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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:34 UTC
Update Date2018-02-14 00:02:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003125
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03125
  • HMDB06491
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrogen peroxide
DescriptionHydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. It is a weak acid. It has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that is mostly used for bleaching paper, but has also found use as a disinfectant and as an oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide in the form of carbamide peroxide is widely used for tooth whitening (bleaching), both in professionally- and in self-administered products. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-documented component of living cells. It plays important roles in host defense and oxidative biosynthetic reactions. In addition there is growing evidence that at low levels, H2O2 also functions as a signaling agent, particularly in higher organisms. H2O2 has increasingly been viewed as an important cellular signaling agent in its own right, capable of modulating both contractile and growth-promoting pathways with more far-reaching effects. Due to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the skin of patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo, the human epidermis cannot have the normal capacity for autocrine synthesis, transport and degradation of acetylcholine as well as the muscarinic (m1-m5) and nicotinic signal transduction in keratinocytes and melanocytes. Accumulating evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) plays an important role in cancer development. Experimental data have shown that cancer cells produce high amounts of H(2)O(2). An increase in the cellular levels of H(2)O(2) has been linked to several key alterations in cancer, including DNA alterations, cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, metastasis, angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activation. (PMID: 17150302, 17335854, 16677071, 16607324, 16514169).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[OH(OH)]ChEBI
Dihydrogen dioxideChEBI
H2O2ChEBI
HOOHChEBI
OxydolChEBI
PerhydrolChEBI
Adeka super elHMDB
AlboneHMDB
Albone 35HMDB
Albone DSHMDB
Anti-keim 50HMDB
AsepticperHMDB
BaquashockHMDB
CIXHMDB
Clarigel goldHMDB
Crestal whitestripsHMDB
CrystacideHMDB
DentaseptHMDB
Deslime LPHMDB
HioxylHMDB
HipoxHMDB
HybriteHMDB
Hydrogen dioxideHMDB
InhibineHMDB
Lase peroxideHMDB
Lensan aHMDB
Magic bleachingHMDB
MetrokurHMDB
MiraseptHMDB
Nite white excel 2HMDB
Odosat DHMDB
Opalescence xtraHMDB
OxigenalHMDB
OxyfullHMDB
OxyseptHMDB
Oxysept IHMDB
PegasylHMDB
PeroneHMDB
PeroxaanHMDB
PeroxcleanHMDB
Quasar briteHMDB
Select bleachHMDB
SuperoxolHMDB
T-StuffHMDB
Whiteness HPHMDB
WhitespeedHMDB
Xtra whiteHMDB
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)MeSH
HydroperoxideMeSH
Peroxide, hydrogenMeSH
Chemical FormulaH2O2
Average Molecular Weight34.0147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight34.005479308
IUPAC Nameperoxol
Traditional Namehydrogen peroxide
CAS Registry Number7722-84-1
SMILES
OO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O2/c1-2/h1-2H
InChI KeyMHAJPDPJQMAIIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Biological location:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Source:

  Biological:

    Plant:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-0.43 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.13 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-4749d46780bc552fb9afView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyPw000061Pw000061 greyscalePw000061 simpleNot Available
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduriaPw000696Pw000696 greyscalePw000696 simpleNot Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyPw000063Pw000063 greyscalePw000063 simpleNot Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IPw000065Pw000065 greyscalePw000065 simpleNot Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IPw000066Pw000066 greyscalePw000066 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.5 +/- 3.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified23.5 +/- 3.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Coronary heart disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.0 +/- 2.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Coronary heart disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified50.3 +/- 5.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Coronary heart disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.5 +/- 4.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Coronary heart disease
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Coronary heart disease
  1. Kazmierczak M, Wysocki H, Wykretowicz A, Minczykowski A: Estimation of hydrogen peroxide plasma levels in patients evaluated for coronary heart disease using dipyridamole infusion followed by SPECT. Coron Artery Dis. 1995 Jan;6(1):65-9. [PubMed:7767505 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB014562
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID763
KEGG Compound IDC00027
BioCyc IDHYDROGEN-PEROXIDE
BiGG ID33570
Wikipedia LinkHydrogen_peroxide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound784
PDB IDPEO
ChEBI ID16240
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lopez-Lazaro M: Dual role of hydrogen peroxide in cancer: possible relevance to cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer Lett. 2007 Jul 8;252(1):1-8. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17150302 ]
  2. Schallreuter KU, Elwary S: Hydrogen peroxide regulates the cholinergic signal in a concentration dependent manner. Life Sci. 2007 May 30;80(24-25):2221-6. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [PubMed:17335854 ]
  3. Stone JR, Yang S: Hydrogen peroxide: a signaling messenger. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Mar-Apr;8(3-4):243-70. [PubMed:16677071 ]
  4. Tredwin CJ, Naik S, Lewis NJ, Scully C: Hydrogen peroxide tooth-whitening (bleaching) products: review of adverse effects and safety issues. Br Dent J. 2006 Apr 8;200(7):371-6. [PubMed:16607324 ]
  5. Ardanaz N, Pagano PJ: Hydrogen peroxide as a paracrine vascular mediator: regulation and signaling leading to dysfunction. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Mar;231(3):237-51. [PubMed:16514169 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 53 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name:
PIPOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0Z9
Molecular weight:
44065.515
Reactions
Sarcosine + Water + Oxygen → Glycine + Formaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
L-Pipecolic acid + Oxygen → (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of N(1)-acetylspermine to spermidine and is thus involved in the polyamine back-conversion. Can also oxidize N(1)-acetylspermidine to putrescine. Substrate specificity: N(1)-acetylspermine = N(1)-acetylspermidine > N(1),N(12)-diacylspermine >> spermine. Does not oxidize spermidine. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs.
Gene Name:
PAOX
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHF9
Molecular weight:
55512.64
Reactions
N1-Acetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → Spermidine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N1-Acetylspermidine + Oxygen + Water → Putrescine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N1,N12-Diacetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → N1-Acetylspermidine + 3-Acetamidobutanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
Reactions
An aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → a carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxal + Oxygen + Water → 4-Pyridoxic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Gentisic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → Gentisate aldehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
Methylmalonic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Oxygen + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Citalopram aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram propionic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ACOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q15067
Molecular weight:
70135.205
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Oxygen → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.
Gene Name:
DDO
Uniprot ID:
Q99489
Molecular weight:
40992.53
Reactions
D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen → Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
3-Hydroxykynurenamine + Oxygen → Quinoline-4,8-diol + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Xanthine + Water + Oxygen → Uric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Hypoxanthine + Oxygen + Water → Xanthine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylxanthine + Water + Oxygen → 1-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Paraxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 1,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Theobromine + Water + Oxygen → 3,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
7-Methylxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 7-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Mercaptopurine + Water + Oxygen → 6-Thiourate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate with quinone as electron acceptor.
Gene Name:
DHODH
Uniprot ID:
Q02127
Molecular weight:
42866.93
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors
Specific function:
Oxidizes the CoA-esters of 2-methyl-branched fatty acids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACOX3
Uniprot ID:
O15254
Molecular weight:
69574.075
Reactions
Acyl-CoA + Oxygen → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + Hydrogen peroxidedetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 53 proteins in total.