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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:29 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 19:03:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001967
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01967
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCarbon dioxide
DescriptionCarbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals. Carbon dioxide is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganisms that depend on living and decaying plants for food, either directly or indirectly. It is, therefore, a major component of the carbon cycle. Additionally, carbon dioxide is used by plants during photosynthesis to make sugars which may either be consumed again in respiration or used as the raw material to produce polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose, proteins and the wide variety of other organic compounds required for plant growth and development. When inhaled at concentrations much higher than usual atmospheric levels, it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat. These effects result from the gas dissolving in the mucous membranes and saliva, forming a weak solution of carbonic acid. Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. Carbon dioxide is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water. Traditionally, the carbonation in beer and sparkling wine comes about through natural fermentation, but some manufacturers carbonate these drinks artificially.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[CO2]ChEBI
Carbonic anhydrideChEBI
CO2ChEBI
e 290ChEBI
e-290ChEBI
e290ChEBI
R-744ChEBI
Carbon oxideHMDB
Carbon-12 dioxideHMDB
Carbonic acid anhydrideHMDB
Carbonic acid gasHMDB
Anhydride, carbonicMeSH
Dioxide, carbonMeSH
Chemical FormulaCO2
Average Molecular Weight44.0095
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight43.989829244
IUPAC Namemethanedione
Traditional Namecarbon dioxide
CAS Registry Number124-38-9
SMILES
O=C=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CO2/c2-1-3
InChI KeyCURLTUGMZLYLDI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as other non-metal oxides. These are inorganic compounds containing an oxygen atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Sub ClassOther non-metal organides
Direct ParentOther non-metal oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Other non-metal oxide
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

Source:

Route of exposure:

  Parenteral:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Biological role:

  Molecular messenger:

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Observation:

  Health condition:

    Nervous system disorders:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-56.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP0.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility186 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-0.28ChemAxon
logS0.63ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area34.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity6.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-ffb540455919d1e43969View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9afc44eaa1fe34c4f458View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-eb2207f7400e9144fff7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b7e6c1e22f1f90c5a8e0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-e1cf88df1066f206d01fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Refsum DiseasePw000122Pw000122 greyscalePw000122 simpleNot Available
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiencyPw000495Pw000495 greyscalePw000495 simpleNot Available
Risedronate PathwayPw000272Pw000272 greyscalePw000272 simpleNot Available
Rosuvastatin PathwayPw000134Pw000134 greyscalePw000134 simpleNot Available
Roxatidine acetate Action PathwayPw000711Pw000711 greyscalePw000711 simpleNot Available
Displaying entries 2026 - 2030 of 2072 in total
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified25600.0 +/- 1430.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21000-31000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000.00 (11100.0-21200.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5000-20000 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified10000-24000 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14000-24000 uMChildren (1 - <5 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000-26000 uMChildren (5 - 15 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17000-26000 uMAdolescent (15 - 19 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified18000-28000 uMAdolescent (15 - 19 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20900.0 +/- 1100.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21600.0 +/- 600.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableNormal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    Not Available
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00423
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB014084
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID274
    KEGG Compound IDC00011
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG ID33506
    Wikipedia LinkCarbon Dioxide
    METLIN ID3199
    PubChem Compound280
    PDB IDCO2
    ChEBI ID16526
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceCallahan, Richard A. Process and apparatus for producing liquid carbon dioxide. U.S. (1993), 11 pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General ReferencesNot Available

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
    Gene Name:
    PDHB
    Uniprot ID:
    P11177
    Molecular weight:
    39233.1
    Reactions
    Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. In the fatty acid biosynthesis MCD selectively removes malonyl-CoA and thus assures that methyl-malonyl-CoA is the only chain elongating substrate for fatty acid synthase and that fatty acids with multiple methyl side chains are produced. In peroxisomes it may be involved in degrading intraperoxisomal malonyl-CoA, which is generated by the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of odd chain-length dicarboxylic fatty acids.
    Gene Name:
    MLYCD
    Uniprot ID:
    O95822
    Molecular weight:
    55002.94
    Reactions
    Malonyl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ALAS2
    Uniprot ID:
    P22557
    Molecular weight:
    64632.86
    Reactions
    Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ALAS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P13196
    Molecular weight:
    70580.325
    Reactions
    Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity
    Specific function:
    Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
    Gene Name:
    FASN
    Uniprot ID:
    P49327
    Molecular weight:
    273424.06
    Reactions
    Acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → Acetoacetyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Butyryl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxohexanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Hexanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxooctanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Octanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxodecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Decanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxododecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    Tetradecanoyl-[acp] + Malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-[acp] + Carbon dioxide + Acyl-carrier proteindetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
    Specific function:
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
    Gene Name:
    PDHA1
    Uniprot ID:
    P08559
    Molecular weight:
    43295.255
    Reactions
    Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Coenzyme A + NAD + Pyruvic acid → Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen Ion + NADH + Acetyl-CoAdetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
    Specific function:
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
    Gene Name:
    PDHA2
    Uniprot ID:
    P29803
    Molecular weight:
    42932.855
    Reactions
    Pyruvic acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-(a-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Pyruvic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
    Gene Name:
    ALDH6A1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q02252
    Molecular weight:
    57839.31
    Reactions
    Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NADP → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
    Gene Name:
    DLD
    Uniprot ID:
    P09622
    Molecular weight:
    54176.91
    Reactions
    Coenzyme A + NAD + Pyruvic acid → Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen Ion + NADH + Acetyl-CoAdetails
    General function:
    Involved in acyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
    Gene Name:
    DLAT
    Uniprot ID:
    P10515
    Molecular weight:
    68996.03
    Reactions
    Coenzyme A + NAD + Pyruvic acid → Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen Ion + NADH + Acetyl-CoAdetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
    Gene Name:
    TYR
    Uniprot ID:
    P14679
    Molecular weight:
    60392.69
    General function:
    Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.
    Gene Name:
    GCDH
    Uniprot ID:
    Q92947
    Molecular weight:
    48126.715
    Reactions
    Glutaryl-CoA + FAD → FADH + (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Glutaryl-CoA + Electron-transferring flavoprotein → (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in lipid metabolic process
    Specific function:
    Crucial for the intracellular hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides that have been internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein particles. Important in mediating the effect of LDL (low density lipoprotein) uptake on suppression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and activation of endogenous cellular cholesteryl ester formation.
    Gene Name:
    LIPA
    Uniprot ID:
    P38571
    Molecular weight:
    45418.71
    General function:
    Involved in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the decarboxylation of four acetate groups of uroporphyrinogen-III to yield coproporphyrinogen-III.
    Gene Name:
    UROD
    Uniprot ID:
    P06132
    Molecular weight:
    40786.58
    Reactions
    Uroporphyrinogen III → Coproporphyrinogen III + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Uroporphyrinogen I → Coproporphyrinogen I + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
    Specific function:
    Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III.
    Gene Name:
    CPOX
    Uniprot ID:
    P36551
    Molecular weight:
    50151.605
    Reactions
    Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen → Protoporphyrinogen IX + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Converts alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde (ACMS) to alpha-aminomuconate semialdehyde (AMS). ACMS can be converted non-enzymatically to quinolate (QA), a key precursor of NAD, and a potent endogenous excitotoxin of neuronal cells which is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the presence of ACMSD, ACMS is converted to AMS, a benign catabolite. ACMSD ultimately controls the metabolic fate of tryptophan catabolism along the kynurenine pathway.
    Gene Name:
    ACMSD
    Uniprot ID:
    Q8TDX5
    Molecular weight:
    38035.045
    Reactions
    2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde → 2-Aminomuconic acid semialdehyde + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in iron ion binding
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    MSMO1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15800
    Molecular weight:
    19470.325
    General function:
    Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    NSDHL
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15738
    Molecular weight:
    41899.99
    Reactions
    4a-Carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol + NADP → 3-Keto-4-methylzymosterol + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in electron carrier activity
    Specific function:
    Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
    Gene Name:
    PHYH
    Uniprot ID:
    O14832
    Molecular weight:
    38538.065
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
    Gene Name:
    DDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P20711
    Molecular weight:
    53893.755
    Reactions
    L-Tryptophan → Tryptamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Phenylalanine → Phenylethylamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Tyrosine → Tyramine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Oxitriptan → Serotonin + Carbon dioxidedetails
    5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Carbon dioxide → 5-Hydroxykynureninedetails
    General function:
    Involved in antioxidant activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
    Gene Name:
    PRDX6
    Uniprot ID:
    P30041
    Molecular weight:
    25034.715
    Reactions
    L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen → 2-Phenylacetamide + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
    Gene Name:
    BCKDHB
    Uniprot ID:
    P21953
    Molecular weight:
    43122.065
    Reactions
    Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
    Specific function:
    The branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to acyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
    Gene Name:
    BCKDHA
    Uniprot ID:
    P12694
    Molecular weight:
    50470.58
    Reactions
    Alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxypropyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Ketoleucine + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 2-Methyl-1-hydroxybutyl-ThPP + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
    Gene Name:
    P4HA2
    Uniprot ID:
    O15460
    Molecular weight:
    60632.19
    Reactions
    L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
    Gene Name:
    P4HA1
    Uniprot ID:
    P13674
    Molecular weight:
    60966.645
    Reactions
    L-Proline + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyproline + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA).
    Gene Name:
    QPRT
    Uniprot ID:
    Q15274
    Molecular weight:
    30815.28
    Reactions
    nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide + Pyrophosphate + Carbon dioxide → Quinolinic acid + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in catalytic activity
    Specific function:
    Involved in the urea cycle of ureotelic animals where the enzyme plays an important role in removing excess ammonia from the cell.
    Gene Name:
    CPS1
    Uniprot ID:
    P31327
    Molecular weight:
    165649.075
    Reactions
    Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Water → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Carbamoyl phosphatedetails
    General function:
    Involved in iron ion binding
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
    Gene Name:
    BBOX1
    Uniprot ID:
    O75936
    Molecular weight:
    44714.6
    Reactions
    4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → L-Carnitine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    AMD1
    Uniprot ID:
    P17707
    Molecular weight:
    21301.015
    Reactions
    S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen Ion → S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
    Specific function:
    The 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components: 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3).
    Gene Name:
    OGDH
    Uniprot ID:
    Q02218
    Molecular weight:
    48179.59
    Reactions
    Oxoglutaric acid + Thiamine pyrophosphate → 3-Carboxy-1-hydroxypropylthiamine diphosphate + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Oxoadipic acid + Coenzyme A + NAD → Glutaryl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    Oxoadipic acid + Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine → [Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase] S-glutaryldihydrolipoyllysine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q02809
    Molecular weight:
    83549.55
    Reactions
    Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD2
    Uniprot ID:
    O00469
    Molecular weight:
    84685.07
    Reactions
    Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
    Gene Name:
    PLOD3
    Uniprot ID:
    O60568
    Molecular weight:
    84784.505
    Reactions
    Protein lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Procollagen 5-hydroxy-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
    General function:
    Lipid transport and metabolism
    Specific function:
    Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity, catalyzing the ethyl esterification of oleic acid to ethyloleate.
    Gene Name:
    CES1
    Uniprot ID:
    P23141
    Molecular weight:
    62520.62
    Reactions
    Capecitabine + Water → 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Lipid transport and metabolism
    Specific function:
    Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.
    Gene Name:
    CES2
    Uniprot ID:
    O00748
    Molecular weight:
    68898.39
    Reactions
    Capecitabine + Water → 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + 1-Pentanol + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
    Specific function:
    Converts N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to, respectively, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine, ammonia and carbon dioxide.
    Gene Name:
    UPB1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q9UBR1
    Molecular weight:
    43165.705
    Reactions
    Ureidopropionic acid + Water → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    Ureidoisobutyric acid + Water → 3-Aminoisobutanoic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    alpha-Fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid + Water → alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine + Carbon dioxide + Ammoniadetails
    General function:
    Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine.
    Gene Name:
    AMT
    Uniprot ID:
    P48728
    Molecular weight:
    43945.65
    Reactions
    Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD → 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD2
    Uniprot ID:
    Q05329
    Molecular weight:
    65410.77
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the production of GABA.
    Gene Name:
    GAD1
    Uniprot ID:
    Q99259
    Molecular weight:
    66896.065
    Reactions
    L-Glutamic acid → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    L-Aspartic acid → Beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
    Gene Name:
    GGT1
    Uniprot ID:
    P19440
    Molecular weight:
    61409.67
    General function:
    Involved in magnesium ion binding
    Specific function:
    Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
    Gene Name:
    PKM
    Uniprot ID:
    P14618
    Molecular weight:
    65930.14
    General function:
    Involved in magnesium ion binding
    Specific function:
    Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
    Gene Name:
    PKLR
    Uniprot ID:
    P30613
    Molecular weight:
    61829.575
    General function:
    Involved in lyase activity
    Specific function:
    The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein.
    Gene Name:
    GLDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P23378
    Molecular weight:
    112728.805
    Reactions
    Glycine + Lipoylprotein → S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase activity
    Specific function:
    Key enzyme in the degradation of tyrosine.
    Gene Name:
    HPD
    Uniprot ID:
    P32754
    Molecular weight:
    40497.105
    Reactions
    Phenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Ortho-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Homogentisic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
    Gene Name:
    HSD17B7
    Uniprot ID:
    P56937
    Molecular weight:
    38205.77
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ME1
    Uniprot ID:
    P48163
    Molecular weight:
    64149.075
    Reactions
    L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ME3
    Uniprot ID:
    Q16798
    Molecular weight:
    67067.875
    Reactions
    L-Malic acid + NADP → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in oxidoreductase activity
    Specific function:
    Not Available
    Gene Name:
    ME2
    Uniprot ID:
    P23368
    Molecular weight:
    53585.73
    Reactions
    L-Malic acid + NAD → Pyruvic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
    General function:
    Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
    Specific function:
    Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
    Gene Name:
    HDC
    Uniprot ID:
    P19113
    Molecular weight:
    74139.825
    Reactions
    L-Histidine → Histamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
    Specific function:
    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSA isozyme uses both C14-CoA and C16-CoA as substrates, with a slight preference for C14-CoA. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex shows a strong preference for C18-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSB isozyme displays an ability to use a broader range of acyl-CoAs, without apparent preference.
    Gene Name:
    SPTLC1
    Uniprot ID:
    O15269
    Molecular weight:
    52743.41
    Reactions
    hexadecanoyl-CoA + L-Serine → 3-Dehydrosphinganine + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxidedetails

    Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 107 proteins in total.