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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-03-13 21:13:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004920
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0004922
  • HMDB04920
  • HMDB04922
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGanglioside GD3 (d18:1/24:0)
DescriptionGanglioside GD3 (d18:1/24:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GD3 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
alpha-N-Acetylneuraminyl-2,8-alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-glucosyl-1,1'-ceramideHMDB
alpha-N-Acetylneuraminyl-2,8-alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-delta-galactosyl-1,4-beta-glucosyl-1,1'-ceramideHMDB
Ganglioside GD3HMDB
Ganglioside glac2HMDB
GD3HMDB
Glac2HMDB
II3(neuac)2-laccerHMDB
LMG 4HMDB
N,N'-diacetyl-ganglioside GD3HMDB
N,N'-diacetylganglioside GD3HMDB
N-Acetylneuraminyl N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramideHMDB
NeuAc-alpha2->8neuac-alpha2->3gal-beta1->4GLC-beta1->1'cerHMDB
NeuAc-alpha2->8neuac2->3laccerHMDB
NeuAc-GD3HMDB
Chemical FormulaC76H137N3O29
Average Molecular Weight1556.9037
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1555.933775437
IUPAC Name(2S,4S,5R)-6-[(1S,2R)-2-{[(2S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-1,3-dihydroxypropyl]-2-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-tetracosanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Name(2S,4S,5R)-6-[(1S,2R)-2-{[(2S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-1,3-dihydroxypropyl]-2-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-tetracosanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O[C@@]3(C[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(C)=O)C(O3)[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@@]3(C[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(C)=O)C(O3)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO)C(O)=O)C(O)=O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)C1O)[C@H](O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C76H137N3O29/c1-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-28-30-32-34-36-38-40-58(90)79-50(51(86)39-37-35-33-31-29-27-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-2)47-101-71-65(95)64(94)67(57(46-83)103-71)104-72-66(96)70(62(92)55(44-81)102-72)108-76(74(99)100)42-53(88)60(78-49(4)85)69(107-76)63(93)56(45-82)105-75(73(97)98)41-52(87)59(77-48(3)84)68(106-75)61(91)54(89)43-80/h37,39,50-57,59-72,80-83,86-89,91-96H,5-36,38,40-47H2,1-4H3,(H,77,84)(H,78,85)(H,79,90)(H,97,98)(H,99,100)/b39-37+/t50-,51+,52-,53-,54+,55+,56+,57+,59+,60+,61+,62-,63+,64+,65?,66+,67+,68?,69?,70-,71+,72-,75+,76-/m0/s1
InChI KeySBFBJTPSDBNJKB-YDWOKLQZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gangliosides. These are lipid molecules composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and saccharide) with one or more sialic acids linked on the sugar chain. They are usually oligoglycosylceramides derived from lactosylceramide and containing a sialic acid residue such as N-acetylneuraminic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGangliosides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Neuaca2-3galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Oligosaccharide
  • N-acylneuraminic acid or derivatives
  • N-acylneuraminic acid
  • Neuraminic acid
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • C-glucuronide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Oxane
  • Pyran
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Acetal
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0Not Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.037 g/LALOGPS
logP3.21ALOGPS
logP6.08ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count29ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count19ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area518.96 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count58ChemAxon
Refractivity387.95 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability175.77 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Brain
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023511
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID16744919
KEGG Compound IDC06133
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound20057330
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Baric I, Fumic K, Glenn B, Cuk M, Schulze A, Finkelstein JD, James SJ, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Pazanin L, Pogribny IP, Rados M, Sarnavka V, Scukanec-Spoljar M, Allen RH, Stabler S, Uzelac L, Vugrek O, Wagner C, Zeisel S, Mudd SH: S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency in a human: a genetic disorder of methionine metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 23;101(12):4234-9. Epub 2004 Mar 15. [PubMed:15024124 ]
  2. Kristjansdottir R, Uvebrant P, Lekman A, Mansson JE: Cerebrospinal fluid markers in children with cerebral white matter abnormalities. Neuropediatrics. 2001 Aug;32(4):176-82. [PubMed:11571697 ]
  3. Bajorin DF, Chapman PB, Wong GY, Cody BV, Cordon-Cardo C, Dantes L, Templeton MA, Scheinberg D, Oettgen HF, Houghton AN: Treatment with high dose mouse monoclonal (anti-GD3) antibody R24 in patients with metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res. 1992 Dec;2(5-6):355-62. [PubMed:1292783 ]
  4. Reaman GH, Taylor BJ, Merritt WD: Anti-GD3 monoclonal antibody analysis of childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: detection of a target antigen for antibody-mediated cytolysis. Cancer Res. 1990 Jan 1;50(1):202-5. [PubMed:2403416 ]
  5. Reivinen J, Holthofer H, Miettinen A: O-acetyl GD3 ganglioside in human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Int Immunol. 1994 Sep;6(9):1409-16. [PubMed:7819150 ]
  6. Dippold W, Bernhard H, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH: Immunological response to intrathecal and systemic treatment with ganglioside antibody R-24 in patients with malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(2):137-44. [PubMed:8155384 ]
  7. Lekman A, Fredman P: A new procedure for determining ganglioside GD3 a potential glial cell activation marker in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurochem Int. 1998 Aug;33(2):103-8. [PubMed:9761454 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 43 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sialyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the production of gangliosides GD3 and GT3 from GM3; gangliosides are a subfamily of complex glycosphinglolipds that contain one or more residues of sialic acid.
Gene Name:
ST8SIA1
Uniprot ID:
Q92185
Molecular weight:
40518.655
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides GM2, GD2 and GA2.
Gene Name:
B4GALNT1
Uniprot ID:
Q00973
Molecular weight:
58881.78
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 43 proteins in total.