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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-01 23:03:44 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00073
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDopamine
DescriptionDopamine is a member of the catecholamine (Neurotransmitters) family in the brain, and is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Dopamine is synthesized in the body (mainly by nervous tissue and adrenal glands) first by the hydration of the amino acid tyrosine to DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase and then by the decarboxylation of DOPA by aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (Dopamine receptors) mediates its action. --PubChem.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
  2. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
  3. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine
  4. 3-Hydroxytyramine
  5. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  6. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Pyrocatechol
  7. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
  8. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
  9. a-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
  10. alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
  11. Deoxyepinephrine
  12. Dopamin
  13. Dopamine
  14. Dopaminum
  15. Dopastat
  16. Dophamine
  17. Dynatra
  18. Hydroxytyramin
  19. Hydroxytyramine
  20. Intropin
  21. Oxytyramine
  22. Revivan
Chemical FormulaC8H11NO2
Average Molecular Weight153.1784
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight153.078978601
IUPAC Name4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
Traditional Namedopamine
CAS Registry Number62-31-7
SMILES
NCCC1=CC=C(O)C(O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
InChI KeyVYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassPhenols and Derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenediols
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
  • Biogenic amines(KEGG)
  • Dopamine(KEGG)
  • Tyramine derivatives(KEGG)
  • catecholamine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diphenol
  • Phenethylamine
  • Primary Aliphatic Amine (Alkylamine)
Direct ParentCatecholamines and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point128 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility535 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.98HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43ALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Striatum
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified22.50 +/- 4.50 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.002+/-0.002 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0059 +/- 0.002 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0045 +/- 0.0026 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.107 (0.043-0.172) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.07 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.86 (0.179-1.541) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.626 (0.030-5.221) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4 (0.2-0.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.10 (0.066-0.16) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified18.0284 +/- 2.4552 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000268 +/- 0.000124 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCerebral infarction, headache, paresthesia and ununconfirmed suspicion of leucemic infaction or brain metastasis with normal CSF value details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000300 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCerebral infarction, headache, paresthesia and ununconfirmed suspicion of leucemic infaction or brain metastasis with normal CSF value but renal insufficiency details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000392 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHaemorrhagic infraction details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000510 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedBacterial meningitis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000810 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLeucemic meningiosa details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000287 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedEncephalitis details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.34 +/- 0.10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.00002 +/- 0.000006 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000021 (0.000015-0.000027) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypothyroidism details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.000078 (0.0000065-0.00015) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.49 +/- 0.06 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothVitiligo details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.03 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Vitiligo
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Vitiligo
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2426 +/- 0 nmol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.119 +/- 0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Male
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Holmes C, Goldstein DS: Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid catechols support increased central noradrenergic responsiveness in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):756-65. Pubmed: 10494443
  2. Fonteh AN, Harrington RJ, Tsai A, Liao P, Harrington MG: Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimer's disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed: 17031479
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
  1. Abdenur JE, Abeling N, Specola N, Jorge L, Schenone AB, van Cruchten AC, Chamoles NA: Aromatic l-aminoacid decarboxylase deficiency: unusual neonatal presentation and additional findings in organic acid analysis. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jan;87(1):48-53. Epub 2005 Nov 9. Pubmed: 16288991
Hypothyroidism
  1. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. Pubmed: 9849813
Vitiligo
  1. Cucchi ML, Frattini P, Santagostino G, Preda S, Orecchia G: Catecholamines increase in the urine of non-segmental vitiligo especially during its active phase. Pigment Cell Res. 2003 Apr;16(2):111-6. Pubmed: 12622787
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00988
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012163
KNApSAcK IDC00001408
Chemspider ID661
KEGG Compound IDC03758
BioCyc IDDOPAMINE
BiGG ID42467
Wikipedia LinkDopamine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00073
Metagene LinkHMDB00073
METLIN ID64
PubChem Compound681
PDB IDLDP
ChEBI ID18243
References
Synthesis ReferenceBudnik, Josef. 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride. Czech. (1986), 2 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Raw I, Schmidt BJ, Merzel J: Catecholamines and congenital pain insensitivity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1984;17(3-4):271-9. Pubmed: 6085021
  2. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. Pubmed: 12649306
  3. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. Pubmed: 12834252
  4. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Holmes C, Goldstein DS: Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid catechols support increased central noradrenergic responsiveness in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):756-65. Pubmed: 10494443
  5. Mannelli M, Ianni L, Lazzeri C, Castellani W, Pupilli C, La Villa G, Barletta G, Serio M, Franchi F: In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):398-402. Pubmed: 10489384
  6. Jiang H, Betancourt L, Smith RG: Ghrelin amplifies dopamine signaling by cross talk involving formation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor/dopamine receptor subtype 1 heterodimers. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;20(8):1772-85. Epub 2006 Apr 6. Pubmed: 16601073
  7. Brody AL, Mandelkern MA, Olmstead RE, Scheibal D, Hahn E, Shiraga S, Zamora-Paja E, Farahi J, Saxena S, London ED, McCracken JT: Gene variants of brain dopamine pathways and smoking-induced dopamine release in the ventral caudate/nucleus accumbens. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):808-16. Pubmed: 16818870
  8. Bauman A: Unilateral adrenal catecholamine excess. Pheochromocytoma or possible sporadic medullary hyperplasia. Arch Intern Med. 1982 Feb;142(2):377-8. Pubmed: 7059264
  9. King BM: The rise, fall, and resurrection of the ventromedial hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Physiol Behav. 2006 Feb 28;87(2):221-44. Epub 2006 Jan 18. Pubmed: 16412483
  10. Cucchi ML, Frattini P, Santagostino G, Preda S, Orecchia G: Catecholamines increase in the urine of non-segmental vitiligo especially during its active phase. Pigment Cell Res. 2003 Apr;16(2):111-6. Pubmed: 12622787
  11. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. Pubmed: 9849813
  12. Kobayashi K, Yasuhara T, Agari T, Muraoka K, Kameda M, Ji Yuan W, Hayase H, Matsui T, Miyoshi Y, Shingo T, Date I: Control of dopamine-secretion by Tet-Off system in an in vivo model of parkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2006 Aug 2;1102(1):1-11. Epub 2006 Jun 27. Pubmed: 16806124
  13. Schenarts PJ, Sagraves SG, Bard MR, Toschlog EA, Goettler CE, Newell MA, Rotondo MF: Low-dose dopamine: a physiologically based review. Curr Surg. 2006 May-Jun;63(3):219-25. Pubmed: 16757377
  14. Piazza O, Zito G, Valente A, Tufano R: Effects of dopamine infusion on forearm blood flow in critical patients. Med Sci Monit. 2006 Feb;12(2):CR90-3. Epub 2006 Jan 26. Pubmed: 16449954
  15. Wang HY, Xiao Y, Han J, Chang XS: Simultaneous determination of dopamine and carvedilol in human serum and urine by first-order derivative fluorometry. Anal Sci. 2005 Nov;21(11):1281-5. Pubmed: 16317894
  16. Elchisak MA, Carlson JH: Assay of free and conjugated catecholamines by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr. 1982 Dec 10;233:79-88. Pubmed: 7161364
  17. Eklundh T, Eriksson M, Sjoberg S, Nordin C: Monoamine precursors, transmitters and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: a prospective study in healthy male subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 1996 May-Jun;30(3):201-8. Pubmed: 8884658
  18. Kopieniak M, Wieczorkiewicz-Plaza A, Maciejewski R: Dopamine activity changes in cerebral cortex in the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(1):382-6. Pubmed: 16146016
  19. Nikolelis DP, Drivelos DA, Simantiraki MG, Koinis S: An optical spot test for the detection of dopamine in human urine using stabilized in air lipid films. Anal Chem. 2004 Apr 15;76(8):2174-80. Pubmed: 15080725
  20. Eisenhofer G, Aneman A, Friberg P, Hooper D, Fandriks L, Lonroth H, Hunyady B, Mezey E: Substantial production of dopamine in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3864-71. Pubmed: 9360553
  21. Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. Pubmed: 9858756
  22. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. Pubmed: 11477488
  23. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. Pubmed: 11805404
  24. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. Pubmed: 14561867
  25. Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. Pubmed: 17237217

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Dopamine + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
Reactions
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. Epub 2008 Jul 4. Pubmed: 18652859
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Pubmed: 20869994
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. Epub 2008 Jul 4. Pubmed: 18652859
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Pubmed: 20869994
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. Pubmed: 15817751
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular weight:
69064.45
Reactions
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → xi-Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. Pubmed: 17258889
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. Pubmed: 17561816
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. Pubmed: 17625104
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Pubmed: 17287146
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. Pubmed: 17433386
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular weight:
30036.77
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + Dopamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + 3-Methoxytyraminedetails
References
  1. Ittiwut R, Listman JB, Ittiwut C, Cubells JF, Weiss RD, Brady K, Oslin D, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J: Association between polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and cocaine-induced paranoia in European-American and African-American populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Sep;156B(6):651-60. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31205. Epub 2011 Jun 8. Pubmed: 21656904
  2. Boot E, Booij J, Abeling N, Meijer J, da Silva Alves F, Zinkstok J, Baas F, Linszen D, van Amelsvoort T: Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val(1)(0)(8)/(1)(5)(8)Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul;25(7):888-95. Epub 2011 Mar 29. Pubmed: 21447540
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. Pubmed: 15817751
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular weight:
53893.755
Reactions
L-Dopa → Dopamine + CO(2)details
L-Dopa → Dopamine + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular weight:
48359.9
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular weight:
68494.255
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
General function:
Involved in dopamine receptor binding
Specific function:
Interacts with clathrin light chain A and stimulates clathrin self-assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Gene Name:
CALY
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYX4
Molecular weight:
23433.5
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Calcium-binding protein involved in exocytosis of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Probably acts upstream of fusion in the biogenesis or maintenance of mature secretory vesicles. Regulates catecholamine loading of DCVs. May specifically mediate the Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and other dense-core vesicles by acting as a PtdIns(4,5)P2-binding protein that acts at prefusion step following ATP-dependent priming and participates in DCVs-membrane fusion. However, it may also participate in small clear synaptic vesicles (SVs) exocytosis and it is unclear whether its function is related to Ca(2+) triggering
Gene Name:
CADPS
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULU8
Molecular weight:
152785.4
General function:
Involved in lipid binding
Specific function:
Calcium-binding protein involved in exocytosis of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Probably acts upstream of fusion in the biogenesis or maintenance of mature secretory vesicles. Regulates neurotrophin release from granule cells leading to regulate cell differentiation and survival during cerebellar development. May specifically mediate the Ca(2+)- dependent exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and other dense-core vesicles
Gene Name:
CADPS2
Uniprot ID:
Q86UW7
Molecular weight:
147733.4
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular weight:
44224.3
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular weight:
49292.8
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
  2. Dolzan V, Plesnicar BK, Serretti A, Mandelli L, Zalar B, Koprivsek J, Breskvar K: Polymorphisms in dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 genes and psychopathological and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144B(6):809-15. Pubmed: 17455212
  3. Hoenicka J, Aragues M, Ponce G, Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Palomo T: From dopaminergic genes to psychiatric disorders. Neurotox Res. 2007 Jan;11(1):61-72. Pubmed: 17449449
  4. da Silva Lobo DS, Vallada HP, Knight J, Martins SS, Tavares H, Gentil V, Kennedy JL: Dopamine genes and pathological gambling in discordant sib-pairs. J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):421-33. Epub 2007 Mar 30. Pubmed: 17394052
  5. Fu W, Shen J, Luo X, Zhu W, Cheng J, Yu K, Briggs JM, Jin G, Chen K, Jiang H: Dopamine D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist effects of the natural product (-)-stepholidine: molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 1;93(5):1431-41. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Pubmed: 17468175
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular weight:
52950.5
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. Pubmed: 17301410
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
dopamine D4 receptor
Uniprot ID:
Q99586
Molecular weight:
9148.4
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
dopamine D4 receptor
Uniprot ID:
Q99587
Molecular weight:
8481.6

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. Pubmed: 11160873
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. Pubmed: 10454528
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. Pubmed: 12606755
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. Pubmed: 9655880
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed: 11758759
  4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. Pubmed: 8898084
  5. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. Pubmed: 9776363
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed: 12089365
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed: 9830022
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. Pubmed: 11758759
  4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. Pubmed: 9687576
  5. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. Pubmed: 9812985
  6. Verhaagh S, Schweifer N, Barlow DP, Zwart R: Cloning of the mouse and human solute carrier 22a3 (Slc22a3/SLC22A3) identifies a conserved cluster of three organic cation transporters on mouse chromosome 17 and human 6q26-q27. Genomics. 1999 Jan 15;55(2):209-18. Pubmed: 9933568
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed: 9830022