You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:07:49 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00058
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCyclic AMP
DescriptionCyclic AMP is an adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH. cAMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase is located at the cell membranes. Adenylate cyclase is activated by the hormones glucagon and adrenaline and by G protein. Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 3'5'-Cyclic AMP
  2. 6-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydro-4H-furo[3,2-D][1,3,2]dioxaphosphinine-2,7-diol 2-oxide
  3. Acrasin
  4. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
  5. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate
  6. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate
  7. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate
  8. Adenosine 3,5'-cyclic monophosphorate
  9. Adenosine 3,5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid
  10. Adenosine cyclic monophosphate
  11. Adenosine cyclic-monophosphate
  12. Adenosine-cyclic-phosphate
  13. Adenosine-cyclic-phosphoric-acid
  14. cAMP
  15. Cyclic 3',5'-adenylate
  16. Cyclic 3',5'-adenylic acid
  17. Cyclic 3',5'-AMP
  18. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-phosphate
  19. Cyclic AMP
Chemical FormulaC10H12N5O6P
Average Molecular Weight329.2059
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight329.052519653
IUPAC Name(4aR,6R,7R,7aS)-6-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,7-dihydroxy-hexahydro-1,3,5,2$l^{5}-furo[3,2-d][1,3,2$l^{5}]dioxaphosphinin-2-one
Traditional Name3',5'-cyclic amp
CAS Registry Number60-92-4
SMILES
NC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1O[C@@H]2COP(O)(=O)O[C@H]2[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H12N5O6P/c11-8-5-9(13-2-12-8)15(3-14-5)10-6(16)7-4(20-10)1-19-22(17,18)21-7/h2-4,6-7,10,16H,1H2,(H,17,18)(H2,11,12,13)/t4-,6-,7-,10-/m1/s1
InChI KeyIVOMOUWHDPKRLL-KQYNXXCUSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassCyclic Purine Nucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • 3',5'-Cyclic nuclcleotides(KEGG)
  • 3',5'-cyclic purine nucleotide(ChEBI)
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Oxolane
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct Parent3',5'-cyclic Purine Nucleotides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Second messenger
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point219 - 220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.96HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.58ALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-3.8ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area154.84 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity70.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.22 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0085 +/- 0.0005 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.020 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.020+/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.024 (0.022-0.026) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.021 +/- 0.008 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.020 (0.016-0.024) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.38 +/- 0.14 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.055 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0077 +/- 0.0003 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleSildenafil-induced headache details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0110 +/- 0.0028 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothIdiopathic polyneuritis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.033 +/- 0.012 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00860 (0.00620-0.0110) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.014 (0.012-0.017) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0202 +/- 0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedInitial slight suspicion of meningitis with normal CSF details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.034 (0.021-0.046) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Meningitis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.011 (0.0082-0.014) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothIdiopathic polyneuritis details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.24 +/- 0.028 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic renal failure details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Chronic renal failure
  1. Dimitrakov D, Kumchev E, Lyutakova E, Ledzhev I, Nikolov D, Tsekov V: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in predialysis patients with chronic renal failure. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 1997;39(1):29-33. Pubmed: 9141788
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  1. Liu H, Chang L, Chen Y, Xia S, Zhang X: Clinical implication of the changes of cAMP, TXA2 and PGI2 in CSF of asphyxiated newborns. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23(2):195-7, 200. Pubmed: 12973949
Idiopathic polyneuritis
  1. Lerche A, Svenson M, Wiik A: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cyclic nucleotides in meningitis and idiopathic polyneuritis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984 Mar;69(3):168-75. Pubmed: 6326460
Meningitis
  1. Lerche A, Svenson M, Wiik A: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cyclic nucleotides in meningitis and idiopathic polyneuritis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984 Mar;69(3):168-75. Pubmed: 6326460
Headache
  1. Kruuse C, Frandsen E, Schifter S, Thomsen LL, Birk S, Olesen J: Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache. Cephalalgia. 2004 Jul;24(7):547-53. Pubmed: 15196297
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02527
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001497
KNApSAcK IDC00001497
Chemspider ID5851
KEGG Compound IDC00575
BioCyc IDCAMP
BiGG ID1484809
Wikipedia LinkCyclic AMP
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00058
Metagene LinkHMDB00058
METLIN ID5120
PubChem Compound6076
PDB IDCMP
ChEBI ID17489
References
Synthesis ReferenceGenieser, H. G.; Butt, E.; Bottin, U.; Dostmann, W.; Jastorff, B. Synthesis of the 3',5'-cyclic phosphates from unprotected nucleosides. Synthesis (1989), (1), 53-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Imashuku S, Todo S, Nakajima F: [Intra-aortic prostaglandin E1 infusion in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1983 Sep;10(9):1936-43. Pubmed: 6311112
  2. Wine JJ, Joo NS: Submucosal glands and airway defense. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2004;1(1):47-53. Pubmed: 16113412
  3. Onali P, Strada SJ, Chang L, Epstein PM, Hersh EM, Thompson WJ: Purification and characterization of high-affinity cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterases from human acute myelogenous leukemic cells. Cancer Res. 1985 Mar;45(3):1384-91. Pubmed: 2982489
  4. Rademaker MT, Charles CJ, Lewis LK, Yandle TG, Cooper GJ, Coy DH, Richards AM, Nicholls MG: Beneficial hemodynamic and renal effects of adrenomedullin in an ovine model of heart failure. Circulation. 1997 Sep 16;96(6):1983-90. Pubmed: 9323090
  5. Mashayekhi F, Aghahoseini F, Rezaie A, Zamani MJ, Khorasani R, Abdollahi M: Alteration of cyclic nucleotides levels and oxidative stress in saliva of human subjects with periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005 Nov 15;6(4):46-53. Pubmed: 16299606
  6. Sugo T, Tachimoto H, Chikatsu T, Murakami Y, Kikukawa Y, Sato S, Kikuchi K, Nagi T, Harada M, Ogi K, Ebisawa M, Mori M: Identification of a lysophosphatidylserine receptor on mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 24;341(4):1078-87. Epub 2006 Jan 25. Pubmed: 16460680
  7. Watanabe K, Beinborn M, Nagamatsu S, Ishida H, Takahashi S: Menetrier's disease in a patient with Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to elevated glucagon-like peptide-2 activity. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;40(4):477-81. Pubmed: 16028444
  8. Naef A, Keller HU: A short transient increase in cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate levels of neutrophil granulocytes following exposure to chemotactic factors. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1982;141:39-48. Pubmed: 6283833
  9. Kukreja SC, Shevrin DH, Wimbiscus SA, Ebeling PR, Danks JA, Rodda CP, Wood WI, Martin TJ: Antibodies to parathyroid hormone-related protein lower serum calcium in athymic mouse models of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia due to human tumors. J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov;82(5):1798-802. Pubmed: 2846659
  10. Wickenheisser JK, Nelson-DeGrave VL, McAllister JM: Human ovarian theca cells in culture. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;17(2):65-71. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16460956
  11. Fouassier L, Chinet T, Robert B, Carayon A, Balladur P, Mergey M, Paul A, Poupon R, Capeau J, Barbu V, Housset C: Endothelin-1 is synthesized and inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate- dependent anion secretion by an autocrine/paracrine mechanism in gallbladder epithelial cells. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun 15;101(12):2881-8. Pubmed: 9637723
  12. Carceles MD, Ribo AR, Davalos R, Martinez T, Hernandez J: Effect of diazepam on adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) plasma levels in anesthetized patients. Clin Ther. 2004 May;26(5):737-43. Pubmed: 15220017
  13. Chu MS, Chang CF, Yang CC, Bau YC, Ho LL, Hung SC: Signalling pathway in the induction of neurite outgrowth in human mesenchymal stem cells. Cell Signal. 2006 Apr;18(4):519-30. Epub 2005 Aug 11. Pubmed: 16098715
  14. Rudman D, O'Brien MS, McKinney AS, Hoffman JC Jr, Patterson JH: Observations on the cyclic nucleotide concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 Jun;42(6):1088-97. Pubmed: 180045
  15. Machen TE: Innate immune response in CF airway epithelia: hyperinflammatory? Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Aug;291(2):C218-30. Pubmed: 16825601
  16. Lerche A, Svenson M, Wiik A: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cyclic nucleotides in meningitis and idiopathic polyneuritis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984 Mar;69(3):168-75. Pubmed: 6326460
  17. Ruppert D, Weithmann KU: HL 725, an extremely potent inhibitor of platelet phosphodiesterase and induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Life Sci. 1982 Nov 8;31(19):2037-43. Pubmed: 6294426
  18. Tanaka Y, Horinouchi T, Koike K: New insights into beta-adrenoceptors in smooth muscle: distribution of receptor subtypes and molecular mechanisms triggering muscle relaxation. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jul;32(7):503-14. Pubmed: 16026507
  19. Fischer JA, Bourne HR, Dambacher MA, Tschopp F, De Meyer R, Devogelaer JP, Werder EA, Nagant De Deuxchaisnes C: Pseudohypoparathyroidism: inheritance and expression of deficient receptor-cyclase coupling protein activity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1983 Dec;19(6):747-54. Pubmed: 6317236
  20. Liu H, Chang L, Chen Y, Xia S, Zhang X: Clinical implication of the changes of cAMP, TXA2 and PGI2 in CSF of asphyxiated newborns. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23(2):195-7, 200. Pubmed: 12973949

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 165 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Functions as histone acetyltransferase and regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling. Acetylates all four core histones in nucleosomes. Histone acetylation gives an epigenetic tag for transcriptional activation. Mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. Also functions as acetyltransferase for nonhistone targets. Acetylates 'Lys-131' of ALX1 and acts as its coactivator in the presence of CREBBP. Acetylates SIRT2 and is proposed to indirectly increase the transcriptional activity of TP53 through acetylation and subsequent attenuation of SIRT2 deacetylase function. Acetylates HDAC1 leading to its inactivation and modulation of transcription. Acts as a TFAP2A-mediated transcriptional coactivator in presence of CITED2. Plays a role as a coactivator of NEUROD1-dependent transcription of the secretin and p21 genes and controls terminal differentiation of cells in the intestinal epithelium. Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement. Can also mediate transcriptional repression. Binds to and may be involved in the transforming capacity of the adenovirus E1A protein. In case of HIV-1 infection, it is recruited by the viral protein Tat. Regulates Tat's transactivating activity and may help inducing chromatin remodeling of proviral genes. Acetylates FOXO1 and enhances its transcriptional activity.
Gene Name:
EP300
Uniprot ID:
Q09472
Molecular weight:
264159.725
General function:
Involved in transcription cofactor activity
Specific function:
Acetylates histones, giving a specific tag for transcriptional activation. Also acetylates non-histone proteins, like NCOA3 and FOXO1. Binds specifically to phosphorylated CREB and enhances its transcriptional activity toward cAMP-responsive genes. Acts as a coactivator of ALX1 in the presence of EP300.
Gene Name:
CREBBP
Uniprot ID:
Q92793
Molecular weight:
260991.825
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular weight:
104923.58
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In adipose tissue and heart, it primarily hydrolyzes stored triglycerides to free fatty acids, while in steroidogenic tissues, it principally converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol for steroid hormone production.
Gene Name:
LIPE
Uniprot ID:
Q05469
Molecular weight:
116596.715
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Participates in processes of transmission and amplification of the visual signal. cGMP-PDEs are the effector molecules in G-protein-mediated phototransduction in vertebrate rods and cones.
Gene Name:
PDE6H
Uniprot ID:
Q13956
Molecular weight:
9074.36
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a higher affinity for cGMP than for cAMP.
Gene Name:
PDE1A
Uniprot ID:
P54750
Molecular weight:
61251.38
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in maintaining basal levels of the cyclic nucleotide and/or in the cAMP regulation of germ cell development.
Gene Name:
PDE8A
Uniprot ID:
O60658
Molecular weight:
86047.88
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a preference for cGMP as a substrate.
Gene Name:
PDE1B
Uniprot ID:
Q01064
Molecular weight:
61379.235
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. May play a role in fat metabolism. Regulates cAMP binding of RAPGEF3. Through simultaneous binding to RAPGEF3 and PIK3R6 assembles a signaling complex in which the PI3K gamma complex is activated by RAPGEF3 and which is involved in angiogenesis.
Gene Name:
PDE3B
Uniprot ID:
Q13370
Molecular weight:
124332.145
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May have a role in muscle signal transduction.
Gene Name:
PDE7A
Uniprot ID:
Q13946
Molecular weight:
55504.475
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDE3A
Uniprot ID:
Q14432
Molecular weight:
124978.06
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. Can hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP, but has higher affinity for cAMP and is more efficient with cAMP as substrate.
Gene Name:
PDE10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y233
Molecular weight:
89388.7
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes. Has a high affinity for both cAMP and cGMP.
Gene Name:
PDE1C
Uniprot ID:
Q14123
Molecular weight:
72207.775
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular weight:
64351.765
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in the control of cAMP-mediated neural activity and cAMP metabolism in the brain.
Gene Name:
PDE7B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NP56
Molecular weight:
51834.855
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cGMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE9A
Uniprot ID:
O76083
Molecular weight:
61708.5
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE2A
Uniprot ID:
O00408
Molecular weight:
105145.485
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in specific signaling in the thyroid gland.
Gene Name:
PDE8B
Uniprot ID:
O95263
Molecular weight:
87973.225
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4C
Uniprot ID:
Q08493
Molecular weight:
79900.795
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4D
Uniprot ID:
Q08499
Molecular weight:
91114.1
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Participates in processes of transmission and amplification of the visual signal. cGMP-PDEs are the effector molecules in G-protein-mediated phototransduction in vertebrate rods and cones.
Gene Name:
PDE6G
Uniprot ID:
P18545
Molecular weight:
9643.09
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PDE6D
Uniprot ID:
O43924
Molecular weight:
17419.9
General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular weight:
98142.155
Reactions
Cyclic AMP + Water → Adenosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP.
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular weight:
99984.14
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY7
Uniprot ID:
P51828
Molecular weight:
120307.175
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFM4
Molecular weight:
119792.94
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY6
Uniprot ID:
O43306
Molecular weight:
130614.095
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY5
Uniprot ID:
O95622
Molecular weight:
102605.37
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-stimulable adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in learning, in memory and in drug dependence (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY8
Uniprot ID:
P40145
Molecular weight:
140120.79
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
May play a fundamental role in situations where fine interplay between intracellular calcium and cAMP determines the cellular function. May be a physiologically relevant docking site for calcineurin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY9
Uniprot ID:
O60503
Molecular weight:
150699.36
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Mediates odorant detection (possibly) via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration.
Gene Name:
ADCY3
Uniprot ID:
O60266
Molecular weight:
128958.905
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in regulatory processes in the central nervous system. It may play a role in memory acquisition and learning.
Gene Name:
ADCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q08828
Molecular weight:
123438.85
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY2
Uniprot ID:
Q08462
Molecular weight:
123602.25
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate → Cyclic AMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular weight:
57369.995
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Visual signal transduction is mediated by a G-protein coupled cascade using cGMP as second messenger. This protein can be activated by cyclic GMP which leads to an opening of the cation channel and thereby causing a depolarization of cone photoreceptors. Induced a flickering channel gating, weakened the outward rectification in the presence of extracellular calcium, increased sensitivity for L-cis diltiazem and enhanced the cAMP efficacy of the channel when coexpressed with CNGB3. Essential for the generation of light-evoked electrical responses in the red-, green- and blue sensitive cones
Gene Name:
CNGA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16281
Molecular weight:
78837.4
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Visual signal transduction is mediated by a G-protein coupled cascade using cGMP as second messenger. This protein can be activated by cGMP which leads to an opening of the cation channel and thereby causing a depolarization of rod photoreceptors. Induced a flickering channel gating, weakened the outward rectification in the presence of extracellular calcium, increased sensitivity for L-cis diltiazem and enhanced the cAMP efficiency of the channel when coexpressed with CNGA3. Essential for the generation of light-evoked electrical responses in the red-, green- and blue sensitive cones
Gene Name:
CNGB3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQW8
Molecular weight:
92248.8
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1A, Rap1B and Rap2B GTPases. Does not interact with cAMP or cGMP
Gene Name:
RAPGEF2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4G8
Molecular weight:
167415.5
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Activated by cAMP, and at 10-100 times higher concentrations, also by cGMP. May mediate responses to sour stimuli
Gene Name:
HCN1
Uniprot ID:
O60741
Molecular weight:
98795.3
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus
Gene Name:
PRKACG
Uniprot ID:
P22612
Molecular weight:
40434.2
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus
Gene Name:
PRKACA
Uniprot ID:
P17612
Molecular weight:
40589.4
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
Gene Name:
PRKY
Uniprot ID:
O43930
Molecular weight:
31708.2
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Mediates cAMP-dependent signaling triggered by receptor binding to GPCRs. PKA activation regulates diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, the cell cycle, differentiation and regulation of microtubule dynamics, chromatin condensation and decondensation, nuclear envelope disassembly and reassembly, as well as regulation of intracellular transport mechanisms and ion flux
Gene Name:
PRKACB
Uniprot ID:
P22694
Molecular weight:
40622.4
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Serine/threonine kinase required for the mitogen or stress-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and ATF1 (activating transcription factor-1). Essential role in the control of RELA transcriptional activity in response to TNF. Directly represses transcription via phosphorylation of 'Ser-1' of histone H2A. Phosphorylates 'Ser-10' of histone H3 in response to mitogenics, stress stimuli and epidemal growth-factor (EGF), which results in the transcriptional activation of several immediate early genes, including proto-oncogenes c-fos/FOS and c-jun/JUN. May also phosphorylate 'Ser-28' of histone H3. Mediates the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of high mobility group protein 14 (HMG-14)
Gene Name:
RPS6KA5
Uniprot ID:
O75582
Molecular weight:
89864.7
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
Gene Name:
PRKX
Uniprot ID:
P51817
Molecular weight:
40895.5
General function:
Involved in protein kinase activity
Specific function:
Essential role in G1 cell cycle arrest. Phosphorylates and activates members of the AMPK-related subfamily of protein kinases. Tumor suppressor
Gene Name:
STK11
Uniprot ID:
Q15831
Molecular weight:
48635.4
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
cAMP-dependent and sulfonylurea-sensitive anion transporter. Key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport
Gene Name:
ABCA1
Uniprot ID:
O95477
Molecular weight:
254299.9
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. Necessary for recycling of internalized ADRB2. Was first known to play a role in the regulation of the activity and subcellular location of SLC9A3. Necessary for cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of SLC9A3. May enhance Wnt signaling. May participate in HTR4 targeting to microvilli. Interacts with MCC
Gene Name:
SLC9A3R1
Uniprot ID:
O14745
Molecular weight:
38868.1
General function:
Involved in transcription regulator activity
Specific function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular weight:
96146.7
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Binds to the cAMP response element and activates transcription
Gene Name:
CREB5
Uniprot ID:
Q02930
Molecular weight:
56858.0
General function:
Involved in transcription regulator activity
Specific function:
May function as a transcriptional factor to modulate chondrogenesis in response to the cAMP pathway
Gene Name:
BHLHE40
Uniprot ID:
O14503
Molecular weight:
45509.6

Transporters

General function:
Involved in anion transport
Specific function:
Electroneutral sodium- and bicarbonate-dependent cotransporter with a Na(+):HCO3(-) 1:1 stoichiometry. Regulates intracellular pH and may play a role in bicarbonate salvage in secretory epithelia. May also have an associated sodium channel activity.
Gene Name:
SLC4A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6M7
Molecular weight:
127358.16
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular weight:
149525.3
References
  1. Chen ZS, Lee K, Kruh GD: Transport of cyclic nucleotides and estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide by multidrug resistance protein 4. Resistance to 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 7;276(36):33747-54. Epub 2001 Jul 10. Pubmed: 11447229
  2. van Aubel RA, Smeets PH, Peters JG, Bindels RJ, Russel FG: The MRP4/ABCC4 gene encodes a novel apical organic anion transporter in human kidney proximal tubules: putative efflux pump for urinary cAMP and cGMP. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Mar;13(3):595-603. Pubmed: 11856762
  3. Chen ZS, Lee K, Walther S, Raftogianis RB, Kuwano M, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Analysis of methotrexate and folate transport by multidrug resistance protein 4 (ABCC4): MRP4 is a component of the methotrexate efflux system. Cancer Res. 2002 Jun 1;62(11):3144-50. Pubmed: 12036927
  4. Lai L, Tan TM: Role of glutathione in the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4)-mediated efflux of cAMP and resistance to purine analogues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 1;361(Pt 3):497-503. Pubmed: 11802779
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs
Gene Name:
ABCC5
Uniprot ID:
O15440
Molecular weight:
160658.8
References
  1. Jedlitschky G, Burchell B, Keppler D: The multidrug resistance protein 5 functions as an ATP-dependent export pump for cyclic nucleotides. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 29;275(39):30069-74. Pubmed: 10893247
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. Pubmed: 9228014
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a range of physiological and synthetic lipophilic anions, including the glutathione S-conjugates leukotriene C4 and dinitrophenyl S-glutathione, steroid sulfates such as dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate (DHEAS) and estrone 3-sulfate, glucuronides such as estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG), the monoanionic bile acids glycocholate and taurocholate, and methotrexate. Probably functions to secrete earwax
Gene Name:
ABCC11
Uniprot ID:
Q96J66
Molecular weight:
154299.6
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. Pubmed: 15537867
  2. Guo Y, Kotova E, Chen ZS, Lee K, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Kruh GD: MRP8, ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11), is a cyclic nucleotide efflux pump and a resistance factor for fluoropyrimidines 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 9'-(2'-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 8;278(32):29509-14. Epub 2003 May 22. Pubmed: 12764137
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Organic anion transporter, capable of transporting pharmacological substances such as digoxin, ouabain, thyroxine, methotrexate and cAMP. May participate in the regulation of membrane transport of ouabain. Involved in the uptake of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and hence may play a role in its transport into and out of renal proximal tubule cells. May be involved in the first step of the transport pathway of digoxin and various compounds into the urine in the kidney. May be involved in sperm maturation by enabling directed movement of organic anions and compounds within or between cells. This ion- transporting process is important to maintain the strict epididymal homeostasis necessary for sperm maturation. May have a role in secretory functions since seminal vesicle epithelial cells are assumed to secrete proteins involved in decapacitation by modifying surface proteins to facilitate the acquisition of the ability to fertilize the egg
Gene Name:
SLCO4C1
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZQN7
Molecular weight:
78947.5
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD: Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 May 4;283(2):417-22. Pubmed: 11327718

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 165 proteins in total.