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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-13 02:07:05 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00068
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00615
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEpinephrine
DescriptionEpinephrine is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. It is the active sympathomimetic hormone secreted from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics. Epinephrine also constricts arterioles in the skin and gut while dilating arterioles in leg muscles. It elevates the blood sugar level by increasing hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and at the same time begins the breakdown of lipids in adipocytes. Epinephrine has a suppressive effect on the immune system.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-(R)-EpinephrineChEBI
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcoholChEBI
(-)-AdrenalineChEBI
(R)-(-)-AdrenalineChEBI
(R)-(-)-AdnephrineChEBI
(R)-(-)-EpinephrineChEBI
(R)-(-)-EpirenamineChEBI
4-[(1R)-1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediolChEBI
AdrenalinChEBI
EpinefrinaChEBI
EpinephrinChEBI
EpinephrineChEBI
EpinephrinumChEBI
EpipenChEBI
Epipen JRChEBI
L-AdrenalineChEBI
LevoepinephrineChEBI
PrimateneChEBI
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-a-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcoholGenerator
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcoholGenerator
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-a-[(methylamino)methyl]-benzyl alcoholHMDB
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-a-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcoholHMDB
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl]-benzyl alcoholHMDB
(-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcoholHMDB
(-)-EpinephrineHMDB
(R)-4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediolHMDB
(R)-AdrenalineHMDB
(R)-EpinephrineHMDB
AdnephrineHMDB
AdrenalHMDB
AdrenineHMDB
AdrinHMDB
Ana-kitHMDB
BosminHMDB
Bronkaid mistHMDB
ChelafrinHMDB
EpifrinHMDB
EpiglaufrinHMDB
EpinephranHMDB
EpirenanHMDB
EppyHMDB
ExadrinHMDB
GlauposineHMDB
HemisineHMDB
HemostasinHMDB
HemostatinHMDB
HypernephrinHMDB
IsoptoepinalHMDB
L-1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylaminoethanolHMDB
L-EpinephrineHMDB
L-EpirenamineHMDB
L-MethylaminoethanolcatecholHMDB
LevorenenHMDB
LevoreninHMDB
LevorenineHMDB
LevoreninumHMDB
LyodrinHMDB
MethylarterenolHMDB
MucidrinaHMDB
NephridineHMDB
NieralineHMDB
ParanephrinHMDB
Primatene mistHMDB
R-(-)-EpinephrineHMDB
RenaglandinHMDB
RenaleptineHMDB
RenalinaHMDB
RenoformHMDB
RenostypticinHMDB
RenostyptinHMDB
ScurenalineHMDB
SimpleneHMDB
StyptirenalHMDB
SupracapsulinHMDB
SupranephraneHMDB
SuprarenalineHMDB
SuprareninHMDB
SurrenineHMDB
Sus-phrineHMDB
TakaminaHMDB
VasoconstrictineHMDB
VasotoninHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13NO3
Average Molecular Weight183.2044
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight183.089543287
IUPAC Name4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol
Traditional Nameepinephrine
CAS Registry Number51-43-4
SMILES
CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC=C(O)C(O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13NO3/c1-10-5-9(13)6-2-3-7(11)8(12)4-6/h2-4,9-13H,5H2,1H3/t9-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=UCTWMZQNUQWSLP-VIFPVBQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenols and derivatives
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Catecholamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point211.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.18 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.37HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility18.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.82ALOGPS
logP-0.43ChemAxon
logS-0.99ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0900000000-5ca773e378035e522e65View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-7718bec49c1a109083e5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-ec5581e838e2a4a66139View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9200000000-4572448ba3dadff2d2a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-9da12d9c8551de2507beView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-12dd42d00be1feb2ea6fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-57c9bc614d9bbbfeed6bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00dj-0900000000-375b0df9797eb0a3db5fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0fdk-1900000000-04c230e802b08770ccd4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-b707acd2982b875d2b8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-f3590054822872902032View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-7d7916641e9f2b8c2a1dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0adi-8900000000-5bbc248c0ddc66e4fe40View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9300000000-af8ce8ce2cdd535404e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0159-0900000000-f2fafb87963f9f1c6960View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-2900000000-b54ca44315664cba912aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-881b25fed45874c66e13View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0ugi-9500000000-1fadd0dd0beb4816b39dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004j-9000000000-61011b8f179c08d62b62View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Eye Lens
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
Epinephrine Action PathwaySMP00661Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencySMP00497Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00164 +/- 0.00012 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00029 +/- 0.000021 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00072 (0.00049-0.0013) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0003 +/- 0.00003 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0(0.0-0.00022) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000235 +/- 3.277e-05 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.034 (0.0063-0.062) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00024 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0057 +/- 0.00092 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.002 +/- 0.00099 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0052 (0.00043-0.0099) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0021 (0.00098-0.0052) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00241 +/- 0.00057 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHead trauma details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000077 +/- 0.000025 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleAddison's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 +/- 0.00036 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSubarachnoid haemorrhage details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00014 +/- 0.000036 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAddison's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00029 (0.00005-0.00054) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Pheochromocytoma
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0025 (0.0002-0.0048) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Pheochromocytoma
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000453 +/- 4.916e-05 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedborderline hypertensives details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000147 +/- 0.000109 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCerebral infarction, headache, paresthesia and ununconfirmed suspicion of leucemic infaction or brain metastasis with normal CSF value details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000109 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCerebral infarction, headache, paresthesia and ununconfirmed suspicion of leucemic infaction or brain metastasis with normal CSF value but renal insufficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000251 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHaemorrhagic infraction details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000300 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedBacterial meningitis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000481 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeucemic meningiosa details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000153 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEncephalitis details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.011 +/- 0.0022 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothExercise details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Addison's Disease
  1. Bornstein SR, Breidert M, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Kloos B, Scherbaum WA: Plasma catecholamines in patients with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Feb;42(2):215-8. [7704967 ]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  1. Lambert G, Naredi S, Eden E, Rydenhag B, Friberg P: Monoamine metabolism and sympathetic nervous activation following subarachnoid haemorrhage: influence of gender and hydrocephalus. Brain Res Bull. 2002 May;58(1):77-82. [12121816 ]
Head injury
  1. Lambert G, Naredi S, Eden E, Rydenhag B, Friberg P: Monoamine metabolism and sympathetic nervous activation following subarachnoid haemorrhage: influence of gender and hydrocephalus. Brain Res Bull. 2002 May;58(1):77-82. [12121816 ]
Pheochromocytoma
  1. Eisenhofer G, Keiser H, Friberg P, Mezey E, Huynh TT, Hiremagalur B, Ellingson T, Duddempudi S, Eijsbouts A, Lenders JW: Plasma metanephrines are markers of pheochromocytoma produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase within tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jun;83(6):2175-85. [9626157 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021889
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5611
KEGG Compound IDC00788
BioCyc IDL-EPINEPHRINE
BiGG ID35997
Wikipedia LinkEpinephrine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00068
Metagene LinkHMDB00068
METLIN ID5127
PubChem Compound5816
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28918
References
Synthesis ReferenceSinger, Robert A.; Carreira, Erick M. An in situ procedure for catalytic, enantioselective acetate aldol addition. Application to the synthesis of (R)-(-)-epinephrine. Tetrahedron Letters (1997), 38(6), 927-930.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Blagitko N, Schulz U, Schinzel AA, Ropers HH, Kalscheuer VM: gamma2-COP, a novel imprinted gene on chromosome 7q32, defines a new imprinting cluster in the human genome. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Dec;8(13):2387-96. [10556286 ]
  2. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [12649306 ]
  3. Kurtis JD, Friedman JF, Leenstra T, Langdon GC, Wu HW, Manalo DL, Su L, Jiz M, Jarilla B, Pablo AO, McGarvey ST, Olveda RM, Acosta LP: Pubertal development predicts resistance to infection and reinfection with Schistosoma japonicum. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jun 15;42(12):1692-8. Epub 2006 May 12. [16705573 ]
  4. Eisenhofer G, Keiser H, Friberg P, Mezey E, Huynh TT, Hiremagalur B, Ellingson T, Duddempudi S, Eijsbouts A, Lenders JW: Plasma metanephrines are markers of pheochromocytoma produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase within tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jun;83(6):2175-85. [9626157 ]
  5. Igdoura SA, Gafuik C, Mertineit C, Saberi F, Pshezhetsky AV, Potier M, Trasler JM, Gravel RA: Cloning of the cDNA and gene encoding mouse lysosomal sialidase and correction of sialidase deficiency in human sialidosis and mouse SM/J fibroblasts. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Jan;7(1):115-21. [9384611 ]
  6. Kaufer D, Ogle WO, Pincus ZS, Clark KL, Nicholas AC, Dinkel KM, Dumas TC, Ferguson D, Lee AL, Winters MA, Sapolsky RM: Restructuring the neuronal stress response with anti-glucocorticoid gene delivery. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep;7(9):947-53. Epub 2004 Aug 8. [15300253 ]
  7. Yasuda G, Umemura S, Ishii M: Characterization of bunazosin-sensitive alpha1-adrenoceptors in human renal medulla. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1997 Aug;30(2):163-8. [9269942 ]
  8. Gear AR, Camerini D: Platelet chemokines and chemokine receptors: linking hemostasis, inflammation, and host defense. Microcirculation. 2003 Jun;10(3-4):335-50. [12851650 ]
  9. Wilson BS, Petrella E, Lowe SR, Lien K, Mackensen DG, Gridley DS, Stickney DR: Radiolocalization of human small cell lung cancer and antigen-positive normal tissues using monoclonal antibody LS2D617. Cancer Res. 1990 May 15;50(10):3124-30. [2159374 ]
  10. Blakely RD, Apparsundaram S: Structural diversity in the catecholamine transporter gene family: molecular cloning and characterization of an L-epinephrine transporter from bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. Adv Pharmacol. 1998;42:206-10. [9327880 ]
  11. Belloni AS, Albertin G, Forneris ML, Nussdorfer GG: Proadrenomedullin-derived peptides as autocrine-paracrine regulators of cell growth. Histol Histopathol. 2001 Oct;16(4):1263-74. [11642745 ]
  12. Contreras LN, Arregger AL, Persi GG, Gonzalez NS, Cardoso EM: A new less-invasive and more informative low-dose ACTH test: salivary steroids in response to intramuscular corticotrophin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Dec;61(6):675-82. [15579180 ]
  13. Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Roberts WL, Pattison EG, Owen WE, Bunker AM, Meikle AW: Development and performance evaluation of a tandem mass spectrometry assay for 4 adrenal steroids. Clin Chem. 2006 Aug;52(8):1559-67. Epub 2006 Jun 15. [16777916 ]
  14. Krohn K, Uibo R, Aavik E, Peterson P, Savilahti K: Identification by molecular cloning of an autoantigen associated with Addison's disease as steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase. Lancet. 1992 Mar 28;339(8796):770-3. [1347802 ]
  15. Bornstein SR, Breidert M, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Kloos B, Scherbaum WA: Plasma catecholamines in patients with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Feb;42(2):215-8. [7704967 ]
  16. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [12834252 ]
  17. Hiroi N, Yanagisawa R, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Endo T, Kawase T, Tsuchida Y, Toyama K, Shibuya K, Nakata K, Yoshino G: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Jun;29(6):551-4. [16840834 ]
  18. Kennedy B, Bigby TD, Ziegler MG: Nonadrenal epinephrine-forming enzymes in humans. Characteristics, distribution, regulation, and relationship to epinephrine levels. J Clin Invest. 1995 Jun;95(6):2896-902. [7769131 ]
  19. Panholzer TJ, Beyer J, Lichtwald K: Coupled-column liquid chromatographic analysis of catecholamines, serotonin, and metabolites in human urine. Clin Chem. 1999 Feb;45(2):262-8. [9931050 ]
  20. De Bellis MD, Baum AS, Birmaher B, Keshavan MS, Eccard CH, Boring AM, Jenkins FJ, Ryan ND: A.E. Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology. Part I: Biological stress systems. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 May 15;45(10):1259-70. [10349032 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Epinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Metanephrinedetails
General function:
Involved in amino acid binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
P00439
Molecular weight:
51861.565
General function:
Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Converts noradrenaline to adrenaline.
Gene Name:
PNMT
Uniprot ID:
P11086
Molecular weight:
30854.745
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Norepinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Epinephrinedetails
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular weight:
49953.1
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular weight:
51322.1
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular weight:
46458.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta- phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular weight:
39091.3