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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-12 19:21:29 UTC
Update Date2018-04-10 17:57:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0003362
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB03362
Metabolite Identification
Common NameChitin
DescriptionChitin is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods (such as crustaceans) as well as fish and frogs. It is a polysaccharide that is constructed from units of acetylglucosamine (more completely, N-acetyl-D-glucose-2-amine). These are linked together in beta-1,4 fashion (in a similar manner to the glucose units which form cellulose). In effect, chitin may be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer replaced by an acetylamine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the polymer increased strength. Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in the world (after cellulose). Chitinases break down chitin and are a part of the defence mechanism of mammals against chitin-containing parasites in lower life forms. Under certain circumstances, chitin can act as an allergen. Research using murine models has shown that chitin is a size-dependent microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) that can induce an immunological response via pattern recognition receptors. Medium-sized chitin micro-particles (CMPs) have been shown to induce inflammation, while small-sized CMPs reduce inflammation. Additionally, mammalian chitinases may play a key role in mediating the T-helper 2 cell-driven inflammatory response that is commonly associated with asthma. The high prevalence of asthma among people working with chitinous substances, such as crabs and fungi, suggests that chitin might be an allergen playing a significant role in the development of asthma.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(beta)-N,N',n''-triacetyl chitotrioseChEBI
beta-D-GlcNAc-(1->4)-beta-D-glcnac-(1->4)-beta-D-glcnacChEBI
beta-N,N',n''-triacetylchitotrioseChEBI
GlcNAcb1-4glcnacb1-4glcnacbChEBI
GlcNAcbeta1-4glcnacbeta1-4glcnacbetaChEBI
N,N',n''-triacetyl chitotriose beta-anomerChEBI
N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamineChEBI
(b)-N,N',n''-triacetyl chitotrioseGenerator
(β)-N,n',n''-triacetyl chitotrioseGenerator
b-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-b-D-glcpnac-(1->4)-b-D-glcpnacGenerator
β-D-glcpnac-(1->4)-β-D-glcpnac-(1->4)-β-D-glcpnacGenerator
b-D-GlcNAc-(1->4)-b-D-glcnac-(1->4)-b-D-glcnacGenerator
β-D-glcnac-(1->4)-β-D-glcnac-(1->4)-β-D-glcnacGenerator
b-N,N',n''-triacetylchitotrioseGenerator
β-N,n',n''-triacetylchitotrioseGenerator
N,N',n''-triacetyl chitotriose b-anomerGenerator
N,N',n''-triacetyl chitotriose β-anomerGenerator
N-Acetyl-b-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-b-D-glucosamineGenerator
N-Acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamineGenerator
Chemical FormulaC24H41N3O16
Average Molecular Weight627.5928
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight627.248682279
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number1398-61-4
SMILES
CC(=O)N[C@H]1[C@H](O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3NC(C)=O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2NC(C)=O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H41N3O16/c1-7(31)25-13-18(36)20(11(5-29)39-22(13)38)42-24-15(27-9(3)33)19(37)21(12(6-30)41-24)43-23-14(26-8(2)32)17(35)16(34)10(4-28)40-23/h10-24,28-30,34-38H,4-6H2,1-3H3,(H,25,31)(H,26,32)(H,27,33)/t10-,11-,12-,13-,14-,15-,16-,17-,18-,19-,20-,21-,22-,23+,24+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWZZVUHWLNMNWLW-VFCSDQTKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as acylaminosugars. These are organic compounds containing a sugar linked to a chain through N-acyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
Sub ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Direct ParentAcylaminosugars
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Acylaminosugar
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Oxane
  • Acetamide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Hemiacetal
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility31 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.5ALOGPS
logS-0.92ALOGPS
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01si-0020195000-2e6a56a958abe902a3e9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-11ec-0273492000-ace7f79ec49825bd5fd6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zmr-6594462000-c3586d5d836795b9e53aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-006w-1352911000-863eeeb6aa19c4b1a13eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-2344295000-9c0b132184373172725cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-4957010000-d6d15cd685b32cc6a8cdView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Spleen
  • Testes
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound444514
PDB IDCTO
ChEBI ID71404
References
Synthesis ReferenceKurita, Keisuke; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Shinichiro; Kamiya, Mami. Facile preparation of water-soluble chitin from chitosan. Chemistry Letters (1989), (9), 1597-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Gheri G, Sgambati E, Thyrion GD, Vichi D, Orlandini GE: The oligosaccharidic content of the glycoconjugates of the prepubertal descended and undescended testis: lectin histochemical study. Ital J Anat Embryol. 2004 Apr-Jun;109(2):69-84. [PubMed:15481156 ]
  2. Hatcher VB, Schwarzmann GO, Jeanloz RW, McArthur JW: Changes in the sialic acid concentration in the major cervical glycoprotein from the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) during a hormonally induced cycle. Fertil Steril. 1977 Jun;28(6):682-8. [PubMed:405259 ]
  3. Collard CD, Montalto MC, Reenstra WR, Buras JA, Stahl GL: Endothelial oxidative stress activates the lectin complement pathway: role of cytokeratin 1. Am J Pathol. 2001 Sep;159(3):1045-54. [PubMed:11549596 ]
  4. Nakajima M, Atsumi K, Kifune K, Miura K, Kanamaru H: Chitin is an effective material for sutures. Jpn J Surg. 1986 Nov;16(6):418-24. [PubMed:3820865 ]
  5. Soule JB, Halverson AL, Becker RB, Pistole MC, Orenstein JM: A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and untreated Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis microsporidiosis leading to small bowel perforation. Response to albendazole. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997 Aug;121(8):880-7. [PubMed:9278619 ]
  6. Piskun RP, Pentiuk AA, Serkova VK, Polesia TL, Savitskaia EA: [Enterosorbents in the treatment of atherosclerosis]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1998 Mar-Apr;61(2):69-74. [PubMed:9621181 ]
  7. Kawashita M, Nakao M, Minoda M, Kim HM, Beppu T, Miyamoto T, Kokubo T, Nakamura T: Apatite-forming ability of carboxyl group-containing polymer gels in a simulated body fluid. Biomaterials. 2003 Jun;24(14):2477-84. [PubMed:12695074 ]
  8. Howling GI, Dettmar PW, Goddard PA, Hampson FC, Dornish M, Wood EJ: The effect of chitin and chitosan on the proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro. Biomaterials. 2001 Nov;22(22):2959-66. [PubMed:11575470 ]
  9. Vasstrand EN, Jensen HB: Affinity chromatography of human saliva lysozyme and effect of pH and ionic strength on lytic activity. Scand J Dent Res. 1980 Jun;88(3):219-28. [PubMed:6932088 ]
  10. Shibuya N, Nakamura K, Ogoshi K, Ohta T, Hori Y, Kodama K, Yamamoto M: Modification of mutagenic activities of pro-mutagens by glyco-ursodeoxycholic acid in the Ames assay. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999 Sep;189(1):1-9. [PubMed:10622203 ]
  11. Ishihara C, Yoshimatsu K, Tsuji M, Arikawa J, Saiki I, Tokura S, Azuma I: Anti-viral activity of sulfated chitin derivatives against Friend murine leukaemia and herpes simplex type-1 viruses. Vaccine. 1993;11(6):670-4. [PubMed:8391740 ]
  12. Zampini M, Pruzzo C, Bondre VP, Tarsi R, Cosmo M, Bacciaglia A, Chhabra A, Srivastava R, Srivastava BS: Vibrio cholerae persistence in aquatic environments and colonization of intestinal cells: involvement of a common adhesion mechanism. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005 Mar 15;244(2):267-73. [PubMed:15766778 ]
  13. Xu Y, Olman V, Xu D: Clustering gene expression data using a graph-theoretic approach: an application of minimum spanning trees. Bioinformatics. 2002 Apr;18(4):536-45. [PubMed:12016051 ]
  14. Sharaev PN, Strelkov NS, Sannikova AA, Zvorykin IA, Men'shikova NN, Sakhabutdinova EP, Gabdrakhmanova NK: [The method for detection of urinary lysozyme]. Klin Lab Diagn. 2001 Apr;(4):52-3. [PubMed:11393034 ]
  15. Farnia P, Mohammadi F, Zarifi Z, Tabatabee DJ, Ganavi J, Ghazisaeedi K, Farnia PK, Gheydi M, Bahadori M, Masjedi MR, Velayati AA: Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Feb;40(2):508-11. [PubMed:11825964 ]
  16. Sano H, Matsukubo T, Shibasaki K, Itoi H, Takaesu Y: Inhibition of adsorption of oral streptococci to saliva treated hydroxyapatite by chitin derivatives. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 1991 Feb;32(1):9-17. [PubMed:1668072 ]
  17. Johnson SM, Pappagianis D: The coccidioidal complement fixation and immunodiffusion-complement fixation antigen is a chitinase. Infect Immun. 1992 Jul;60(7):2588-92. [PubMed:1612728 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Converts endogenous N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a major component of complex carbohydrates, from lysosomal degradation or nutritional sources into GlcNAc 6-phosphate. Involved in the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) degradation pathway: although human is not able to catalyze formation of Neu5Gc due to the inactive CMAHP enzyme, Neu5Gc is present in food and must be degraded. Also has ManNAc kinase activity.
Gene Name:
NAGK
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJ70
Molecular weight:
42037.295
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Degrades chitin and chitotriose. May participate in the defense against nematodes, fungi and other pathogens. Plays a role in T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune response. Contributes to the response to IL-13 and inflammation in response to IL-13. Stimulates chemokine production by pulmonary epithelial cells. Protects lung epithelial cells against apoptosis and promotes phosphorylation of AKT1. Its function in the inflammatory response and in protecting cells against apoptosis is inhibited by allosamidin, suggesting that the function of this protein depends on carbohydrate binding.
Gene Name:
CHIA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZP6
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Degrades chitin, chitotriose and chitobiose. May participate in the defense against nematodes and other pathogens. Isoform 3 has no enzymatic activity.
Gene Name:
CHIT1
Uniprot ID:
Q13231
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q2VT96
Molecular weight:
46615.5
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q1M0P3
Molecular weight:
33762.3
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q1M0P4
Molecular weight:
33747.3
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHIA
Uniprot ID:
A5D6V7
Molecular weight:
44306.1
General function:
Involved in chitin binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHIA
Uniprot ID:
Q5VUV5
Molecular weight:
45461.2