You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:43 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 19:07:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003229
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0060082
  • HMDB03229
  • HMDB60082
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePalmitoleic acid
DescriptionPalmitoleic acid, or 9-hexadecenoic acid, is an unsaturated fatty acid that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. Present in all tissues, generally found in higher concentrations in the liver. Macadamia oil (Macadamia integrifolia) and Sea Buckthorn oil (Hippophae rhamnoides) are botanical sources of palmitoleic acid, containing 22 and 40% respectively (Wikipedia). Palmitoleic acid is found to be associated with isovaleric acidemia, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(9Z)-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
(Z)-9-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
(Z)-Hexadec-9-enoic acidChEBI
16:1DElta9ChEBI
9-cis-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-9-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
cis-Delta(9)-Hexadecenoic acidChEBI
Palmitolinoleic acidChEBI
Zoomaric acidChEBI
(9Z)-HexadecenoateGenerator
PalmitoleateGenerator
(Z)-9-HexadecenoateGenerator
(Z)-Hexadec-9-enoateGenerator
9-cis-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-9-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-delta(9)-HexadecenoateGenerator
cis-δ(9)-hexadecenoateGenerator
cis-δ(9)-hexadecenoic acidGenerator
PalmitolinoleateGenerator
ZoomarateGenerator
9-HexadecenoateHMDB
9-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
cis-9-Palmitoleic acidHMDB
cis-delta-9-HexadecenoateHMDB
cis-delta-9-Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
cis-PalmitoleateHMDB
cis-Palmitoleic acidHMDB
HexadecenoateHMDB
Hexadecenoate (N-C16:1)HMDB
Hexadecenoic acidHMDB
OleopalmitateHMDB
Oleopalmitic acidHMDB
ZoomerateHMDB
Zoomeric acidHMDB
Palmitoleic acid, (Z)-isomerMeSH
Palmitoleic acid, sodium salt, (Z)-isomerMeSH
Palmitoleic acid, (e)-isomerMeSH
Palmitoleic acid, potassium salt, (Z)-isomerMeSH
C16:1 trans-9MeSH
Palmitelaidic acidMeSH
Chemical FormulaC16H30O2
Average Molecular Weight254.4082
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight254.224580204
IUPAC Name(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid
Traditional Namepalmitoleic acid
CAS Registry Number373-49-9
SMILES
CCCCCC\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H30O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h7-8H,2-6,9-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)/b8-7-
InChI KeySECPZKHBENQXJG-FPLPWBNLSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentLong-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Long-chain fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-0.1 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00045 g/LALOGPS
logP6.71ALOGPS
logP5.89ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity78.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00mk-2900000000-6683cd8579813b4f1ebbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00nb-5900000000-90ab9a21246ad658bda0View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-8910000000-20fcd1fc2d9e095b2c24View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00fr-9630000000-7eda678c0ecd65b2e479View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac359View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac359View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-004i-0092000000-b8aabbdc61f9b89ac359View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-993c95f96e1ca69a41c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-e72ac58f23bacbf37344View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-d1585cc46cbce84a0506View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0udi-0091000000-fd89101236e85a2d9154View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-35027c88ff732ff74b4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-3cac469ac1efde0a3543View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-e5833c7aa4795570bdc4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-9090000000-909ebad9120d01bf8e79View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004j-9000000000-fb5a2e21c48a7d72aac8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-09c91b61deabc72625f3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-993c95f96e1ca69a41c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-e72ac58f23bacbf37344View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-052r-0090000000-202819132f83589a248bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4s-7790000000-ff129e0c7cc2a7e4cf19View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9600000000-749f09fec19d95c21683View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-5005f244d7d1c3502c3eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0zg0-1090000000-cac7fce9a75b0f1abd63View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9320000000-2e782c63ccf72afe9be9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified18 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified21 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified28 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified34 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified19.0639 +/- 11.674 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified240 +/- 100 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified250 +/- 70 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified31.0 (5.0-85.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified9.66 +/- 6.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6.390 +/- 4.279 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.5 +/- 2.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.9-6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.7 +/- 0.169 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified244.4 +/- 108.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified8 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.0 +/- 2.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.8 (0.7-6.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.02 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified206.0 +/- 92.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Isovaleric acidemia
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Bothliver cirrhosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Cirrhosis
  1. Huang HJ, Zhang AY, Cao HC, Lu HF, Wang BH, Xie Q, Xu W, Li LJ: Metabolomic analyses of faeces reveals malabsorption in cirrhotic patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Aug;45(8):677-82. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Feb 4. [PubMed:23384618 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Isovaleric acidemia
  1. Dercksen M, Kulik W, Mienie LJ, Reinecke CJ, Wanders RJ, Duran M: Polyunsaturated fatty acid status in treated isovaleric acidemia patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Oct;70(10):1123-1126. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.100. Epub 2016 Jun 22. [PubMed:27329611 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011675
KNApSAcK IDC00029354
Chemspider ID393216
KEGG Compound IDC08362
BioCyc IDCPD-724
BiGG ID246167
Wikipedia LinkPalmitoleic acid
METLIN ID188
PubChem Compound445638
PDB IDPAM
ChEBI ID28716
References
Synthesis ReferenceXu, Huashun; Luo, Yuping; Li, Siguang. Palmitoleic acid production by fermentation with yeast. Zhongguo Youzhi (1999), 24(6), 53-55.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Katsuta Y, Iida T, Inomata S, Denda M: Unsaturated fatty acids induce calcium influx into keratinocytes and cause abnormal differentiation of epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 May;124(5):1008-13. [PubMed:15854043 ]
  3. Rossner S, Walldius G, Bjorvell H: Fatty acid composition in serum lipids and adipose tissue in severe obesity before and after six weeks of weight loss. Int J Obes. 1989;13(5):603-12. [PubMed:2583914 ]
  4. Ho RC, Davy KP, Hickey MS, Summers SA, Melby CL: Behavioral, metabolic, and molecular correlates of lower insulin sensitivity in Mexican-Americans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;283(4):E799-808. [PubMed:12217898 ]
  5. Hori Y, Nakamura K, Yamamoto M, Shimada K, Nakadaira H, Shibuya N, Endoh K, Ogoshi K: Determination of free fatty acids in human bile by high-performance liquid chromatography. Ann Clin Biochem. 1998 Mar;35 ( Pt 2):279-82. [PubMed:9547901 ]
  6. Yli-Jama P, Haugen TS, Rebnord HM, Ringstad J, Pedersen JI: Selective mobilisation of fatty acids from human adipose tissue. Eur J Intern Med. 2001 Apr;12(2):107-115. [PubMed:11297913 ]
  7. Prandota J: Clinical pharmacology of antibiotics and other drugs in cystic fibrosis. Drugs. 1988 May;35(5):542-78. [PubMed:3293970 ]
  8. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
In fatty acid biosynthesis chain termination and release of the free fatty acid product is achieved by hydrolysis of the thio ester by a thioesterase I, a component of the fatty acid synthetase complex. The chain length of the released fatty acid is usually C16. However, in the mammary glands of non-ruminant mammals, and in the uropygial gland of certain waterfowl there exists a second thioesterase which releases medium-chain length fatty acids (C8 to C2) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
OLAH
Uniprot ID:
Q9NV23
Molecular weight:
29930.82