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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:52 UTC
Update Date2019-01-11 19:17:04 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02398
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCrocin
DescriptionCrocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) that has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, and in Chinese traditional medicine as an anodyne or tranquilizer. Saffron is now used worldwide in folk medicine and is reputed to be useful in treating various human disorders such as heart and blood disorders. Stroke and heart attack are involved in reputed folkloric uses of saffron. Saffron is orally administrated as a decoction. Saffron extract exerts a protective effect on renal ischemia reperfusion induced oxidative damage in rats. Crocin suppresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha-induced apoptosis of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells by modulating mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 family proteins, which trigger downstream signals culminating in caspase-3 activation followed by cell death. Depriving cultured PC12 cells of serum/glucose causes a rapid increase in cellular ceramide levels, followed by an increase in the risk of cell death. The accumulation of ceramide was found to depend on the activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase). Crocin prevented the activation of nSMase by enhancing the transcription of gamma-glutamylcysteinyl synthase, which contributes to a stable glutathione supply that blocks the activity of nSMase. (PMID: 17215084 ). Crocetin esters present in saffron stigmas and in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit are the compounds responsible for their color. (PMID: 16448211 ).
Bis(beta-D-gentiobiosyl) crocetinChEBI
C.I. 75100ChEBI
Crocetin di-beta-D-gentiobiose esterChEBI
Crocetin di-gentiobiose esterChEBI
Crocetin digentiobiosideChEBI
Natural red 1ChEBI
Natural yellow 19ChEBI
Natural yellow 6ChEBI
trans-Crocetin bis(beta-D-gentiobiosyl) esterChEBI
Bis(b-D-gentiobiosyl) crocetinGenerator
Bis(β-D-gentiobiosyl) crocetinGenerator
Crocetin di-b-D-gentiobiose esterGenerator
Crocetin di-β-D-gentiobiose esterGenerator
trans-Crocetin bis(b-D-gentiobiosyl) esterGenerator
trans-Crocetin bis(β-D-gentiobiosyl) esterGenerator
all-trans-Crocetin di-beta-D-gentiobiosyl esterHMDB
all-trans-Crocetin di-beta-delta-gentiobiosyl esterHMDB
Crocetin bis(gentiobiosyl) esterHMDB
Crocetin digentiobiose esterHMDB
Crocin 1HMDB
Gardenia yellowHMDB
Saffron (JP15)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC44H64O24
Average Molecular Weight976.972
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight976.378752941
IUPAC Namebis[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-2-yl] (2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E)-2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-2,4,6,8,10,12,14-heptaenedioate
Traditional Namebis[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-2-yl] (2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E)-2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-2,4,6,8,10,12,14-heptaenedioate
CAS Registry Number42553-65-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diterpenoids. These are terpene compounds formed by four isoprene units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassDiterpenoids
Direct ParentDiterpenoids
Alternative Parents
  • Diterpenoid
  • Disaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acyl
  • Oxane
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Acetal
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:

Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point186 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.57 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.67ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count22ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count14ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area391.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity233.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability99.47 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0570-0107109005-8d4ac227319c8db4f8a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01p9-0316529102-33fcee1955a03eb2acbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03mr-1948544002-585ea2a4ab28ee86f4acView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1514037019-77be269ba2dd85c94f6bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0c29-3914005115-42287fc2024b10a75c14View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0uml-8933015221-e452e968e696d68b4e6fView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014549
KNApSAcK IDC00003769
Chemspider ID4444645
KEGG Compound IDC08589
BioCyc IDCPD-8666
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCrocin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5281233
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID79068
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ochiai T, Shimeno H, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y, Toda A, Eyanagi R, Soeda S: Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Apr;1770(4):578-84. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17215084 ]
  2. Carmona M, Zalacain A, Sanchez AM, Novella JL, Alonso GL: Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 8;54(3):973-9. [PubMed:16448211 ]