone-butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Zentralbl Bakteriol Naturwiss. 1978;133(2):125-34. [PubMed:685531 ]