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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:07:11 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 20:39:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003339
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03339
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Glutamic acid
DescriptionThere are two forms of glutamic acid found in nature: L-glutamic acid and D-glutamic acid. D-glutamic acid, is not endogenously produced in higher mammals. It is found naturally primarily in the cell walls of certain bacteria. D-glutamate is also present in certain foods e.g., soybeans and also arises from the turnover of the intestinal tract microflora, whose cell walls contain significant D-glutamate. Unlike other D-amino acids, D-glutamate is not oxidized by the D-amino acid oxidases, and therefore this detoxification pathway is not available for handling D-glutamate. Likewise, D-glutamic acid, when ingested, largely escapes most deamination reactions (unlike the L-counterpart). Free D-glutamate is found in mammalian tissue at surprisingly high levels, with D-glutamate accounting for 9% of the total glutamate present in liver. D-glutamate is the most potent natural inhibitor of glutathione synthesis identified to date and this may account for its localization to the liver, since circulating D-glutamate may alter redox stabiity (PMID 11158923 ). Certain eels are known to use D-glutamic acid as a phermone for chemical communication.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(R)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
D-2-Aminoglutaric acidChEBI
D-Glutaminic acidChEBI
D-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
DGLChEBI
Glutamic acid D-formChEBI
(R)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
D-GlutamateGenerator
D-2-AminoglutarateGenerator
D-GlutaminateGenerator
Glutamate D-formGenerator
(2R)-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
(2R)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
D-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
D-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
delta-2-AminoglutarateHMDB
delta-2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
delta-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
delta-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
delta-GlutamateHMDB
delta-Glutamic acidHMDB
delta-GlutaminateHMDB
delta-Glutaminic acidHMDB
delta-GlutaminsaeureHMDB
GlutamateHMDB
Lopac-g-2128HMDB
Lopac-gamma-2128HMDB
R-(-)-GlutamateHMDB
R-(-)-Glutamic acidHMDB
Tocris-0217HMDB
Glutamic acid, (D)-isomerMeSH
L Glutamic acidMeSH
L-GlutamateMeSH
L-Glutamic acidMeSH
D GlutamateMeSH
Glutamate, potassiumMeSH
L-Glutamate, aluminumMeSH
Aluminum L glutamateMeSH
Glutamic acidMeSH
L GlutamateMeSH
Aluminum L-glutamateMeSH
Potassium glutamateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional NameD-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number6893-26-1
SMILES
N[C@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m1/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-GSVOUGTGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. These are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point201 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.88 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0k9x-9300000000-a43e0122a45b9abf09d6View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9240000000-53c8c708191dfcd550d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-ad4a2989e599a67182c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-c449cfd2231fe941d44fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f71458032a132069f94fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-810570c8cfcea8da64f5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-d5167570d11d77fd541eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-c7d42b011a328bb7991dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-9fd882f84339f600b5ebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-407a30a35de9c1cceb3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-8610ea89d52ef116caf5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-331b7ed6ea33880c306eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-3900000000-58248bb2a0c7ddc905cfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0zgi-9600000000-076b628a6858a60a475fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bd3823a5fab8a2d9b62cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-1900000000-11233b5887638266e512View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0fba-4900000000-1e8ea62e3fbd8467396fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0abc-9100000000-6c956e122b59de69a472View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0140-0.200 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified1600 +/- 320 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified880 +/- 680 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified490 +/- 390 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified11382 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified8923 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified11117 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified67.51 +/- 75.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified43.4 +/- 55.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified8.91 +/- 3.90 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified13.5 +/- 8.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 19.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.5 +/- 6.75 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified14.9 +/- 7.60 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified123.84 +/- 110.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.9 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.5 (3.3-18.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified82.0 +/- 8.0 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Premature
details
BloodDetected and Quantified156.0 +/- 90.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified52.21 (14.83) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified56.4 (12.69) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.429 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedGamma-glutamyltransferase deficiency details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn’s Disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified38.26 +/- 29.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified43.79 +/- 10.57 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified47.82 +/- 18.36 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0064 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Ertl R, Mandal R, Bjorndahl TC, Syngelaki A, Han B, Dong E, Liu PB, Alpay-Savasan Z, Wishart DS, Nicolaides KH: Metabolomic prediction of fetal congenital heart defect in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):240.e1-240.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.056. Epub 2014 Apr 1. [PubMed:24704061 ]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Monleon D, Morales JM, Barrasa A, Lopez JA, Vazquez C, Celda B: Metabolite profiling of fecal water extracts from human colorectal cancer. NMR Biomed. 2009 Apr;22(3):342-8. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1345. [PubMed:19006102 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
  4. Lin Y, Ma C, Liu C, Wang Z, Yang J, Liu X, Shen Z, Wu R: NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016 May 17;7(20):29454-64. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8762. [PubMed:27107423 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Marchesi JR, Holmes E, Khan F, Kochhar S, Scanlan P, Shanahan F, Wilson ID, Wang Y: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res. 2007 Feb;6(2):546-51. [PubMed:17269711 ]
  2. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Heresco-Levy U, Bar G, Levin R, Ermilov M, Ebstein RP, Javitt DC: High glycine levels are associated with prepulse inhibition deficits in chronic schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res. 2007 Mar;91(1-3):14-21. Epub 2007 Feb 2. [PubMed:17276036 ]
Frontotemporal dementia
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Gamma-glutamyltransferase deficiency
  1. Schulman JD, Goodman SI, Mace JW, Patrick AD, Tietze F, Butler EJ: Glutathionuria: inborn error of metabolism due to tissue deficiency of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975 Jul 8;65(1):68-74. [PubMed:238530 ]
Irritable bowel syndrome
  1. Ponnusamy K, Choi JN, Kim J, Lee SY, Lee CH: Microbial community and metabolomic comparison of irritable bowel syndrome faeces. J Med Microbiol. 2011 Jun;60(Pt 6):817-27. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.028126-0. Epub 2011 Feb 17. [PubMed:21330412 ]
  2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Marchesi JR, Holmes E, Khan F, Kochhar S, Scanlan P, Shanahan F, Wilson ID, Wang Y: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res. 2007 Feb;6(2):546-51. [PubMed:17269711 ]
  2. Le Gall G, Noor SO, Ridgway K, Scovell L, Jamieson C, Johnson IT, Colquhoun IJ, Kemsley EK, Narbad A: Metabolomics of fecal extracts detects altered metabolic activity of gut microbiota in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome. J Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):4208-18. doi: 10.1021/pr2003598. Epub 2011 Aug 8. [PubMed:21761941 ]
  3. Kolho KL, Pessia A, Jaakkola T, de Vos WM, Velagapudi V: Faecal and Serum Metabolomics in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Mar 1;11(3):321-334. doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjw158. [PubMed:27609529 ]
Lewy body disease
  1. Tsuruoka M, Hara J, Hirayama A, Sugimoto M, Soga T, Shankle WR, Tomita M: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis of serum and saliva from neurodegenerative dementia patients. Electrophoresis. 2013 Oct;34(19):2865-72. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300019. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:23857558 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02517
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023148
KNApSAcK IDC00019577
Chemspider ID21814
KEGG Compound IDC00217
BioCyc IDD-GLT
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlutamic acid
METLIN ID6895
PubChem Compound23327
PDB IDDGL
ChEBI ID15966
References
Synthesis ReferenceOzaki, Akio; Yagasaki, Makoto; Takada, Hideyoshi; Hashimoto, Yukio. Manufacture of D-glutamic acid with Lactobacillus. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1990), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Emi M, Wilson DE, Iverius PH, Wu L, Hata A, Hegele R, Williams RR, Lalouel JM: Missense mutation (Gly----Glu188) of human lipoprotein lipase imparting functional deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 5;265(10):5910-6. [PubMed:1969408 ]
  2. Persson H, Pelto-Huikko M, Metsis M, Soder O, Brene S, Skog S, Hokfelt T, Ritzen EM: Expression of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in male germ cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4701-11. [PubMed:1697032 ]
  3. Ahlman B, Andersson K, Leijonmarck CE, Ljungqvist O, Hedenborg L, Wernerman J: Short-term starvation alters the free amino acid content of the human intestinal mucosa. Clin Sci (Lond). 1994 Jun;86(6):653-62. [PubMed:7914846 ]
  4. Wang M, Meng Z, Fu J: Synthesis and biodistribution of six novel 99mTc complexes of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde-amino acid Schiff bases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006 Feb;64(2):235-40. [PubMed:16309915 ]
  5. Majid SM, Liss AS, You M, Bose HR: The suppression of SH3BGRL is important for v-Rel-mediated transformation. Oncogene. 2006 Feb 2;25(5):756-68. [PubMed:16186799 ]
  6. Canal N, Nemni R: Autoimmunity and diabetic neuropathy. Clin Neurosci. 1997;4(6):371-3. [PubMed:9358982 ]
  7. Danke NA, Koelle DM, Yee C, Beheray S, Kwok WW: Autoreactive T cells in healthy individuals. J Immunol. 2004 May 15;172(10):5967-72. [PubMed:15128778 ]
  8. Guariso G, Brotto F, Basso D, Alaggio R, Betterle C: Organ-specific autoantibodies in children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter. 2004 Dec;9(6):622-8. [PubMed:15610075 ]
  9. Nagai A, Suzuki Y, Baek SY, Lee KS, Lee MC, McLarnon JG, Kim SU: Generation and characterization of human hybrid neurons produced between embryonic CNS neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2002 Oct;11(1):184-98. [PubMed:12460557 ]
  10. Mally MI, Cirulli V, Hayek A, Otonkoski T: ICA69 is expressed equally in the human endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Diabetologia. 1996 Apr;39(4):474-80. [PubMed:8777998 ]
  11. Maechler P, Gjinovci A, Wollheim CB: Implication of glutamate in the kinetics of insulin secretion in rat and mouse perfused pancreas. Diabetes. 2002 Feb;51 Suppl 1:S99-102. [PubMed:11815466 ]
  12. Nielsen C, Hansen D, Husby S, Jacobsen BB, Lillevang ST: No allelic variation in genes with high gliadin homology in patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. Immunogenetics. 2004 Aug;56(5):375-8. Epub 2004 Aug 7. [PubMed:15309343 ]
  13. Luo J, Kaplitt MG, Fitzsimons HL, Zuzga DS, Liu Y, Oshinsky ML, During MJ: Subthalamic GAD gene therapy in a Parkinson's disease rat model. Science. 2002 Oct 11;298(5592):425-9. [PubMed:12376704 ]
  14. Meyer W, Poehling HM, Neurand K: Intraepidermal distribution of free amino acids in porcine skin. J Dermatol Sci. 1991 Sep;2(5):383-92. [PubMed:1742249 ]
  15. Cuervo JH, Rodriguez B, Houghten RA: The Magainins: sequence factors relevant to increased antimicrobial activity and decreased hemolytic activity. Pept Res. 1988 Nov-Dec;1(2):81-6. [PubMed:2980783 ]
  16. Roll U, Scheeser J, Standl E, Ziegler AG: Alterations of lymphocyte subsets in children of diabetic mothers. Diabetologia. 1994 Nov;37(11):1132-41. [PubMed:7867885 ]
  17. Bill JR, Mack DG, Falta MT, Maier LA, Sullivan AK, Joslin FG, Martin AK, Freed BM, Kotzin BL, Fontenot AP: Beryllium presentation to CD4+ T cells is dependent on a single amino acid residue of the MHC class II beta-chain. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15;175(10):7029-37. [PubMed:16272364 ]
  18. Raj D, Langford M, Krueger S, Shelton M, Welbourne T: Regulatory responses to an oral D-glutamate load: formation of D-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Feb;280(2):E214-20. [PubMed:11158923 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism. Promotes mitochondrial respiration and increases ATP generation in cells by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Increases cellular anti-oxidant function via NADH and glutathione production. May play a role in preventing tumor proliferation.
Gene Name:
GLS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI32
Molecular weight:
66322.225
Reactions
D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Isoform 2 lacks catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
GLS
Uniprot ID:
O94925
Molecular weight:
65459.525
Reactions
D-Glutamine + Water → D-Glutamic acid + Ammoniadetails