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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-04 10:11:32 UTC
Update Date2019-07-23 05:46:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004926
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04926
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGanglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0)
DescriptionGanglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GD2 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. The GD2 ganglioside is a cell surface component that appears on the surface of metastatic melanoma cells and is a marker for the progression of the disease.(PubMed ID 9216084)Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae.
Structure
Data?1563860790
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(1S,2R)-1-[(3R,4S,6S)-6-carboxy-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-3-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(1-hydroxyethylidene)amino]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1-hydroxyoctadecylidene)amino]octadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-3-[(1-hydroxyethylidene)amino]oxan-2-yl]-1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-hydroxyethylidene)amino]-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylateGenerator
GalNAc-beta1->4(neuac-alpha2->8neuac2->3)gal-beta1->4GLC-beta1->1'cerHMDB
GalNAc-beta1->4(neuac-alpha2->8neuac2->3)laccerHMDB
GD2 GangliosideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC78H138N4O34
Average Molecular Weight1675.9367
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1674.919247584
IUPAC Name(2S,4S,5R)-6-[(1S,2R)-2-{[(2S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-1,3-dihydroxypropyl]-2-{[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-octadecanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Name(2S,4S,5R)-6-[(1S,2R)-2-{[(2S,4S,5R)-2-carboxy-5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxan-2-yl]oxy}-1,3-dihydroxypropyl]-2-{[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-octadecanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-5-acetamido-4-hydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3NC(C)=O)[C@H](O[C@@]3(C[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(C)=O)C(O3)[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@@]3(C[C@H](O)[C@@H](NC(C)=O)C(O3)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO)C(O)=O)C(O)=O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)[C@H](O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C78H138N4O34/c1-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-20-21-23-25-27-29-31-33-35-56(95)82-47(48(91)34-32-30-28-26-24-22-19-17-15-13-11-9-7-2)43-107-73-65(101)64(100)67(54(41-86)109-73)111-74-66(102)71(68(55(42-87)110-74)112-72-59(81-46(5)90)63(99)61(97)52(39-84)108-72)116-78(76(105)106)37-50(93)58(80-45(4)89)70(115-78)62(98)53(40-85)113-77(75(103)104)36-49(92)57(79-44(3)88)69(114-77)60(96)51(94)38-83/h32,34,47-55,57-74,83-87,91-94,96-102H,6-31,33,35-43H2,1-5H3,(H,79,88)(H,80,89)(H,81,90)(H,82,95)(H,103,104)(H,105,106)/b34-32+/t47-,48+,49-,50-,51+,52+,53+,54+,55+,57+,58+,59+,60+,61-,62+,63+,64+,65+,66+,67+,68-,69?,70?,71+,72-,73+,74-,77+,78-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCXQCLLQQYTUUKJ-TUFDDUSQSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galnacb1-4galb1-4glc- (ganglio series). These are neutral glycosphingolipids in which the root sequence is GalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc- (Ganglio series)
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Galnacb1-4galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Neuaca2-3galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Oligosaccharide
  • N-acylneuraminic acid or derivatives
  • N-acylneuraminic acid
  • Neuraminic acid
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • C-glucuronide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty amide
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty acyl
  • Oxane
  • Pyran
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Acetal
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect

Organoleptic effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0Not Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.19 g/LALOGPS
logP1.54ALOGPS
logP1.35ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count34ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count22ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area606.98 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count56ChemAxon
Refractivity403.86 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability182.18 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Nerve Cells
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023516
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID17216305
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound22833638
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. De Grazia E, Cimador M, De Bernardi B: [Recent advances on retroperitoneal neuroblastoma]. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 1997 Sep;69(4):233-40. [PubMed:9417295 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The membrane-associated form is not active
Gene Name:
CD1E
Uniprot ID:
P15812
Molecular weight:
43626.1
General function:
Involved in cholesterol binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis
Gene Name:
NPC2
Uniprot ID:
P61916
Molecular weight:
16570.1

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 41 proteins in total.