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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-09 18:45:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00050
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04401
  • HMDB04402
  • HMDB04421
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAdenosine
DescriptionAdenosine is a nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. For instance, adenosine plays an important role in energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also plays a role in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP. Adenosine itself is both a neurotransmitter and potent vasodilator. When administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node. Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent supraventricular tachycardia, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-beta-D-Ribofuranose
  2. 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-beta-delta-Ribofuranose
  3. 6-Amino-9beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine
  4. 6-Amino-9beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine
  5. 9-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine
  6. 9-beta-D-Ribofuranosidoadenine
  7. 9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine
  8. 9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenine
  9. 9-beta-delta-Arabinofuranosyladenine
  10. 9-beta-delta-Ribofuranosidoadenine
  11. 9-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine
  12. 9-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyladenine
  13. 9beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-Purin-6-amine
  14. 9beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenine
  15. 9beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-9H-Purin-6-amine
  16. 9beta-delta-Ribofuranosyladenine
  17. Adenine nucleoside
  18. Adenine riboside
  19. Adenine-9beta-D-Ribofuranoside
  20. Adenine-9beta-delta-Ribofuranoside
  21. Adenocard
  22. Adenocor
  23. Adenoscan
  24. Adenosin
  25. b-D-Adenosine
  26. beta-Adenosine
  27. beta-D-Adenosine
  28. beta-delta-Adenosine
  29. Boniton
  30. Myocol
  31. Nucleocardyl
  32. Sandesin
Chemical FormulaC10H13N5O4
Average Molecular Weight267.2413
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight267.096753929
IUPAC Name(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
Traditional Nameadenosine
CAS Registry Number58-61-7
SMILES
NC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H13N5O4/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-7(18)6(17)4(1-16)19-10/h2-4,6-7,10,16-18H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChI KeyOIRDTQYFTABQOQ-KQYNXXCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleosides and Analogues
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Ribonucleosides(KEGG)
  • adenosines(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPurine Nucleosides and Analogues
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Methionine metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Selenoamino acid metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point235.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility37 mg/mLHuman Metabolome Project
LogP-1.05HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility14 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area139.54ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity63.2ChemAxon
Polarizability25.04ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.505 +/- 0.142 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5.66 +/- 1.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.285 +/- 0.060 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.2 (0.1-0.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0425 +/- 0.0029 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.31 +/- 0.29 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1.20 (0.90-1.50) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.01 +/- 0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0 - 0.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.17 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (0.9-2.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.7+/-7.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.5+/-14.6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.50 (0.09-0.92) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.126 +/- 0.018 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSeptic shock details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Septic shock
  1. Kaufmann I, Hoelzl A, Schliephake F, Hummel T, Chouker A, Lysenko L, Peter K, Thiel M: Effects of adenosine on functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with septic shock. Shock. 2007 Jan;27(1):25-31. Pubmed: 17172976
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00640
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003554
KNApSAcK IDC00007444
Chemspider ID54923
KEGG Compound IDC00212
BioCyc IDADENOSINE
BiGG ID34273
Wikipedia LinkAdenosine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00050
Metagene LinkHMDB00050
METLIN ID86
PubChem Compound60961
PDB IDADN
ChEBI ID16335
References
Synthesis ReferenceLiao, Ben-ren; Yuan, Zhen-wen. Synthesis of adenosine from inosine. Huaxue Shiji (2006), 28(10), 633-634.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. Pubmed: 6656991
  2. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. Pubmed: 15116424
  3. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454
  4. Skalhegg BS, Funderud A, Henanger HH, Hafte TT, Larsen AC, Kvissel AK, Eikvar S, Orstavik S: Protein kinase A (PKA)--a potential target for therapeutic intervention of dysfunctional immune cells. Curr Drug Targets. 2005 Sep;6(6):655-64. Pubmed: 16178799
  5. Maytin M, Colucci WS: Cardioprotection: a new paradigm in the management of acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 19;96(6A):26G-31G. Pubmed: 16181820
  6. Dodge-Kafka KL, Soughayer J, Pare GC, Carlisle Michel JJ, Langeberg LK, Kapiloff MS, Scott JD: The protein kinase A anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways. Nature. 2005 Sep 22;437(7058):574-8. Pubmed: 16177794
  7. Gheorghiade M, Teerlink JR, Mebazaa A: Pharmacology of new agents for acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 19;96(6A):68G-73G. Pubmed: 16181825
  8. Jansen RW, Kruijt JK, van Berkel TJ, Meijer DK: Coupling of the antiviral drug ara-AMP to lactosaminated albumin leads to specific uptake in rat and human hepatocytes. Hepatology. 1993 Jul;18(1):146-52. Pubmed: 7686877
  9. Ballantyne PJ: Social context and outcomes for the ageing breast cancer patient: considerations for clinical practitioners. J Clin Nurs. 2004 Mar;13(3a):11-21. Pubmed: 15028034
  10. Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Takahashi S, Fujita T, Tsutsumi Z, Yamakita J, Shimizu K, Shiota M, Ohta S, Higashino K: Determination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):55-61. Pubmed: 9869364
  11. Koeris M, Funke L, Shrestha J, Rich A, Maas S: Modulation of ADAR1 editing activity by Z-RNA in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Sep 21;33(16):5362-70. Print 2005. Pubmed: 16177183
  12. Vidotto C, Fousert D, Akkermann M, Griesmacher A, Muller MM: Purine and pyrimidine metabolites in children's urine. Clin Chim Acta. 2003 Sep;335(1-2):27-32. Pubmed: 12927681
  13. Dunne VG, Bhattachayya S, Besser M, Rae C, Griffin JL: Metabolites from cerebrospinal fluid in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage correlate with vasospasm and clinical outcome: a pattern-recognition 1H NMR study. NMR Biomed. 2005 Feb;18(1):24-33. Pubmed: 15455468

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Required for the phosphorylation of the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyguanosine (dG) and deoxyadenosine (dA). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based on the chirality of the substrate. It is also an essential enzyme for the phosphorylation of numerous nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents.
Gene Name:
DCK
Uniprot ID:
P27707
Molecular weight:
30518.315
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine → ADP + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in adenosine kinase activity
Specific function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
ADK
Uniprot ID:
P55263
Molecular weight:
38702.93
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Adenosine → ADP + Adenosine monophosphatedetails
References
  1. Boison D: Adenosine kinase, epilepsy and stroke: mechanisms and therapies. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec;27(12):652-8. Epub 2006 Oct 23. Pubmed: 17056128
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AHCYL2
Uniprot ID:
Q96HN2
Molecular weight:
66592.445
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
Se-Adenosylselenohomocysteine + Water → Adenosine + Selenohomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Adenosylhomocysteine is a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyl transferase reactions; therefore adenosylhomocysteinase may play a key role in the control of methylations via regulation of the intracellular concentration of adenosylhomocysteine.
Gene Name:
AHCY
Uniprot ID:
P23526
Molecular weight:
47715.715
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
Se-Adenosylselenohomocysteine + Water → Adenosine + Selenohomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in adenosylhomocysteinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AHCYL1
Uniprot ID:
O43865
Molecular weight:
53753.0
Reactions
S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Water → Homocysteine + Adenosinedetails
Se-Adenosylselenohomocysteine + Water → Adenosine + Selenohomocysteinedetails
General function:
Involved in deaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, and so contributes indirectly to cellular signaling events. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding DPP4. Its interaction with DPP4 regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion.
Gene Name:
ADA
Uniprot ID:
P00813
Molecular weight:
40764.13
Reactions
Adenosine + Water → Inosine + Ammoniadetails
References
  1. Kopff M, Kopff A, Puczkowski S: [Adenosine deaminase: isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 1997 Dec;3(18):288-90. Pubmed: 9523470
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular weight:
36511.3
References
  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed: 20370662
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed: 20370661
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE(2) release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed: 17321471
  4. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed: 20136829
  5. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed: 17438146
  6. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed: 17442976
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular weight:
44706.9
References
  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed: 20370662
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed: 20370661
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE(2) release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed: 17321471
  4. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed: 16339914
  5. Kreckler LM, Gizewski E, Wan TC, Auchampach JA: Adenosine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by murine macrophages through a protein kinase A- and exchange protein activated by cAMP-independent signaling pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Dec;331(3):1051-61. Epub 2009 Sep 11. Pubmed: 19749080
  6. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed: 20136829
  7. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed: 17438146
  8. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed: 17442976
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. Possible role in reproduction
Gene Name:
ADORA3
Uniprot ID:
P33765
Molecular weight:
36184.2
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
  2. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed: 20370662
  3. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed: 20370661
  4. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE(2) release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed: 17321471
  5. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed: 16339914
  6. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed: 20136829
  7. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed: 17438146
  8. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed: 17442976
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA2B
Uniprot ID:
P29275
Molecular weight:
36332.7
References
  1. Trincavelli ML, Daniele S, Martini C: Adenosine receptors: what we know and what we are learning. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):860-77. Pubmed: 20370662
  2. Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Bruno O, Botta M: A1 receptors ligands: past, present and future trends. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):878-901. Pubmed: 20370661
  3. Ezeamuzie CI, Khan I: The role of adenosine A(2) receptors in the regulation of TNF-alpha production and PGE(2) release in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Apr;7(4):483-90. Epub 2006 Dec 29. Pubmed: 17321471
  4. Kreckler LM, Wan TC, Ge ZD, Auchampach JA: Adenosine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from mouse peritoneal macrophages via A2A and A2B but not the A3 adenosine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):172-80. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed: 16339914
  5. Buenestado A, Grassin Delyle S, Arnould I, Besnard F, Naline E, Blouquit-Laye S, Chapelier A, Bellamy JF, Devillier P: The role of adenosine receptors in regulating production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by human lung macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar;159(6):1304-11. Epub 2010 Feb 5. Pubmed: 20136829
  6. Funakoshi H, Zacharia LC, Tang Z, Zhang J, Lee LL, Good JC, Herrmann DE, Higuchi Y, Koch WJ, Jackson EK, Chan TO, Feldman AM: A1 adenosine receptor upregulation accompanies decreasing myocardial adenosine levels in mice with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 2007 May 1;115(17):2307-15. Epub 2007 Apr 16. Pubmed: 17438146
  7. Haschemi A, Wagner O, Marculescu R, Wegiel B, Robson SC, Gagliani N, Gallo D, Chen JF, Bach FH, Otterbein LE: Cross-regulation of carbon monoxide and the adenosine A2a receptor in macrophages. J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5921-9. Pubmed: 17442976
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates the transport of adenosine 3'-phospho 5'- phosphosulfate (PAPS), from cytosol into Golgi. PAPS is a universal sulfuryl donor for sulfation events that take place in the Golgi. May indirectly participate in activation of the NF- kappa-B and MAPK pathways
Gene Name:
SLC35B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TB61
Molecular weight:
47514.3
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular weight:
64969.2
Reactions
Adenosine monophosphate + Water → Adenosine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Adenosine + Phosphoric acid → Adenine + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates the transport of adenosine 3'-phospho 5'- phosphosulfate (PAPS), from cytosol into Golgi. PAPS is a universal sulfuryl donor for sulfation events that take place in the Golgi. Compensates for the insufficient expression of SLC35B2/PAPST1 during the synthesis of sulfated glycoconjugates in the colon
Gene Name:
SLC35B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H1N7
Molecular weight:
44592.3
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Adenosine deaminase that may contribute to the degradation of extracellular adenosine, a signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular responses. Requires elevated adenosine levels for optimal enzyme activity. Binds to cell surfaces via proteoglycans and may play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, independently of its enzyme activity.
Gene Name:
CECR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NZK5
Molecular weight:
58933.1
Reactions
Adenosine + Water → Inosine + Ammoniadetails