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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:24:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00031
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAndrosterone
DescriptionAndrosterone is an inactive breakdown metabolite of testosterone, the product of a reaction mediated by the enzyme oxidative 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.51, 17beta-HSD). Androsterone is also can be metabolized from other adrenal androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone or androstenedione, and is considered an inactive end product; however, it can be a physiological effector in its own right. Androsterone might be converted back to dihydrotestosterone. Humans (and other primates) are unique among mammals in having high levels of circulating androsterone glucuronide, a process that is the major role uridine-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.17, UGT) enzymes for glucuronidation of steroid metabolism in humans. Conjugation of androsterone is a pathway found in all vertebrates and is widely recognized that the liver is a major site of glucuronidation; however it is now clear that extrahepatic tissues are also involved in the conjugation of compounds to which these tissues are exposed. High levels of androsterone glucuronide found in the human prostate, breast cyst fluid and ovary follicular fluid suggest that glucuronidation of 5alpha-reduced C19 steroids occurs in these tissues as well. In doping control, the ratio of androsterone/etiocholanone provides valuable information that allows the assignment of a urine specimen to a particular person or the identification of urine samples with identical steroid profiles; this is particularly important to detect attempts of urine manipulation including urine alteration and substitution. (PMID: 9188497 , 17017935 , 14643063 , 12943709 , 9699884 , 17260133 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxy-Androstan-17-one
  2. (3R,5S,8R,9S,10S,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-tetradecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one
  3. 3-alpha-Hydroxy-17-androstanone
  4. 3-alpha-Hydroxy-5-alpha-androstan-17-one
  5. 3-alpha-Hydroxy-5-alpha-androstane-17-one
  6. 3-alpha-Hydroxy-5alpha-Androstan-17-one
  7. 3-alpha-Hydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  8. 3-Epihydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  9. 3-Hydroxy-(3-alpha,5-alpha)-Androstan-17-one
  10. 3-Hydroxyandrostan-17-one
  11. 3a-Hydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  12. 3alpha-Hydroxy-17-androstanone
  13. 3alpha-Hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one
  14. 3alpha-Hydroxyetioallocholan-17-one
  15. 5-alpha-Androstan-3-alpha-ol-17-one
  16. 5-alpha-Androstane-3alpha-ol-17-one
  17. 5-alpha-Androsterone
  18. 5a-Androstan-3a-ol-17-one
  19. 5a-Androstane-3a-ol-17-one
  20. 5a-Androsterone
  21. 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha-ol-17-one
  22. 5alpha-Androsterone
  23. Androkinine
  24. Androstanon-3-alpha-ol-17-one
  25. Androsterone
  26. Androtine
  27. Atromide ICI
  28. cis-Androsterone
Chemical FormulaC19H30O2
Average Molecular Weight290.4403
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight290.224580204
IUPAC Name(1S,2S,7S,10R,11S,15S)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-one
Traditional Name(1S,2S,7S,10R,11S,15S)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadecan-14-one
CAS Registry Number53-41-8
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CC[C@@]2([H])CC(O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H30O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h12-16,20H,3-11H2,1-2H3/t12-,13?,14-,15-,16-,18-,19-/m0/s1
InChI KeyQGXBDMJGAMFCBF-XYQQMQERSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassAndrogens and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
  • C19 steroids (androgens) and derivatives(Lipidmaps)
  • Hydroxysteroids
  • Ketosteroids
Substituents
  • Bicyclohexane
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Decaline
  • Ketone
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Sesquiterpene Backbone
Direct ParentAndrogens and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point185 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.012 mg/mL at 23 °CNot Available
LogP3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0063ALOGPS
logP3.71ALOGPS
logP3.77ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity83.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.7 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Intestine
  • Most Tissues
  • Primarily Liver
  • Prostate
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00065 (0.00053-0.00088) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.014 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.69-96.48 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.27 (0.23-0.33) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.16 (0.11-0.18) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.66 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.69 +/- 1.65 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.36 (0.11-0.67) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.167e-05 +/- 0.000119 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000142 +/- 9.475e-05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeuprolide acetate-induced hypogonadism with testosterone replacment details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000092 +/- 0.000082 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothStress urinary incontinence details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.77 +/- 0.08 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleHirsutism details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021881
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID23931264
KEGG Compound IDC00523
BioCyc IDANDROSTERONE
BiGG ID35244
Wikipedia LinkAndrosterone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00031
Metagene LinkHMDB00031
METLIN ID2797
PubChem Compound12306765
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16032
References
Synthesis ReferenceMarker, Russell E. Androsterone. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1935), 57 1755-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Biswas MG, Russell DW: Expression cloning and characterization of oxidative 17beta- and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from rat and human prostate. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 20;272(25):15959-66. Pubmed: 9188497
  2. Muller L, Phillipou G: Quantification of 5 alpha- and 5 beta-androstanediols in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 1987 Feb;33(2 Pt 1):256-60. Pubmed: 3802509
  3. Schonberger W, Benes P, Morsches B, Zabel B, Scheidt E: [Improvement in the longitudinal growth in Ullrich-Turner syndrome with oxandrolone. Function of urinary excretion of steroid hormones] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1982 Jul 2;107(26):1008-11. Pubmed: 6211346
  4. Kim YS, Zhang H, Kim HY: Profiling neurosteroids in cerebrospinal fluids and plasma by gas chromatography/electron capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jan 15;277(2):187-95. Pubmed: 10625505
  5. Labows JN, Preti G, Hoelzle E, Leyden J, Kligman A: Steroid analysis of human apocrine secretion. Steroids. 1979 Sep;34(3):249-58. Pubmed: 158859
  6. Raju U, Kadner S, Levitz M, Kaganowicz A, Blaustein A: Glucosiduronidation and esterification of androsterone by human breast tumors in vitro. Steroids. 1981 Apr;37(4):399-407. Pubmed: 7245287
  7. Kaminski RM, Marini H, Kim WJ, Rogawski MA: Anticonvulsant activity of androsterone and etiocholanolone. Epilepsia. 2005 Jun;46(6):819-27. Pubmed: 15946323
  8. Grosse J, Anielski P, Hemmersbach P, Lund H, Mueller RK, Rautenberg C, Thieme D: Formation of 19-norsteroids by in situ demethylation of endogenous steroids in stored urine samples. Steroids. 2005 Jul;70(8):499-506. Epub 2005 Mar 29. Pubmed: 15894033
  9. Toth I, Faredin I: Steroids excreted by human skin. II. C19-steroid sulphates in human axillary sweat. Acta Med Hung. 1985;42(1-2):21-8. Pubmed: 3162156
  10. Teller WM, Homoki J, Wudy S, Schlickenrieder JH: Adrenarche is dissociated from gonadarche--studies in patients with Turner's syndrome. Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh). 1986;279:232-40. Pubmed: 2946134
  11. Mitamura K, Setaka M, Shimada K, Honma S, Namiki M, Koh E, Mizokami A: Determination of sulfates of androsterone and epiandrosterone in human serum using isotope diluted liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2005 Dec;19(10):796-801. Pubmed: 15954157
  12. Tchedam Ngatcha B, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Poirier D: Androsterone 3alpha-ether-3beta-substituted and androsterone 3beta-substituted derivatives as inhibitors of type 3 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: chemical synthesis and structure-activity relationship. J Med Chem. 2005 Aug 11;48(16):5257-68. Pubmed: 16078844
  13. Hammond GL: Endogenous steroid levels in the human prostate from birth to old age: a comparison of normal and diseased tissues. J Endocrinol. 1978 Jul;78(1):7-19. Pubmed: 79632
  14. Thevis M, Geyer H, Mareck U, Sigmund G, Henke J, Henke L, Schanzer W: Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Aug;388(7):1539-43. Epub 2007 Jan 27. Pubmed: 17260133
  15. Matsuzaki Y, Honda A: Dehydroepiandrosterone and its derivatives: potentially novel anti-proliferative and chemopreventive agents. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(26):3411-21. Pubmed: 17017935
  16. Belanger A, Pelletier G, Labrie F, Barbier O, Chouinard S: Inactivation of androgens by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in humans. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;14(10):473-9. Pubmed: 14643063
  17. Barbier O, Belanger A: The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is the best animal model for the study of steroid glucuronidation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jun;85(2-5):235-45. Pubmed: 12943709
  18. Belanger A, Hum DW, Beaulieu M, Levesque E, Guillemette C, Tchernof A, Belanger G, Turgeon D, Dubois S: Characterization and regulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in steroid target tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Apr;65(1-6):301-10. Pubmed: 9699884

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transformation of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into the less active form, 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Also has some 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. The biotransformation of the pesticide chlordecone (kepone) to its corresponding alcohol leads to increased biliary excretion of the pesticide and concomitant reduction of its neurotoxicity since bile is the major excretory route.
Gene Name:
AKR1C4
Uniprot ID:
P17516
Molecular weight:
37094.57
Reactions
Androsterone + NAD → Androstanedione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Androsterone + NADP → Androstanedione + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
SULT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q06520
Molecular weight:
33779.57
References
  1. Chang HJ, Shi R, Rehse P, Lin SX: Identifying androsterone (ADT) as a cognate substrate for human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) important for steroid homeostasis: structure of the enzyme-ADT complex. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 23;279(4):2689-96. Epub 2003 Oct 21. Pubmed: 14573603
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone.
Gene Name:
AKR1C3
Uniprot ID:
P42330
Molecular weight:
36866.91
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
AKR1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q04828
Molecular weight:
36788.02
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Works in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5-beta-tetrahydrosteroids. Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5-alpha-DHT) to 5-alpha-androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Has a high bile-binding ability.
Gene Name:
AKR1C2
Uniprot ID:
P52895
Molecular weight:
15747.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme has glucuronidating capacity with steroid substrates such as 5-beta-androstane 3-alpha,17-beta-diol, estradiol, ADT, eugenol and bile acids. Only isoform 1 seems to be active.
Gene Name:
UGT2B28
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY64
Molecular weight:
38742.9
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B10
Uniprot ID:
P36537
Molecular weight:
60773.485
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Coffman BL, King CD, Rios GR, Tephly TR: The glucuronidation of opioids, other xenobiotics, and androgens by human UGT2B7Y(268) and UGT2B7H(268). Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Jan;26(1):73-7. Pubmed: 9443856
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xenobiotic substrates, including simple phenolic compounds, 7-hydroxylated coumarins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and certain drugs and their hydroxylated metabolites. It also catalyzes the glucuronidation of endogenous estrogens and androgens.
Gene Name:
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID:
P54855
Molecular weight:
61035.815
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Active on odorants and seems to be involved in olfaction; it could help clear lipophilic odorant molecules from the sensory epithelium.
Gene Name:
UGT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4X1
Molecular weight:
60771.605
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW9
Molecular weight:
59741.035
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P35503
Molecular weight:
60337.835
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW8
Molecular weight:
59809.075
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The major substrates of this isozyme are eugenol > 4-methylumbelliferone > dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol) > testosterone > androsterone (ADT).
Gene Name:
UGT2B17
Uniprot ID:
O75795
Molecular weight:
61094.915
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
References
  1. Beaulieu M, Levesque E, Tchernof A, Beatty BG, Belanger A, Hum DW: Chromosomal localization, structure, and regulation of the UGT2B17 gene, encoding a C19 steroid metabolizing enzyme. DNA Cell Biol. 1997 Oct;16(10):1143-54. Pubmed: 9364925
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A5
Uniprot ID:
P35504
Molecular weight:
60070.565
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT2B11
Uniprot ID:
O75310
Molecular weight:
61037.8
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW7
Molecular weight:
59818.315
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular weight:
98987.9
References
  1. Peterziel H, Culig Z, Stober J, Hobisch A, Radmayr C, Bartsch G, Klocker H, Cato AC: Mutant androgen receptors in prostatic tumors distinguish between amino-acid-sequence requirements for transactivation and ligand binding. Int J Cancer. 1995 Nov 15;63(4):544-50. Pubmed: 7591265
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that converts 3- alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (allopregnanolone) to dihydroxyprogesterone and 3-alpha-androstanediol to dihydroxyprogesterone. May play a role in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid from retinaldehyde, but seems to have low activity with retinoids. Can utilize both NADH and NADPH
Gene Name:
DHRS9
Uniprot ID:
Q9BPW9
Molecular weight:
35226.8
References
  1. Klein J, Thomas H, Post K, Worner W, Oesch F: Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities of rabbit liver are associated with hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and aldo-keto reductases. Eur J Biochem. 1992 May 1;205(3):1155-62. Pubmed: 1576998
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidoreductase with a preference for NAD. Oxidizes all- trans-retinol and 13-cis-retinol to the corresponding aldehydes. Has higher activity towards CRBP-bound retinol than with free retinol. Oxidizes 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids. Oxidizes androstanediol and androsterone to dihydrotestosterone and androstanedione. Can also catalyze the reverse reaction
Gene Name:
RDH16
Uniprot ID:
O75452
Molecular weight:
35673.1
References
  1. Karlsson T, Vahlquist A, Kedishvili N, Torma H: 13-cis-retinoic acid competitively inhibits 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidation by retinol dehydrogenase RoDH-4: a mechanism for its anti-androgenic effects in sebaceous glands? Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 28;303(1):273-8. Pubmed: 12646198
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyze phase II biotransformation reactions in which lipophilic substrates are conjugated with glucuronic acid to increase water solubility and enhance excretion. They are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWM9
Molecular weight:
60253.94
Reactions
Androsterone + Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid → Androsterone glucuronide + Uridine 5'-diphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A10
Uniprot ID:
Q5DT02
Molecular weight:
59809.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A8
Uniprot ID:
Q5DSZ6
Molecular weight:
59741.0
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q5DSZ7
Molecular weight:
59818.3