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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-21 08:21:58 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:45:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001856
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01856
Metabolite Identification
Common NameProtocatechuic acid
DescriptionProtocatechuic acid, also known as protocatechuate or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups. The enzyme protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase uses 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and O2 to produce 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. Protocatechuic acid is a drug. In the analogous hardening of the cockroach ootheca, the phenolic substance concerned is protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Protocatechuic acid is a mild, balsamic, and phenolic tasting compound. Outside of the human body, protocatechuic acid is found, on average, in the highest concentration in a few different foods, such as garden onions, cocoa powders, and star anises and in a lower concentration in lentils, liquors, and red raspberries. protocatechuic acid has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as cloud ear fungus, american pokeweeds, common mushrooms, fruits, and feijoa. This could make protocatechuic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It is also found in Allium cepa (17,540 ppm). It is a major metabolite of antioxidant polyphenols found in green tea. Similarly, PCA was reported to increase proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of neural stem cells. In vitro testing documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of PCA, while liver protection in vivo was measured by chemical markers and histological assessment.
Structure
Data?1563860707
Synonyms
ValueSource
4,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acidChEBI
4-Carboxy-1,2-dihydroxybenzeneChEBI
Protocatehuic acidChEBI
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acidKegg
ProtocatechuateKegg
4,5-DihydroxybenzoateGenerator
ProtocatehuateGenerator
3,4-DihydroxybenzoateGenerator
Protocatechuic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Protocatechuic acid, carboxy-14C-labeledHMDB
2,4-DihydroxybenzoateHMDB
2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
b-ResorcylateHMDB
b-Resorcylic acidHMDB
beta-ResorcylateHMDB
beta-Resorcylic acidHMDB
3,4-DHBAHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H6O4
Average Molecular Weight154.121
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight154.026608673
IUPAC Name3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
Traditional Name3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
CAS Registry Number99-50-3
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H6O4/c8-5-2-1-4(7(10)11)3-6(5)9/h1-3,8-9H,(H,10,11)
InChI KeyYQUVCSBJEUQKSH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroxybenzoic acid
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • Catechol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point221 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility18.2 mg/mL at 14 °CYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP0.86HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility12.4 g/LALOGPS
logP1.32ALOGPS
logP1.02ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.16ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.28 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.85 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0006-0913000000-0933eeed3701393aa41fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0911000000-ca1452bfe34749c0d8c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dl-9711000000-595a58baf84bb73670aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0006-4912000000-a095cbdb4d3809a9b775JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gb9-9800000000-f08a8e55f19d388091c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0913000000-0933eeed3701393aa41fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0911000000-ca1452bfe34749c0d8c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-9711000000-595a58baf84bb73670aeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-4912000000-a095cbdb4d3809a9b775JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0911000000-c141d09a094e57440cd4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-114r-2900000000-ad8c99ac8e347f2d0a02JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05aj-4092000000-dfefa4fd6fad51de9dbcJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-9e8a76eec66c42952ee9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0296-9100000000-145f71b183841a31fdc8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9000000000-9044e5839d8d0b8f8ee6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-52) , Positivesplash10-0gb9-9800000000-f08a8e55f19d388091c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-58c9b8232fbc187217d4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-58c9b8232fbc187217d4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-43a650326b83e2dfe589JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-61ebd9558aeeb60dda89JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0900000000-99ac3661fc7809f28796JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0900000000-df55ffdd340947acfac9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pc9-9500000000-201668ae66ab0379946fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0900000000-99ac3661fc7809f28796JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0900000000-df55ffdd340947acfac9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pc9-9500000000-201668ae66ab0379946fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-0595d63853a488b9c6cfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-0900000000-d794b62eb087aaa84f94JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9700000000-32a6fa42639cb300cdc9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-0595d63853a488b9c6cfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-0900000000-d794b62eb087aaa84f94JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9700000000-32a6fa42639cb300cdc9JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.49 +/- 0.062 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.226 +/- 0.044 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.224 +/- 0.036 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.231 +/- 0.037 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.267 +/- 0.046 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.253 +/- 0.039 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.239 +/- 0.044 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.2 +/- 0.034 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.232 +/- 1.033 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified5.126 +/- 3.0496 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.424 +/- 7.786 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified7.397 +/- 11.420 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified8.111 +/- 6.683 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.973 (0.0130-6.0148) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.229 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0330-1.110 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.048 +/- 0.008 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.012 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.037 +/- 0.003 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 412 details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03946
Phenol Explorer Compound ID412
FoodDB IDFDB000847
KNApSAcK IDC00002668
Chemspider ID71
KEGG Compound IDC00230
BioCyc ID3-4-DIHYDROXYBENZOATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkProtocatechuic_acid
METLIN ID6350
PubChem Compound72
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID36062
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kristinsson J, Snorradottir I, Johannsson M: The metabolism of mebeverine in man: identification of urinary metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994 Mar;74(3):174-80. [PubMed:8008724 ]
  2. Liu KS, Tsao SM, Yin MC: In vitro antibacterial activity of roselle calyx and protocatechuic acid. Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):942-5. [PubMed:16317650 ]
  3. Ali BH, Al Wabel N, Blunden G: Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res. 2005 May;19(5):369-75. [PubMed:16106391 ]
  4. Petersen JR, Bissell MG, Mohammad AA: Laser induced resonance energy transfer--a novel approach towards achieving high sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis. I. Clinical diagnostic application. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Sep 13;744(1-2):37-44. [PubMed:8843662 ]
  5. Babich H, Sedletcaia A, Kenigsberg B: In vitro cytotoxicity of protocatechuic acid to cultured human cells from oral tissue: involvement in oxidative stress. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002 Nov;91(5):245-53. [PubMed:12570031 ]
  6. Szumilo J: [Protocatechuic acid in cancer prevention]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2005;59:608-15. [PubMed:16407799 ]
  7. Koistinen VM (2019). Effects of Food Processing and Gut Microbial Metabolism on Whole Grain Phytochemicals: A Metabolomics Approach. In Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Health Sciences., no 510 (pp. 26-58). University of Eastern Finland. [ISBN:978-952-61-3088-0 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
Reactions
Protocatechuic acid → Vanillic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Protocatechuic acid → 6-(5-carboxy-2-hydroxyphenoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
Protocatechuic acid → 6-(4-carboxy-2-hydroxyphenoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
Protocatechuic acid → 6-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
Reactions
Protocatechuic acid → 2-{[(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)(hydroxy)methylidene]amino}acetic aciddetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
Protocatechuic acid → ​Protocatechuic acid 3-O-sulfatedetails