Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Ascorbic acid (HMDB00044)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-05-29 13:24:37 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB00044
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14273
  • HMDB29945
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Ascorbic acid
Description Ascorbic acid is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables and is an essential nutrient in human diets. It is necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. The biologically active form of ascorbic acid is vitamin C. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin. Primates (including humans) and a few other species in all divisions of the animal kingdom, notably the guinea pig, have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid and must obtain it in their food. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant. [PubChem] Ascorbic acid is an electron donor for enzymes involved in collagen hydroxylation, biosynthesis of carnitine and norepinephrine, tyrosine metabolism, and amidation of peptide hormones. Ascrobic acid (vitamin C) deficiency causes scurvy. The amount of vitamin C necessary to prevent scurvy may not be adequate to maintain optimal health. The ability of vitamin C to donate electrons also makes it a potent water-soluble antioxidant that readily scavenges free radicals such as molecular oxygen, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid. In this setting, several mechanisms could account for a link between vitamin C and heart disease. One is the relation between LDL oxidation and vitamins C and E. Vitamin C in vitro can recycle vitamin E, which can donate electrons to prevent LDL oxidation in vitro. As the lipid-phase vitamin E is oxidized, it can be regenerated by aqueous vitamin C. Other possibilities are that vitamin C could decrease cholesterol by mechanisms not well characterized, or could improve vasodilatation and vascular reactivity, perhaps by decreasing the interactions of nitric oxide with oxidants. (PMID: 10799361 Link_out).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. (+)-ascorbate
  2. (+)-ascorbic acid
  3. (+)-Sodium L-ascorbate
  4. 3-Keto-L-gulofuranolactone
  5. 3-Oxo-L-gulofuranolactone
  6. Adenex
  7. Allercorb
  8. Antiscorbic vitamin
  9. Antiscorbutic vitamin
  10. Arco-cee
  11. Ascoltin
  12. Ascor-B.I.D.
  13. Ascorb
  14. Ascorbajen
  15. Ascorbate
  16. Ascorbic acid
  17. Ascorbicab
  18. Ascorbicap
  19. Ascorbicin
  20. Ascorbin
  21. Ascorbutina
  22. Ascorin
  23. Ascorteal
  24. Ascorvit
  25. C-Level
  26. C-Long
  27. C-Quin
  28. C-Span
  29. C-Vimin
  30. Cantan
  31. Cantaxin
  32. Catavin C
  33. Ce lent
  34. Ce-mi-lin
  35. Ce-vi-sol
  36. Cebicure
  37. Cebid
  38. Cebion
  39. Cebione
  40. Cecon
  41. Cee-caps TD
  42. Cee-vite
  43. Cegiolan
  44. Ceglion
  45. Ceklin
  46. Celaskon
  47. Celin
  48. Cell C
  49. Cemagyl
  50. Cemill
  51. Cenetone
  52. Cenolate
  53. Cereon
  54. Cergona
  55. Cescorbat
  56. Cetamid
  57. Cetane
  58. Cetane-caps TC
  59. Cetane-caps TD
  60. Cetebe
  61. Cetemican
  62. Cevalin
  63. Cevatine
  64. Cevex
  65. Cevi-bid
  66. Cevimin
  67. Cevital
  68. Cevitamate
  69. Cevitamic acid
  70. Cevitamin
  71. Cevitan
  72. Cevitex
  73. Cewin
  74. Chewcee
  75. Ciamin
  76. Cipca
  77. Citriscorb
  78. Citrovit
  79. Colascor
  80. Concemin
  81. Davitamon C
  82. Dora-C-500
  83. Duoscorb
  84. Ferrous ascorbate
  85. gamma-Lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonate
  86. gamma-Lactone L-threo-Hex-2-enonic acid
  87. HiCee
  88. Hybrin
  89. Ido-C
  90. Juvamine
  91. Kangbingfeng
  92. Kyselina askorbova
  93. L(+)-Ascorbate
  94. L(+)-Ascorbic acid
  95. L-(+)-Ascorbate
  96. L-(+)-Ascorbic acid
  97. L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
  98. L-Ascorbate
  99. L-Ascorbic acid
  100. L-Lyxoascorbate
  101. L-Lyxoascorbic acid
  102. L-Threo-ascorbic acid
  103. L-Xyloascorbate
  104. L-Xyloascorbic acid
  105. Laroscorbine
  106. Lemascorb
  107. Liqui-cee
  108. Meri-c
  109. Natrascorb
  110. Natrascorb injectable
  111. Planavit C
  112. Proscorbin
  113. Redoxon
  114. Ribena
  115. Ronotec 100
  116. Rontex 100
  117. Roscorbic
  118. Rovimix C
  119. Scorbacid
  120. Scorbu C
  121. Scorbu-C
  122. Secorbate
  123. Sodascorbate
  124. Suncoat VC 40
  125. Testascorbic
  126. VASC
  127. Vicelat
  128. Vicin
  129. Vicomin C
  130. Viforcit
  131. Viscorin
  132. Viscorin 100M
  133. Vitace
  134. Vitacee
  135. Vitacimin
  136. Vitacin
  137. Vitamin C
  138. Vitamisin
  139. Vitascorbol
  140. Xitix
Chemical Formula C6H8O6
Average Molecular Weight 176.1241
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 176.032087988
IUPAC Name (5R)-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
Traditional IUPAC Name vitamin C
CAS Registry Number 50-81-7
SMILES [H][C@@]1(OC(=O)C(O)=C1O)[C@@H](O)CO
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C6H8O6/c7-1-2(8)5-3(9)4(10)6(11)12-5/h2,5,7-10H,1H2/t2-,5+/m0/s1
InChI Key CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
Class Dihydrofurans
Sub Class Furanones
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Ketone
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct Parent Butenolides
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential vitamins
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Nutrient
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamins (Vitamin C)
Application
  • Dye / Coloring Agent
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 191 °C PhysProp
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 400 mg/mL at 40 °C MERCK INDEX (1996)
LogP -1.85 AVDEEF,A (1997)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 245 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -1.58 ALOGPS
LogP -1.9 ChemAxon
LogS 0.14 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 4.36 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) -3 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 4 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 107.22 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 2 ChemAxon
Refractivity 37.03 ChemAxon
Polarizability 14.94 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Bladder
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Lymphocyte
  • Most Tissues
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Erythrocyte
  • Liver
  • Epidermis
  • Brain
  • Myelin
  • Prostate
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Lung
  • Platelet
  • Gonads
  • Spleen
  • Eye Lens
  • Heart
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Catecholamine Biosynthesis SMP00012 map00350 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Amniotic Fluid Detected and Quantified
20.4 +/- 12.21 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
88.6 (21.0 - 171.0) uM Children (1-13 year old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
60.8 +/- 15.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
51.0 (11.0 - 125.0) uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Not Specified Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
36.0 +/- 18.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
63.0 (11.0-114.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • The Merck Ma...
Blood Detected and Quantified
22.2 (14.0-40.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
27.0 (11.1-49.7) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
50.9 (35.4-80.1) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
68.0 +/- 43.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
68.0 (17.0-119.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
163.8 +/- 21 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
133 +/- 58.8 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
164.0 (143.0-185.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
144.0 (36.2-251.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected but not Quantified
Not Applicable Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
32.5 (4.6-78) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
1.70-22.72 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • David F. Put...
Urine Detected and Quantified
17.0 +/- 2.5 umol/mmol creatinine Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
63.6 +/-142.9 umol/mmol creatinine Infant (0-1 year old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.512 +/-0.058 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 39.0 +/- 92.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Hyperoxalemia
Blood Detected and Quantified 6.5 +/- 18.6 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Hyperoxalemia
Blood Detected and Quantified 82.57 +/- 36.71 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Canavan disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 53.8 (45.8-61.8) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Comment Brain injury
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 11.9 (0.0-24) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Meningitis
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Traumatic brain injury
  • Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. Pubmed: 11978879 Link_out
      Meningitis
      • Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. Pubmed: 11805243 Link_out
          Hyperoxalemia
          • Ogawa Y, Machida N, Jahana M, Gakiya M, Chinen Y, Oda M, Morozumi M, Sugaya K: Major factors modulating the serum oxalic acid level in hemodialysis patients. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2901-8. Pubmed: 15353324 Link_out
              Canavan disease
              • Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. Pubmed: 16139832 Link_out
                  Associated OMIM IDs
                  DrugBank ID DB00126 Link_out
                  DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                  Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                  FoodDB ID FDB001224
                  KNApSAcK ID C00001179 Link_out
                  Chemspider ID 10189562 Link_out
                  KEGG Compound ID C00072 Link_out
                  BioCyc ID ASCORBATE Link_out
                  BiGG ID 33747 Link_out
                  Wikipedia Link Ascorbic acid Link_out
                  NuGOwiki Link HMDB00044 Link_out
                  Metagene Link HMDB00044 Link_out
                  METLIN ID 3753 Link_out
                  PubChem Compound 54670067 Link_out
                  PDB ID 1E71 Link_out
                  ChEBI ID 17208 Link_out
                  References
                  Synthesis Reference Not Available
                  Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                  General References
                  1. Jacobsson L, Lindgarde F, Manthorpe R, Akesson B: Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and serum micronutrients in relation to common rheumatic complaints in Swedish adults 50-70 years old. Scand J Rheumatol. 1992;21(4):171-7. Pubmed: 1529283 Link_out
                  2. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. Pubmed: 11978879 Link_out
                  3. Luck MR, Jeyaseelan I, Scholes RA: Ascorbic acid and fertility. Biol Reprod. 1995 Feb;52(2):262-6. Pubmed: 7711198 Link_out
                  4. Sotiriou S, Gispert S, Cheng J, Wang Y, Chen A, Hoogstraten-Miller S, Miller GF, Kwon O, Levine M, Guttentag SH, Nussbaum RL: Ascorbic-acid transporter Slc23a1 is essential for vitamin C transport into the brain and for perinatal survival. Nat Med. 2002 May;8(5):514-7. Pubmed: 11984597 Link_out
                  5. Wolters M, Hickstein M, Flintermann A, Tewes U, Hahn A: Cognitive performance in relation to vitamin status in healthy elderly German women-the effect of 6-month multivitamin supplementation. Prev Med. 2005 Jul;41(1):253-9. Epub 2005 Jan 6. Pubmed: 15917019 Link_out
                  6. Chiplonkar SA, Agte VV, Tarwadi KV, Paknikar KM, Diwate UP: Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):239-47. Pubmed: 15190049 Link_out
                  7. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. Pubmed: 2026685 Link_out
                  8. Dudek H, Farbiszewski R, Rydzewska M, Michno T, Kozlowski A: [Concentration of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and substances reacting with thiobarbituric acid (TBA-rs) in single human brain metastases] Wiad Lek. 2005;58(7-8):379-81. Pubmed: 16425787 Link_out
                  9. Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, Hallfrisch J, Rohrmann S, Metter EJ, Platz EA: Prediagnostic plasma vitamin C levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Nutrition. 2005 Jun;21(6):686-90. Pubmed: 15925292 Link_out
                  10. Atanasova BD, Li AC, Bjarnason I, Tzatchev KN, Simpson RJ: Duodenal ascorbate and ferric reductase in human iron deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):130-3. Pubmed: 15640471 Link_out
                  11. Huang J, May JM: Ascorbic acid protects SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis and death induced by beta-amyloid. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 30;1097(1):52-8. Epub 2006 May 24. Pubmed: 16725131 Link_out
                  12. Kastenbauer S, Koedel U, Becker BF, Pfister HW: Oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis in humans. Neurology. 2002 Jan 22;58(2):186-91. Pubmed: 11805243 Link_out
                  13. Hino K, Murakami Y, Nagai A, Kitase A, Hara Y, Furutani T, Ren F, Yamaguchi Y, Yutoku K, Yamashita S, Okuda M, Okita M, Okita K: Alpha-tocopherol [corrected] and ascorbic acid attenuates the ribavirin [corrected] induced decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;21(8):1269-75. Pubmed: 16872308 Link_out
                  14. Kodama M, Inoue F, Kodama T, Kodama M: Intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid delays the turnover of 3H-labelled cortisol in the plasma of an ODS rat, but not in the Wistar rat. Evidence in support of the cardinal role of vitamin C in the progression of glucocorticoid synthesis. In Vivo. 1996 Jan-Feb;10(1):97-102. Pubmed: 8726814 Link_out
                  15. Trommer H, Bottcher R, Poppl A, Hoentsch J, Wartewig S, Neubert RH: Role of ascorbic acid in stratum corneum lipid models exposed to UV irradiation. Pharm Res. 2002 Jul;19(7):982-90. Pubmed: 12180551 Link_out
                  16. Grunewald RA: Ascorbic acid in the brain. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993 Jan-Apr;18(1):123-33. Pubmed: 8467348 Link_out
                  17. Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, Doran D, Holloway C, McArdle F, MacLaren DP: Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. Br J Nutr. 2006 May;95(5):976-81. Pubmed: 16611389 Link_out
                  18. Li C, Chen Y, Wang Q: [Whole bladder wall laser irradiation to prevent bladder cancer recurrence with intravesical HpD and ascorbic acid] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1997 Nov;19(6):463-5. Pubmed: 10920885 Link_out
                  19. Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Rumley A, Bruckdorfer KR, Whincup PH: Associations of vitamin C status, fruit and vegetable intakes, and markers of inflammation and hemostasis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):567-74; quiz 726-7. Pubmed: 16522902 Link_out
                  20. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411 Link_out
                  21. Padayatty SJ, Levine M: Vitamin C and myocardial infarction: the heart of the matter. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;71(5):1027-8. Pubmed: 10799361 Link_out
                  22. Englard S, Seifter S: The biochemical functions of ascorbic acid. Annu Rev Nutr. 1986;6:365-406. Pubmed: 3015170 Link_out
                  23. Proctor P: Similar functions of uric acid and ascorbate in man? Nature. 1970 Nov 28;228(5274):868. Pubmed: 5477017 Link_out
                  24. Meister A: Glutathione-ascorbic acid antioxidant system in animals. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1;269(13):9397-400. Pubmed: 8144521 Link_out
                  25. Banhegyi G, Mandl J: The hepatic glycogenoreticular system. Pathol Oncol Res. 2001;7(2):107-10. Pubmed: 11458272 Link_out
                  26. Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, Chen S, Corpe C, Dutta A, Dutta SK, Levine M: Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):18-35. Pubmed: 12569111 Link_out
                  27. Korcok J, Dixon SJ, Lo TC, Wilson JX: Differential effects of glucose on dehydroascorbic acid transport and intracellular ascorbate accumulation in astrocytes and skeletal myocytes. Brain Res. 2003 Dec 12;993(1-2):201-7. Pubmed: 14642847 Link_out

                  Enzymes
                  Name: Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
                  Reactions:
                  Peptidylglycine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
                  Gene Name: PAM
                  Uniprot ID: P19021 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
                  Reactions:
                  Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown xi-Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
                  Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen unknown Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Water details
                  Gene Name: DBH
                  Uniprot ID: P09172 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomal
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PHYH
                  Uniprot ID: O14832 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: P4HA2
                  Uniprot ID: O15460 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: P4HA1
                  Uniprot ID: P13674 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: LCT
                  Uniprot ID: P09848 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: BBOX1
                  Uniprot ID: O75936 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLOD1
                  Uniprot ID: Q02809 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLOD2
                  Uniprot ID: O00469 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: PLOD3
                  Uniprot ID: O60568 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
                  Reactions:
                  Glutathione + Dehydroascorbic acid unknown Oxidized glutathione + Ascorbic acid details
                  Gene Name: GSTO1
                  Uniprot ID: P78417 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Glutathione S-transferase omega-2
                  Reactions:
                  Glutathione + Dehydroascorbic acid unknown Oxidized glutathione + Ascorbic acid details
                  Gene Name: GSTO2
                  Uniprot ID: Q9H4Y5 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Protein disulfide-isomerase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: P4HB
                  Uniprot ID: P07237 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Solute carrier family 23 member 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC23A1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UHI7 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Solute carrier family 23 member 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC23A2
                  Uniprot ID: Q9UGH3 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrial
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: TMLHE
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NVH6 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ALKBH2
                  Uniprot ID: Q6NS38 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: ALKBH3
                  Uniprot ID: Q96Q83 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: LEPRE1
                  Uniprot ID: Q32P28 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: LEPREL1
                  Uniprot ID: Q8IVL5 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: LEPREL2
                  Uniprot ID: Q8IVL6 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Solute carrier family 23 member 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: SLC23A3
                  Uniprot ID: Q6PIS1 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: P4HA3
                  Uniprot ID: Q7Z4N8 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Egl nine homolog 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: EGLN1
                  Uniprot ID: Q9GZT9 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Egl nine homolog 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: EGLN2
                  Uniprot ID: Q96KS0 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Egl nine homolog 3
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: EGLN3
                  Uniprot ID: Q9H6Z9 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: P4HTM
                  Uniprot ID: Q9NXG6 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 1
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: OGFOD1
                  Uniprot ID: Q8N543 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA
                  Name: 2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain-containing protein 2
                  Reactions: Not Available
                  Gene Name: OGFOD2
                  Uniprot ID: Q6N063 Link_out
                  Protein Sequence: FASTA
                  Gene Sequence: FASTA