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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-13 02:07:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00055
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCellobiose
DescriptionCellobiose is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in a beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose, cellobiose is commonly used as an indicator carbohydrate for intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease and malabsorption syndrome. This carbohydrate is exogenous and is a microbial breakdown product from plant material (cellulose). It is not produced by the body nor is it readily metabolized by the body, but may be found in some food products (vegetables, fruits, corn syrups, etc.). Recent studies have shown that cellobiose can be processed or metabolized by endogenous beta glycosidases in the mammalian small intestine (PMID 18752931 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-4-beta-D-glucopyranoseChEBI
4-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoseChEBI
beta-D-GLC-(1->4)-beta-D-GLCChEBI
beta-D-GLCP-(1->4)-beta-D-GLCPChEBI
beta-D-Glucosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucoseChEBI
CELLOBIOSEChEBI
Glcbeta1-4glcbetaChEBI
1-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-4-b-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
1-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-β-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
b-CellobioseGenerator
β-cellobioseGenerator
4-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoseGenerator
b-D-GLC-(1->4)-b-D-GLCGenerator
β-D-GLC-(1->4)-β-D-GLCGenerator
b-D-GLCP-(1->4)-b-D-GLCPGenerator
β-D-GLCP-(1->4)-β-D-GLCPGenerator
b-D-Glucosyl-(1->4)-b-D-glucoseGenerator
β-D-glucosyl-(1->4)-β-D-glucoseGenerator
4-(b-D-glucosido)-D-GlucoseHMDB
4-(b-delta-glucosido)-delta-GlucoseHMDB
4-(beta-D-glucosido)-D-GlucoseHMDB
4-(beta-delta-glucosido)-delta-GlucoseHMDB
4-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranoseHMDB
4-beta-delta-Glucopyranosyl-delta-glucopyranoseHMDB
4-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucoseHMDB
4-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucoseHMDB
4-O-beta-delta-Glucopyranosyl-delta-glucoseHMDB
CelloseHMDB
D-(+)-CellobioseHMDB
D-CellobioseHMDB
D-Glucosyl-b-(1->4)-D-glucoseHMDB
D-Glucosyl-beta-(1-4)-D-glucoseHMDB
D-Glucosyl-beta-(1->4)-D-glucoseHMDB
delta-(+)-CellobioseHMDB
delta-CellobioseHMDB
delta-Glucosyl-beta-(1-4)-delta-glucoseHMDB
delta-Glucosyl-beta-(1->4)-delta-glucoseHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H22O11
Average Molecular Weight342.2965
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight342.116211546
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
Traditional Nameβ-cellobiose
CAS Registry Number528-50-7
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@H](O[C@H]2[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)O[C@@H]2CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)6(16)9(19)12(22-3)23-10-4(2-14)21-11(20)8(18)7(10)17/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5-,6+,7-,8-,9-,10-,11-,12+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=GUBGYTABKSRVRQ-QRZGKKJRSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassGlycosyl compounds
Direct ParentO-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Disaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point229 - 230 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility111.0 mg/mL at 15 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 8 TMS)splash10-0wmi-1794000000-0677096b4c9ccf48f063View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 8 TMS)splash10-0uxr-1793000000-4b9e3693e06370d25b79View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (8 TMS)splash10-0udi-0592000000-fd6c9b6fc37768f90f50View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0901000000-4f5e21e94576c46b5a30View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9300000000-e62e4ba03fc46e7f06bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-ca047c1ce7b82c7aa87cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Intestine
  • Spleen
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB02061
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB007497
KNApSAcK IDC00001134
Chemspider ID10261
KEGG Compound IDC06422
BioCyc IDCPD-1161
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCellobiose
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00055
Metagene LinkHMDB00055
METLIN ID3480
PubChem Compound10712
PDB IDCBI
ChEBI ID36217
References
Synthesis ReferenceMachida, Makoto; Hosokawa, Koji. Enzymic preparation of cellooligosaccharide with cellulase. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2006), 20pp. CODEN: JKXXAF JP 2006204294 A 20060810 CAN 145:187210 AN 2006:786561
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Morita T, Ozawa M, Ito H, Kimio S, Kiriyama S: Cellobiose is extensively digested in the small intestine by beta-galactosidase in rats. Nutrition. 2008 Nov-Dec;24(11-12):1199-204. Epub 2008 Aug 26. [18752931 ]
  2. Matsuura Y: Degradation of konjac glucomannan by enzymes in human feces and formation of short-chain fatty acids by intestinal anaerobic bacteria. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1998 Jun;44(3):423-36. [9742462 ]
  3. Nakamura S, Oku T, Ichinose M: Bioavailability of cellobiose by tolerance test and breath hydrogen excretion in humans. Nutrition. 2004 Nov-Dec;20(11-12):979-83. [15561487 ]
  4. Cain WJ, Millar JS, Himebauch AS, Tietge UJ, Maugeais C, Usher D, Rader DJ: Lipoprotein [a] is cleared from the plasma primarily by the liver in a process mediated by apolipoprotein [a]. J Lipid Res. 2005 Dec;46(12):2681-91. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [16150825 ]
  5. Cobden I, Hamilton I, Rothwell J, Axon AT: Cellobiose/mannitol test: physiological properties of probe molecules and influence of extraneous factors. Clin Chim Acta. 1985 May 15;148(1):53-62. [3924445 ]
  6. Welcker K, Martin A, Kolle P, Siebeck M, Gross M: Increased intestinal permeability in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Med Res. 2004 Oct 29;9(10):456-60. [15546811 ]
  7. Calero M, Ghiso J: Radiolabeling of amyloid-beta peptides. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;299:325-48. [15980615 ]
  8. Sakamoto M, Huang Y, Umeda M, Ishikawa I, Benno Y: Prevotella multiformis sp. nov., isolated from human subgingival plaque. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):815-9. [15774668 ]
  9. Hu WL, Chindemi PA, Regoeczi E: In vivo behaviour of rat transferrin bearing a hybrid glycan and its interaction with macrophages. Biochem Cell Biol. 1992 Aug;70(8):636-42. [1476702 ]
  10. Potier M, Dallaire L, Melancon SB: Occurrence and properties of fetal intestinal glycosidases (disaccharidases) in human amniotic fluid. Biol Neonate. 1975;27(3-4):141-52. [241430 ]
  11. Johansson AG, Sundqvist T, Skogh T: IgG immune complex binding to and activation of liver cells. An in vitro study with IgG immune complexes, Kupffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000 Apr;121(4):329-36. [10828724 ]
  12. Kaczmarczyk A, Blom AM, Alston-Smith J, Sjoquist M, Fries E: Plasma bikunin: half-life and tissue uptake. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Mar;271(1-2):61-7. [15881656 ]
  13. Garcia-Martos P, Garcia-Agudo L, Ruiz-Aragon J, Saldarreaga A, Marin P: [Carbohydrate assimilation by clinical and environmental Rhodotorula glutinis strains] Rev Iberoam Micol. 2004 Jun;21(2):90-2. [15538836 ]
  14. Juby LD, Rothwell J, Axon AT: Cellobiose/mannitol sugar test--a sensitive tubeless test for coeliac disease: results on 1010 unselected patients. Gut. 1989 Apr;30(4):476-80. [2497056 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of glucosidase II
Gene Name:
PRKCSH
Uniprot ID:
P14314
Molecular weight:
59424.9
References
  1. Morita T, Ozawa M, Ito H, Kimio S, Kiriyama S: Cellobiose is extensively digested in the small intestine by beta-galactosidase in rats. Nutrition. 2008 Nov-Dec;24(11-12):1199-204. Epub 2008 Aug 26. [18752931 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Molecular weight:
59715.745
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Glycosidase probably involved in the intestinal absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides. Able to hydrolyze a broad variety of glycosides including phytoestrogens, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and cyanogens. Possesses beta-glycosylceramidase activity and may be involved in a nonlysosomal catabolic pathway of glycosylceramide.
Gene Name:
GBA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H227
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cellobiose + Water → Beta-D-Glucosedetails
References
  1. Morita T, Ozawa M, Ito H, Kimio S, Kiriyama S: Cellobiose is extensively digested in the small intestine by beta-galactosidase in rats. Nutrition. 2008 Nov-Dec;24(11-12):1199-204. Epub 2008 Aug 26. [18752931 ]