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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:25:34 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAldosterone
DescriptionAldosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. Specifically it regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. It is synthesized from cholesterol by aldosterone synthase, which is absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. It is the sole endogenous member of the class of mineralocorticoids. Aldosterone increases the permeability of the apical (luminal) membrane of the kidney's collecting ducts to potassium and sodium and activates their basolateral Na+/K+ pumps, stimulating ATP hydrolysis, reabsorbing sodium (Na+) ions and water into the blood, and excreting potassium (K+) ions into the urine.
Reichstein XHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H28O5
Average Molecular Weight360.444
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight360.193674006
IUPAC Name(2R,14S,15R,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2-methyl-5-oxotetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-ene-15-carbaldehyde
Traditional Name(2R,14S,15R,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2-methyl-5-oxotetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-6-ene-15-carbaldehyde
CAS Registry Number52-39-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point166.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0512 mg/mL at 37 °CNot Available
LogP1.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.15 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.67 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity96.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.76 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ox-0009000000-eaba9dd7aea85d496f50View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01tc-0219000000-7247d6fc103cd84f62faView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0540-4494000000-f1432f7c464b86003cd4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-e56c87d6074fb6487b17View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-1019000000-bfed6380c146561bfa02View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9085000000-f708fe69e1df3e835b6fView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Lung
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)SMP00575Not Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)SMP00566Not Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)SMP00576Not Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00718Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00373Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00372Not Available
Amiloride PathwaySMP00133Not Available
Angiotensin MetabolismSMP00587Not Available
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromeSMP00717Not Available
Benazepril PathwaySMP00145Not Available
Bendroflumethiazide PathwaySMP00090Not Available
Blue diaper syndromeSMP00583Not Available
Bumetanide PathwaySMP00088Not Available
Candesartan Action PathwaySMP00158Not Available
Captopril PathwaySMP00146Not Available
Chlorothiazide PathwaySMP00078Not Available
Chlorthalidone PathwaySMP00122Not Available
Cilazapril PathwaySMP00147Not Available
Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHSMP00371Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)SMP00577Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IISMP00578Not Available
Cyclothiazide PathwaySMP00103Not Available
CystinuriaSMP00723Not Available
Enalapril PathwaySMP00148Not Available
Eplerenone PathwaySMP00135Not Available
Eprosartan Action PathwaySMP00159Not Available
Ethacrynic Acid pathwaySMP00097Not Available
Forasartan Action PathwaySMP00160Not Available
Fosinopril PathwaySMP00149Not Available
Furosemide PathwaySMP00115Not Available
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)SMP00184Not Available
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)SMP00245Not Available
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189Not Available
Hydrochlorothiazide PathwaySMP00100Not Available
Hydroflumethiazide PathwaySMP00108Not Available
IminoglycinuriaSMP00193Not Available
Indapamide PathwaySMP00110Not Available
Irbesartan Action PathwaySMP00161Not Available
Kidney FunctionSMP00483Not Available
Lisinopril PathwaySMP00150Not Available
Losartan Action PathwaySMP00162Not Available
Lysinuric Protein IntoleranceSMP00197Not Available
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI)SMP00585Not Available
Methyclothiazide PathwaySMP00081Not Available
Metolazone PathwaySMP00105Not Available
Moexipril PathwaySMP00151Not Available
Olmesartan Action PathwaySMP00163Not Available
Perindopril PathwaySMP00152Not Available
Polythiazide PathwaySMP00080Not Available
Quinapril PathwaySMP00153Not Available
Quinethazone PathwaySMP00091Not Available
Ramipril PathwaySMP00154Not Available
Rescinnamine PathwaySMP00155Not Available
Spirapril PathwaySMP00156Not Available
Spironolactone PathwaySMP00134Not Available
Telmisartan Action PathwaySMP00164Not Available
Temocapril Action PathwaySMP00733Not Available
Torsemide PathwaySMP00118Not Available
Trandolapril PathwaySMP00157Not Available
Triamterene PathwaySMP00132Not Available
Trichlormethiazide PathwaySMP00121Not Available
Valsartan Action PathwaySMP00165Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000026 (0.000008 - 0.000044) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB. Tietz cli...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00011 (0.000055 - 0.002) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000282 +/- 0.000037 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000263 +/- 0.000014 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00042 +/- 0.00004 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01 (0.006-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB. Tietz cli...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00041 +/- 0.00005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Heart failure
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000233 +/- 0.000040 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Heart failure
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Heart failure
  1. Ferreira A, Bettencourt P, Pestana M, Correia F, Serrao P, Martins L, Cerqueira-Gomes M, Soares-Da-Silva P: Heart failure, aging, and renal synthesis of dopamine. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Sep;38(3):502-9. [PubMed:11532681 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021883
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24774738
KEGG Compound IDC01780
BiGG ID38397
Wikipedia LinkAldosterone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00037
Metagene LinkHMDB00037
PubChem Compound24758425
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27584
Synthesis ReferenceBear, Brian R.; Parnes, Jason S.; Shea, Kenneth J. Progress toward the Total Synthesis of (+)-Aldosterone: Synthesis of the A-D Rings. Organic Letters (2003), 5(10), 1613-1616.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Funder JW: The nongenomic actions of aldosterone. Endocr Rev. 2005 May;26(3):313-21. Epub 2005 Apr 6. [PubMed:15814845 ]
  2. Shima H, Kawanaka H, Yabumoto Y, Okamoto E, Ikoma F: A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency with chromosomal karyotype 46,XY and high plasma aldosterone concentration. Int Urol Nephrol. 1991;23(6):611-8. [PubMed:1769794 ]
  3. Rosendahl W, Konig M, Haack D, Vecsei P, Lewicka S: [Variability of corticosterone methyl oxidase (type II) deficiency. Presentation of three case reports]. Klin Padiatr. 1993 May-Jun;205(3):180-4. [PubMed:8350592 ]
  4. Christ M, Zange J, Janson CP, Muller K, Kuklinski P, Schmidt BM, Tillmann HC, Gerzer R, Wehling M: Hypoxia modulates rapid effects of aldosterone on oxidative metabolism in human calf muscle. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Sep;24(8):587-97. [PubMed:11686541 ]
  5. Lijnen P, Petrov V: Induction of cardiac fibrosis by aldosterone. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Jun;32(6):865-79. [PubMed:10888242 ]
  6. du Cheyron D, Lesage A, Daubin C, Ramakers M, Charbonneau P: Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism: a possible etiological factor of septic shock-induced acute renal failure. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Oct;29(10):1703-9. Epub 2003 Aug 28. [PubMed:14551679 ]
  7. Laskowska M, Leszczynska-Gorzelak B, Laskowska K, Oleszczuk J: Evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth retardation. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2004;59(2):451-6. [PubMed:16146128 ]
  8. Few JD, Chaudry S, James VH: The direct determination of aldosterone in human saliva. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 Jul;21(1):87-92. [PubMed:6748658 ]
  9. Cicoira M, Zanolla L, Franceschini L, Rossi A, Golia G, Zeni P, Caruso B, Zardini P: Relation of aldosterone "escape" despite angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor administration to impaired exercise capacity in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Feb 15;89(4):403-7. [PubMed:11835920 ]
  10. Goodfriend TL, Kelley DE, Goodpaster BH, Winters SJ: Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with plasma aldosterone levels in women. Obes Res. 1999 Jul;7(4):355-62. [PubMed:10440591 ]
  11. Lewicka S, Vecsei P, Bige K, Fisher T, Winter J, Abdelhamid S, Heinrich U, Bokkenheuser VD: Urinary excretion of aldosterone metabolite Kelly-M1 in patients with adrenal dysfunction. J Steroid Biochem. 1988 Mar;29(3):333-9. [PubMed:3258645 ]
  12. Heindl S, Holzschneider J, Hinz A, Sayk F, Fehm HL, Dodt C: Acute effects of aldosterone on the autonomic nervous system and the baroreflex function in healthy humans. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Feb;18(2):115-21. [PubMed:16420280 ]
  13. Engeli S, Bohnke J, Gorzelniak K, Janke J, Schling P, Bader M, Luft FC, Sharma AM: Weight loss and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Hypertension. 2005 Mar;45(3):356-62. Epub 2005 Jan 3. [PubMed:15630041 ]
  14. Velazquez H, Perazella MA, Wright FS, Ellison DH: Renal mechanism of trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Aug 15;119(4):296-301. [PubMed:8328738 ]
  15. Touger L, Joseph M, Hasan KS: Hypertension in a patient with aldosterone deficiency. Endocr Pract. 2005 Mar-Apr;11(2):104-7. [PubMed:15901525 ]
  16. Summa V, Camargo SM, Bauch C, Zecevic M, Verrey F: Isoform specificity of human Na(+), K(+)-ATPase localization and aldosterone regulation in mouse kidney cells. J Physiol. 2004 Mar 1;555(Pt 2):355-64. Epub 2003 Dec 23. [PubMed:14694143 ]
  17. Fox CS, Larson MG, Hwang SJ, Leip EP, Rifai N, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM, Meigs JB, Vasan RS: Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample. Kidney Int. 2006 Jun;69(11):2064-9. [PubMed:16572107 ]
  18. Badalian SS, Mikhailov AV: [Characteristics of the renin-aldosterone system of the fetoplacental complex in fetal erythroblastosis]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk). 1990 May;(5):55-8. [PubMed:2118736 ]
  19. Tanemoto M, Abe T, Obara N, Abe M, Satoh F, Ito S: Successful treatment of severe hypertension with the combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker. Hypertens Res. 2003 Oct;26(10):863-8. [PubMed:14621191 ]
  20. Pitt B, Stier CT Jr, Rajagopalan S: Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade: new insights into the mechanism of action in patients with cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2003 Sep;4(3):164-8. [PubMed:14608520 ]


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → Aldosterone + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
11b,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NADP → Aldosterone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein kinase that plays an important role in cellular stress response. Activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability and renal sodium excretion. Sustained high levels and activity may contribute to conditions such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Mediates cell survival signals, phosphorylates and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic FOXO3A. Phosphorylates NEDD4L, which leads to its inactivation and to the subsequent activation of various channels and transporters such as ENaC, KCNA3/Kv1.3 or EAAT1. Isoform 2 exhibited a greater effect on cell plasma membrane expression of ENaC and Na(+) transport than isoform 1
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Cordas E, Naray-Fejes-Toth A, Fejes-Toth G: Subcellular location of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 in renal and mammary epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):C1971-81. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17202226 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 2 may act as an antagonist of EGF action
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. McEneaney V, Harvey BJ, Thomas W: Aldosterone rapidly activates protein kinase D via a mineralocorticoid receptor/EGFR trans-activation pathway in the M1 kidney CCD cell line. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Nov-Dec;107(3-5):180-90. Epub 2007 Jun 22. [PubMed:17681751 ]
General function:
Involved in intracellular signaling pathway
Specific function:
Converts transient diacylglycerol (DAG) signals into prolonged physiological effects, downstream of PKC. Involved in resistance to oxidative stress through activation of NF-kappa-B
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. McEneaney V, Harvey BJ, Thomas W: Aldosterone regulates rapid trafficking of epithelial sodium channel subunits in renal cortical collecting duct cells via protein kinase D activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Apr;22(4):881-92. doi: 10.1210/me.2007-0225. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [PubMed:18202152 ]
General function:
Involved in collagen binding
Specific function:
Anastellin binds fibronectin and induces fibril formation. This fibronectin polymer, named superfibronectin, exhibits enhanced adhesive properties. Both anastellin and superfibronectin inhibit tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Anastellin activates p38 MAPK and inhibits lysophospholipid signaling
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Lai L, Chen J, Hao CM, Lin S, Gu Y: Aldosterone promotes fibronectin production through a Smad2-dependent TGF-beta1 pathway in mesangial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 15;348(1):70-5. Epub 2006 Jul 21. [PubMed:16876110 ]
General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
Cardiac hormone which may function as a paracrine antifibrotic factor in the heart. Also plays a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis through natriuresis, diuresis, vasorelaxation, and inhibition of renin and aldosterone secretion. Specifically binds and stimulates the cGMP production of the NPR1 receptor. Binds the clearance receptor NPR3
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in insulin-like growth factor binding
Specific function:
Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Gauer S, Segitz V, Goppelt-Struebe M: Aldosterone induces CTGF in mesangial cells by activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Nov;22(11):3154-9. Epub 2007 Jun 30. [PubMed:17602195 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for angiotensin II. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Yamada M, Kushibiki M, Osanai T, Tomita H, Okumura K: Vasoconstrictor effect of aldosterone via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor: possible role of AT1 receptor dimerization. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Jul 1;79(1):169-78. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvn064. Epub 2008 Mar 7. [PubMed:18326554 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. White WB: Drospirenone with 17beta-estradiol in the postmenopausal woman with hypertension. Climacteric. 2007 Feb;10 Suppl 1:25-31. [PubMed:17364595 ]
General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
AM and PAMP are potent hypotensive and vasodilatator agents. Numerous actions have been reported most related to the physiologic control of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. In the kidney, am is diuretic and natriuretic, and both am and pamp inhibit aldosterone secretion by direct adrenal actions. In pituitary gland, both peptides at physiologically relevant doses inhibit basal ACTH secretion. Both peptides appear to act in brain and pituitary gland to facilitate the loss of plasma volume, actions which complement their hypotensive effects in blood vessels
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. Has a relaxing effect on smooth muscle. May play an important role in regulating renal hemodynamics, intestinal epithelial transport, adrenal aldosterone secretion, and uterine function
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
18-Hydroxycorticosterone + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → Aldosterone + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in Rab GTPase binding
Specific function:
Rab effector protein involved in melanosome transport. Serves as link between melanosome-bound RAB27A and the motor protein MYO5A
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Martel JA, Michael D, Fejes-Toth G, Naray-Fejes-Toth A: Melanophilin, a novel aldosterone-induced gene in mouse cortical collecting duct cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):F904-13. Epub 2007 Jul 3. [PubMed:17609287 ]