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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-13 13:17:12 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:46:06 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004158
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04158
Metabolite Identification
Common NameUrobilinogen
DescriptionUrobilinogen is a tetrapyrrole chemical compound that is that is the parent compound of both stercobilin (the pigment that is responsible for the brown color of feces) and urobilin (the pigment that is responsible for the yellow color of urine). Urobilinogen is formed through the microbial degradation of its parent compound bilirubin. Urobilinogen is actually generated through the degradation of heme, the red pigment in haemoglobin and red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs have a life span of about 120 days. When the RBCs have reached the end of their useful lifespan, the cells are engulfed by macrophages and their constituents recycled or disposed of. Heme is broken down when the heme ring is opened by the enzyme known as heme oxygenase, which is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of the macrophages. The oxidation process produces the linear tetrapyrrole known as biliverdin along with ferric iron (Fe3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). In the next reaction, a second methylene group (located between rings III and IV of the porphyrin ring) is reduced by the enzyme known as biliverdin reductase, producing bilirubin. Bilirubin is significantly less extensively conjugated than biliverdin. This reduction causes a change in the color of the biliverdin molecule from blue-green (vert or verd for green) to yellow-red, which is the color of bilirubin (ruby or rubi for red). In plasma virtually all the bilirubin is tightly bound to plasma proteins, largely albumin, because it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. In the sinusoids unconjugated bilirubin dissociates from albumin, enters the liver cells across the cell membrane through non-ionic diffusion to the smooth endoplasmatic reticulum. In hepatocytes, bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyltransferase (bilirubin-UGT) adds 2 additional glucuronic acid molecules to bilirubin to produce the more water-soluble version of the molecule known as bilirubin diglucuronide. The bilirubin diglucuronide is transferred rapidly across the canalicular membrane into the bile canaliculi where it is then excreted as bile into the large intestine. The bilirubin is further degraded (reduced) by microbes present in the large intestine to form a colorless product known as urobilinogen. Urobilinogen that remains in the colon can either be reduced to stercobilinogen and finally oxidized to stercobilin, or it can be directly reduced to stercobilin. Some of the urobilinogen produced by the gut bacteria is reabsorbed and re-enters the enterohepatic circulation. This reabsorbed urobilinogen is oxidized and converted to urobilin. The urobilin is processed through the kidneys and then excreted in the urine, which causes the yellowish color in urine. Urobilinogen (also known as D-urobilinogen) is closely related to two other compounds: mesobilirubinogen (also known as I-urobilinogen) and stercobilinogen (also known as. L-urobilinogen). Specifically, urobilinogen can be reduced to form mesobilirubinogen, and mesobilirubinogen can be further reduced to form stercobilinogen. Confusingly, all three of these compounds are frequently collectively referred to as "urobilinogens". Urobilinogen content can be determined by a reaction with Ehrlich's reagent, which contains para-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Ehrlich's reagent reacts with urobilinogen to give a pink-red color. Low urine urobilinogen may result from complete obstructive jaundice or treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which destroy the intestinal bacterial flora. Low urine urobilinogen levels may also result from congenital enzymatic jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia syndromes) or from treatment with drugs that acidify urine, such as ammonium chloride or ascorbic acid. Elevated urine levels of urinobilinogen may indicate hemolytic anaemia, a large hematoma, restricted liver function, hepatic infection, poisoning or liver cirrhosis.
Structure
Data?1563860766
Synonyms
ValueSource
UrobilinogenHMDB
d-UrobilinogenHMDB
Chemical FormulaC33H42N4O6
Average Molecular Weight590.7098
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight590.310435096
IUPAC Name3-(2-{[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-[(4-ethenyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methyl}-5-[(3-ethyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional Name3-(2-{[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-[(4-ethenyl-3-methyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrrol-2-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methyl}-5-[(3-ethyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrrol-2-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)propanoic acid
CAS Registry Number17208-65-0
SMILES
CCC1=C(C)C(=O)NC1CC1=C(C)C(CCC(O)=O)=C(CC2=C(CCC(O)=O)C(C)=C(CC3NC(=O)C(C=C)=C3C)N2)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C33H42N4O6/c1-7-20-19(6)32(42)37-27(20)14-25-18(5)23(10-12-31(40)41)29(35-25)15-28-22(9-11-30(38)39)17(4)24(34-28)13-26-16(3)21(8-2)33(43)36-26/h8,26-27,34-35H,2,7,9-15H2,1,3-6H3,(H,36,43)(H,37,42)(H,38,39)(H,40,41)
InChI KeyKSQFFJKKJAEKTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as bilirubins. These are organic compounds containing a dicarboxylic acyclic tetrapyrrole derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassBilirubins
Direct ParentBilirubins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Bilirubin skeleton
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Pyrrole
  • Pyrroline
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.02 g/LALOGPS
logP2.77ALOGPS
logP3.46ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.038ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area164.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity166.09 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability65.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-5600190000-39b380b30d3296452a8aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-7600019000-726abed506367aa18efcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0006-0009110000-22201ddfa15f4e8ab99fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0000090000-e7d752494982063db039JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dj-0200290000-a50512ce586c48b2dd77JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00kr-2000920000-82cae0801f5ae06ee29dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0079-0000090000-c473bc91332a49995cbbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00ds-1100090000-63230997999368b5e280JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9010220000-1e3be1cd0f823364b481JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.000-2.878 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.00-2.88 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • David F. Putnam C...
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Crohn disease
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Ulcerative colitis
    details
    FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
    Colorectal cancer
    details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Crohn's disease
    1. Azario I, Pievani A, Del Priore F, Antolini L, Santi L, Corsi A, Cardinale L, Sawamoto K, Kubaski F, Gentner B, Bernardo ME, Valsecchi MG, Riminucci M, Tomatsu S, Aiuti A, Biondi A, Serafini M: Neonatal umbilical cord blood transplantation halts skeletal disease progression in the murine model of MPS-I. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 25;7(1):9473. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09958-9. [PubMed:28842642 ]
    Ulcerative colitis
    1. Azario I, Pievani A, Del Priore F, Antolini L, Santi L, Corsi A, Cardinale L, Sawamoto K, Kubaski F, Gentner B, Bernardo ME, Valsecchi MG, Riminucci M, Tomatsu S, Aiuti A, Biondi A, Serafini M: Neonatal umbilical cord blood transplantation halts skeletal disease progression in the murine model of MPS-I. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 25;7(1):9473. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09958-9. [PubMed:28842642 ]
    Colorectal cancer
    1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB023323
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID389649
    KEGG Compound IDC05791
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkUrobilinogen
    METLIN ID7021
    PubChem Compound440784
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID4260
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceWatson, C. J.; Lowry, P. T. A further study of crystalline d-urobilin. Journal of Biological Chemistry (1956), 218 633-9.
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Binder L, Smith D, Kupka T, Nelson B, Glass B, Wainscott M, Haynes J: Failure of prediction of liver function test abnormalities with the urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1989 Jan;113(1):73-6. [PubMed:2642693 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
    Specific function:
    Plays an important role in the degradation of dermatan and keratan sulfates.
    Gene Name:
    GUSB
    Uniprot ID:
    P08236
    Molecular weight:
    74731.46
    Reactions
    Bilirubin diglucuronide + Water + Reduced acceptor → Urobilinogen + D-Glucuronic acid + Acceptordetails