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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-05-20 08:10:59 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004866
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0000173
  • HMDB00173
  • HMDB04866
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLactosylceramide (d18:1/12:0)
DescriptionLactosylceramide (d18:1/12:0) is a lactosylceramide or LacCer. Lactosylceramides are the most important and abundant of the diosylceramides. Lactosylceramides (LacCer) were originally called 'cytolipin H'. It is found in small amounts only in most animal tissues, but it has a number of significant biological functions and it is of great importance as the biosynthetic precursor of most of the neutral oligoglycosylceramides, sulfatides and gangliosides. In animal tissues, biosynthesis of lactosylceramide involves addition of the second monosaccharides unit (galactose) as its nucleotide derivative to monoglucosylceramide, catalysed by a specific beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase on the lumenal side of the Golgi apparatus. The glucosylceramide precursor must first cross from the cytosolic side of the membrane, possibly via the action of a flippase. The lactosylceramide produced can be further glycosylated or transferred to the plasma membrane. Lactosylceramide may assist in stabilizing the plasma membrane and activating receptor molecules in the special micro-domains or rafts, as with the cerebrosides. It may also have its own specialized function in the immunological system in that it is known to bind to specific bacteria. In addition, it is believed that a number of pro-inflammatory factors activate lactosylceramide synthase to generate lactosylceramide, which in turn activates "oxygen-sensitive" signalling pathways that affect such cellular processes as proliferation, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Dysfunctions in these pathways can affect several diseases of the cardiovascular system, cancer and inflammatory states, so lactosylceramide metabolism is a potential target for new therapeutic treatments. beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide is the second to last step in the synthesis of N-Acylsphingosine and is converted. from Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 6 (EC:2.4.1.-). It can be converted to Glucosylceramide via the enzyme beta-galactosidase (EC:3.2.1.23). Moreover, lactosylceramide (D18:1/12:0) is found to be associated with abetalipoproteinemia and hypobetalipoproteinemia, which are inborn errors of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-O-(4-O-b-D-Galactopyranosyl-b-D-glucopyranosyl)-ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-delta-Galactopyranosyl-beta-delta-glucopyranosyl)-ceramideHMDB
1-O-(4-O-beta-delta-Galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
1Ylce-O-(4-O-beta-delta-galactopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranosyl)ceramideHMDB
beta-D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramideHMDB
beta-delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosramideHMDB
beta-delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosylceramideHMDB
CDHHMDB
CDW17 AntigenHMDB
Cytolipin HHMDB
D-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramideHMDB
delta-Galactosyl-1,4-beta-delta-glucosylceramideHMDB
Gal-beta1->4GLC-beta1->1'cerHMDB
LacCerHMDB
LacCer(D18:1/12:0)HMDB
Lactosyl ceramide (D18:1/12:0)HMDB
Lactosyl-N-acylsphingosineHMDB
LactosylceramideHMDB
N-(Dodecanoyl)-1-b-lactosyl-sphing-4-enineHMDB
N-(Dodecanoyl)-1-beta-lactosyl-sphing-4-enineHMDB
N-Lignoceryl sphingosyl lactosideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC42H79NO13
Average Molecular Weight806.0756
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight805.555141619
IUPAC NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]dodecanamide
Traditional NameN-[(2S,3R,4E)-1-{[(2R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-2-yl]dodecanamide
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCC\C=C\[C@@H](O)[C@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)C1O)NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C42H79NO13/c1-3-5-7-9-11-13-14-15-16-18-19-21-23-25-31(46)30(43-34(47)26-24-22-20-17-12-10-8-6-4-2)29-53-41-39(52)37(50)40(33(28-45)55-41)56-42-38(51)36(49)35(48)32(27-44)54-42/h23,25,30-33,35-42,44-46,48-52H,3-22,24,26-29H2,1-2H3,(H,43,47)/b25-23+/t30-,31+,32+,33+,35-,36-,37+,38+,39?,40+,41+,42-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKNWHKVBHCLQVFX-QXWNENIHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycosyl-n-acylsphingosines. These are compounds containing a sphingosine linked to a simple glucosyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGlycosyl-N-acylsphingosines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • Fatty acyl glycoside of mono- or disaccharide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • Disaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Oxane
  • Fatty acyl
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0Not Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.021 g/LALOGPS
logP4.61ALOGPS
logP5.55ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.92ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area227.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count32ChemAxon
Refractivity212.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability94.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0550-0200309610-f6c301e7c9c570cf4fe7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01t9-0410609200-b7f26710a13afd5225acView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-1920705300-3cd1c8617421be9f0342View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0ukl-1512409570-3d65cc4bae3641087992View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00dr-3703519300-898303877ac86d41dfadView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004l-4900302000-222d0bf59eaa278c1a4aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.5 +/- 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.5 +/- 0.9 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.0 (2.9-3.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAbetalipoproteinemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.5 (2.7-2.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypobetalipoproteinemia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Abetalipoproteinemia
  1. Dawson G, Kruski AW, Scanu AM: Distribution of glycosphingolipids in the serum lipoproteins of normal human subjects and patients with hypo- and hyperlipidemias. J Lipid Res. 1976 Mar;17(2):125-31. [PubMed:178813 ]
Hypobetalipoproteinemia
  1. Dawson G, Kruski AW, Scanu AM: Distribution of glycosphingolipids in the serum lipoproteins of normal human subjects and patients with hypo- and hyperlipidemias. J Lipid Res. 1976 Mar;17(2):125-31. [PubMed:178813 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023465
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID16744880
KEGG Compound IDC01290
BioCyc IDCYTOLIPIN_H
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID7123
PubChem Compound20057304
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID89446
References
Synthesis ReferenceNicolaou, K. C.; Caulfield, T.; Kataoka, H.; Kumazawa, T. A practical and enantioselective synthesis of glycosphingolipids and related compounds. Total synthesis of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Journal of the American Chemical Society (1988), 110(23), 791
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Takizawa M, Nomura T, Wakisaka E, Yoshizuka N, Aoki J, Arai H, Inoue K, Hattori M, Matsuo N: cDNA cloning and expression of human lactosylceramide synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 May 18;1438(2):301-4. [PubMed:10320813 ]
  2. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  3. Ledvinova J, Poupetova H, Hanackova A, Pisacka M, Elleder M: Blood group B glycosphingolipids in alpha-galactosidase deficiency (Fabry disease): influence of secretor status. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Apr 1;1345(2):180-7. [PubMed:9106497 ]
  4. Choudhury A, Dominguez M, Puri V, Sharma DK, Narita K, Wheatley CL, Marks DL, Pagano RE: Rab proteins mediate Golgi transport of caveola-internalized glycosphingolipids and correct lipid trafficking in Niemann-Pick C cells. J Clin Invest. 2002 Jun;109(12):1541-50. [PubMed:12070301 ]
  5. Sala G, Dupre T, Seta N, Codogno P, Ghidoni R: Increased biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids in congenital disorder of glycosylation Ia (CDG-Ia) fibroblasts. Pediatr Res. 2002 Nov;52(5):645-51. [PubMed:12409508 ]
  6. Furukawa K, Takamiya K, Furukawa K: Beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase--GM2/GD2 synthase: a key enzyme to control the synthesis of brain-enriched complex gangliosides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Dec 19;1573(3):356-62. [PubMed:12417418 ]
  7. Komagome R, Sawa H, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Tanaka S, Atwood WJ, Nagashima K: Oligosaccharides as receptors for JC virus. J Virol. 2002 Dec;76(24):12992-3000. [PubMed:12438625 ]
  8. Prinetti A, Basso L, Appierto V, Villani MG, Valsecchi M, Loberto N, Prioni S, Chigorno V, Cavadini E, Formelli F, Sonnino S: Altered sphingolipid metabolism in N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide-resistant A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 21;278(8):5574-83. Epub 2002 Dec 16. [PubMed:12486134 ]
  9. Moore RM, Silver RJ, Moore JJ: Physiological apoptotic agents have different effects upon human amnion epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Placenta. 2003 Feb-Mar;24(2-3):173-80. [PubMed:12566244 ]
  10. Hulkova H, Ledvinova J, Asfaw B, Koubek K, Kopriva K, Elleder M: Lactosylceramide in lysosomal storage disorders: a comparative immunohistochemical and biochemical study. Virchows Arch. 2005 Jul;447(1):31-44. Epub 2005 May 26. [PubMed:15918012 ]
  11. Sharma DK, Brown JC, Cheng Z, Holicky EL, Marks DL, Pagano RE: The glycosphingolipid, lactosylceramide, regulates beta1-integrin clustering and endocytosis. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8233-41. [PubMed:16166299 ]
  12. Stevens CR, Oberholzer VG, Walker-Smith JA, Phillips AD: Lactosylceramide in inflammatory bowel disease: a biochemical study. Gut. 1988 May;29(5):580-7. [PubMed:3396945 ]
  13. Tanaka H, Suzuki K: Lactosylceramidase assays for diagnosis of globoid cell leukodystrophy and GM1-gangliosidosis. Clin Chim Acta. 1977 Mar 1;75(2):267-74. [PubMed:403037 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes sialylated compounds.
Gene Name:
NEU2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3R4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
May function in lysosomal catabolism of sialylated glycoconjugates. Has sialidase activity towards synthetic substrates, such as 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MU-NANA or 4MU-NeuAc). Has a broad substrate specificity being active on glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and sialylated glycolipids.
Gene Name:
NEU4
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWR8
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in exo-alpha-sialidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the removal of sialic acid (N-acetylneuramic acid) moities from glycoproteins and glycolipids. To be active, it is strictly dependent on its presence in the multienzyme complex. Appears to have a preference for alpha 2-3 and alpha 2-6 sialyl linkage.
Gene Name:
NEU1
Uniprot ID:
Q99519
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).
Gene Name:
ST3GAL5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNP4
Molecular weight:
45584.69
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 72 proteins in total.