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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:41 UTC
Update Date2019-06-17 22:35:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002199
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0061145
  • HMDB02199
  • HMDB61145
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDesaminotyrosine
DescriptionDesaminotyrosine, also known as 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, is a normal constituent of human urine. It is a product of tyrosine metabolism; its concentration in urine increases in patients with gastrointestinal diseases (Dictionary of Organic Compounds). Desaminotyrosine is a major phenolic acid breakdown product of proanthocyanidin metabolism (PMID: 15315398 ). Urinary desaminotyrosine is produced by Clostridium sporogenes and C. botulinum (PMID: 29168502 ). Desaminotyrosine is also found in Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Eubacterium, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus (PMID: 29168502 , 28393285 , 19961416 ) (https://www.gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com/en/dietary-compound-gut-microbe-team-flu-prevention/). Desaminotyrosine is a phenolic acid metabolite formed by the gut microflora detected after the consumption of whole grain.
Structure
Data?1560461810
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
4-Hydroxyphenylpropionic acidChEBI
beta-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
Dihydro-p-coumaric acidChEBI
HYDROXYPHENYL propionIC ACIDChEBI
p-Hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidChEBI
p-Hydroxyphenylpropionic acidChEBI
Phloretinic acidChEBI
Phloretic acidKegg
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
4-HydroxyphenylpropionateGenerator
b-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
b-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidGenerator
beta-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
Β-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
Β-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidGenerator
Dihydro-p-coumarateGenerator
HYDROXYPHENYL propionateGenerator
p-HydroxyhydrocinnamateGenerator
p-HydroxyphenylpropionateGenerator
PhloretinateGenerator
PhloretateGenerator
3-(4'-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionateHMDB
3-(4'-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acidHMDB
3-(4'-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-propionateHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-propionic acidHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionateHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acidHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoateHMDB
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acidHMDB
3-(Para-hydroxyphenyl)propionateHMDB
3-(Para-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidHMDB
4'-Hydroxyphenylpropionic acidHMDB
4-(4-HydroxyphenylpropanoateHMDB
4-(4-Hydroxyphenylpropanoic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy-(9ci)benzenepropanoateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-(9ci)benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzenepropanoateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
4-HydroxybenzenepropanoateHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzenepropanoic acidHMDB
Hydro-p-coumarateHMDB
Hydro-p-coumaric acidHMDB
Hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acidHMDB
N-Hydroxysuccinimide esterHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzene propionateHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzene propionic acidHMDB
p-Hydroxy-hydrocinnamateHMDB
p-Hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxyhydrocinnamic acidHMDB
DesaminotyrosineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC9H10O3
Average Molecular Weight166.1739
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight166.062994186
IUPAC Name3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional Namehydroxyphenyl propionic acid
CAS Registry Number501-97-3
SMILES
OC(=O)CCC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H10O3/c10-8-4-1-7(2-5-8)3-6-9(11)12/h1-2,4-5,10H,3,6H2,(H,11,12)
InChI KeyNMHMNPHRMNGLLB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. Phenylpropanoic acids are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassPhenylpropanoic acids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point129 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP1.16HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.71 g/LALOGPS
logP1.15ALOGPS
logP1.75ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity43.95 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.97 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-066r-9800000000-44e113d8fc2602ffba88JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004l-0900000000-5ae3f727b5218398aa83JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-066r-9800000000-44e113d8fc2602ffba88JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004l-0900000000-5ae3f727b5218398aa83JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ab9-3900000000-424e95de0b8037c4aa20JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00g0-9660000000-261dcfd72b0dbd1c03dfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00kv-5900000000-db98339dadc21116c7aaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052r-9400000000-7d2340d4f6981ee8aecbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00bi-9100000000-cac6ca239c2cbe36238dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-e131522c5a7352167afbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-3900000000-5c5920f4693d31baa640JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9500000000-49bd07916272cdc49e68JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6u-9100000000-683b03c9384a9a750863JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d4af6cba1b370fd620edJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-514be816ed648e5588b7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-3900000000-5c5920f4693d31baa640JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9500000000-49bd07916272cdc49e68JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a6u-9100000000-683b03c9384a9a750863JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-d4af6cba1b370fd620edJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014j-0900000000-3603746465916eaf1e98JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0601-1900000000-a85683e512fff2c291ddJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0kdi-9500000000-dbb0fa659379ccf4eb26JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-17bb794e8bbfe1aad6b3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-1900000000-9708817125183e0214a3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9400000000-d9a164ed2938481885d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.664 +/- 0.089 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.628 +/- 0.075 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.712 +/- 0.088 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.705 +/- 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.701 +/- 0.071 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.69 +/- 0.099 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.574 +/- 0.078 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.189 +/- 2.633 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified76.426 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified131.790 +/- 93.878 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified143.825 +/- 106.515 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified184.746 +/- 169.702 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedBoth
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified16.128 +/- 15.165 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified84.249 (62.465-111.931) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected and Quantified25.877 +/- 30.0890 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.03 +/- 1.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.32 +/- 2.81 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.59 +/- 2.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified1.64 +/- 1.89 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified2.02 +/- 2.48 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified3.11 +/- 5.21 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
    Normal
      • Sugimoto et al. (...
    details
    UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.089 +/- 0.016 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.2 +/- 0.041 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.078 +/- 0.009 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothIleal Crohn's disease details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCCD details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Irritable bowel syndrome
    1. Ponnusamy K, Choi JN, Kim J, Lee SY, Lee CH: Microbial community and metabolomic comparison of irritable bowel syndrome faeces. J Med Microbiol. 2011 Jun;60(Pt 6):817-27. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.028126-0. Epub 2011 Feb 17. [PubMed:21330412 ]
    2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    Ulcerative colitis
    1. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
    2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
    3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDDB03897
    Phenol Explorer Compound ID578
    FoodDB IDFDB000849
    KNApSAcK IDC00029471
    Chemspider ID9965
    KEGG Compound IDC01744
    BioCyc ID2-3-DIHYDROXYPHENYL-PROPIONATE
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkPhloretic acid
    METLIN ID4148
    PubChem Compound10394
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID32980
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceJin, Enqing. Preparation of 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (1998), 5 pp.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Vickers S, Stuart EK, Hucker HB: Further studies on the metabolism of carbidopa, (minus)-L-alpha-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-methylbenzenepropanoic acid monohydrate, in the human, Rhesus monkey, dog, and rat. J Med Chem. 1975 Feb;18(2):134-8. [PubMed:804550 ]
    2. Mel'nikova YaI, Kravchuk ZI, Preygerzon VA, Martsev SP: Functional activation of antibodies on modification with Pd(II) coproporphyrin I N-Hydroxysuccinimide ester. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1997 Aug;62(8):924-7. [PubMed:9360305 ]
    3. Herr JC, Woodward MP: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human semen identification based on a biotinylated monoclonal antibody to a seminal vesicle-specific antigen. J Forensic Sci. 1987 Mar;32(2):346-56. [PubMed:3572333 ]
    4. Ward NC, Croft KD, Puddey IB, Hodgson JM: Supplementation with grape seed polyphenols results in increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic Acid, an important metabolite of proanthocyanidins in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Aug 25;52(17):5545-9. [PubMed:15315398 ]
    5. Neurath AR, Strick N, Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ: Radioimmunoassay of hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg): identification of HBeAg not associated with immunoglobulins. J Gen Virol. 1979 Mar;42(3):493-504. [PubMed:107272 ]
    6. Fargeas C, Hommel M, Maingon R, Dourado C, Monsigny M, Mayer R: Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Feb;34(2):241-8. [PubMed:8788994 ]
    7. Beloborodova NV, Khodakova AS, Bairamov IT, Olenin AY: Microbial origin of phenylcarboxylic acids in the human body. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009 Dec;74(12):1350-5. [PubMed:19961416 ]
    8. Rowland I, Gibson G, Heinken A, Scott K, Swann J, Thiele I, Tuohy K: Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Feb;57(1):1-24. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1445-8. Epub 2017 Apr 9. [PubMed:28393285 ]
    9. Dodd D, Spitzer MH, Van Treuren W, Merrill BD, Hryckowian AJ, Higginbottom SK, Le A, Cowan TM, Nolan GP, Fischbach MA, Sonnenburg JL: A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites. Nature. 2017 Nov 30;551(7682):648-652. doi: 10.1038/nature24661. Epub 2017 Nov 22. [PubMed:29168502 ]
    10. Koistinen VM (2019). Effects of Food Processing and Gut Microbial Metabolism on Whole Grain Phytochemicals: A Metabolomics Approach. In Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Health Sciences., no 510 (pp. 26-58). University of Eastern Finland. [ISBN:978-952-61-3088-0 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P22309
    Molecular weight:
    59590.91
    Reactions
    Desaminotyrosine → 6-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
    Desaminotyrosine → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-{[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]oxy}oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
    General function:
    sulfotransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
    Gene Name:
    SULT1A3
    Uniprot ID:
    P0DMM9
    Molecular weight:
    34195.96
    Reactions
    Desaminotyrosine → 3-[4-(sulfooxy)phenyl]propanoic aciddetails