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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:56 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:45:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002545
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0003348
  • HMDB02545
  • HMDB03348
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGalacturonic acid
DescriptionGalacturonic acid, also known as D-galacturonate or calcium pectate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Galacturonic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). In its open form, it has an aldehyde group at C1 and a carboxylic acid group at C6. D-Galacturonic acid is a sugar acid, an oxidized form of D-galactose. Galacturonic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. It is the main component of pectin, in which it exists as the polymer polygalacturonic acid. Outside of the human body, galacturonic acid is found, on average, in the highest concentration in apples. galacturonic acid has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as coconuts, lemons, guava, sweet basils, and yellow wax beans. This could make galacturonic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It is also a uronic acid or hexuronic acid. Naturally occurring uronic acids are D-glucuronic acid, D-galacturonic acid, L-iduronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. Other oxidized forms of D-galactose are D-galactonic acid (carboxylic group at C1) and meso-galactaric acid (mucic acid) (carboxylic groups at C1 and C6).
Structure
Data?1563860734
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S,3R,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxy-6-oxohexanoic acidChEBI
D-Galacturonic acidChEBI
(2S,3R,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxy-6-oxohexanoateGenerator
D-GalacturonateGenerator
GalacturonateGenerator
Aldehydo-D-galacturonic acidHMDB
DL-Galacturonic acidHMDB
D-Galactopyranuronic acidHMDB
Galacturonic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
Galacturonic acid, (alpha-D)-isomerHMDB
Galacturonic acid, calcium, sodium salt, (D)-isomerHMDB
Galacturonic acid, monosodium salt, (D)-isomerHMDB
Anhydrogalacturonic acidHMDB
Calcium pectateHMDB
Calcium polygalacturonateHMDB
GalacturonanHMDB
HomogalacturonanHMDB
PectateHMDB
Pectic acidHMDB
Polygalacturonic acidHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid homopolymerHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid, aluminum saltHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid, calcium saltHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid, homopolymer (D)-isomerHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid, homopolymer sodium saltHMDB
Polygalacturonic acid, sulfatedHMDB
Sodium pectateHMDB
Sodium polygalacturonateHMDB
Aldehydo-D-galacturonateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O7
Average Molecular Weight194.1394
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.042652674
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-6-oxohexanoic acid
Traditional Namealdehydo-D-galacturonic acid
CAS Registry Number14982-50-4
SMILES
O[C@@H](C=O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O7/c7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13/h1-5,8-11H,(H,12,13)/t2-,3+,4+,5-/m0/s1
InChI KeyIAJILQKETJEXLJ-RSJOWCBRSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty acyl
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Beta-hydroxy aldehyde
  • Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Aldehyde
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility100 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.29ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.24ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area135.29 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-9800000000-1d25ab641e968717daf1JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00n0-3139450000-1762a4c61557c689a607JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03e9-0900000000-04b6c8cb4b4b2c077202JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0lk9-9700000000-4260c2e124c927041b62JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-650b5bb9db964b1c3e87JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-000i-9410000000-180d0e747dbcb5b21b01JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-056s-2900000000-86606b8382ffe403bc8eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9500000000-af67bc97552641417beeJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-205a7cff1e298283a080JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-05p9-9700000000-ee070fab487c9f3e49b7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9400000000-284825e422ba9585f17bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-64d4f9d758e2a4eeba68JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001161
KNApSAcK IDC00001120
Chemspider ID76444
KEGG Compound IDC08348
BioCyc IDD-GALACTURONATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkD-Galacturonic acid
METLIN ID6713
PubChem Compound84740
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID47962
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hommes FA, Varghese M: High-performance liquid chromatography of urinary oligosaccharides in the diagnosis of glycoprotein degradation disorders. Clin Chim Acta. 1991 Dec 16;203(2-3):211-24. [PubMed:1777982 ]
  2. Wu AM, Song SC, Chen YY, Gilboa-Garber N: Defining the carbohydrate specificities of aplysia gonad lectin exhibiting a peculiar D-galacturonic acid affinity. J Biol Chem. 2000 May 12;275(19):14017-24. [PubMed:10799474 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215