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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:47:49 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00089
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCytidine
DescriptionCytidine is a nucleoside that is composed of the base cytosine linked to the five-carbon sugar D-ribose. Cytidine is a pyrimidine that besides being incorporated into nucleic acids, can serve as substrate for the salvage pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; as precursor of the cytidine triphosphate (CTP) needed in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthetic pathway. These variations probably reflect the species differences in cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that converts cytidine to uridine in the body. The transports of cytidine into the brain's extracellular fluid, and then into neurons and glia, are essential prerequisites for cytidine to be utilized in brain. An efficient mechanism mediating the brain uptake of circulating cytidine has not yet been demonstrated. The biosynthesis of PC, the most abundant phosphatide in the brain, via the Kennedy pathway requires phosphocholine and cytidine triphosphate (CTP), a cytidine nucleotide, which is involved in the rate-limiting step. The enzyme that converts CTP to endogenous CDP-choline (CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) is unsaturated at physiological brain CTP levels. APOBEC is a family of enzymes has been discovered with the ability to deaminate cytidines on RNA or DNA. The human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, or hA3G) protein, provides cells with an intracellular antiretroviral activity that is associated with the hypermutation of viral DNA through cytidine deamination. Indeed, hA3G belongs to a family of vertebrate proteins that contain one or two copies of a signature sequence motif unique to cytidine deaminases (CTDAs). (PMID: 16769123 , 15780864 , 16720547 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-(b-D-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazine
  2. 1-(b-delta-Ribofuranosyl)-2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3-diazine
  3. 1-b-D-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  4. 1-b-D-Ribosyl-Cytosine
  5. 1-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-Cytosine
  6. 1-beta-D-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  7. 1-beta-delta-Ribofuranosyl-Cytosine
  8. 1-beta-delta-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  9. 1-beta-delta-Ribosyl-Cytosine
  10. 1beta-D-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  11. 1beta-delta-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  12. 1beta-Ribofuranosylcytosine
  13. 4-Amino-1-b-D-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone
  14. 4-Amino-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone
  15. Cytidine
  16. Cytosine riboside
  17. Cytosine-1b-D-Ribofuranoside
  18. Cytosine-1b-delta-Ribofuranoside
  19. Cytosine-1beta-D-Ribofuranoside
  20. Cytosine-1beta-delta-Ribofuranoside
Chemical FormulaC9H13N3O5
Average Molecular Weight243.2166
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight243.085520541
IUPAC Name4-amino-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one
Traditional Namecytidine
CAS Registry Number65-46-3
SMILES
NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N3O5/c10-5-1-2-12(9(16)11-5)8-7(15)6(14)4(3-13)17-8/h1-2,4,6-8,13-15H,3H2,(H2,10,11,16)/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1
InChI KeyUHDGCWIWMRVCDJ-XVFCMESISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPyrimidine Nucleosides and Analogues
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • a pyrimidine ribonucleoside(Cyc)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPyrimidine Nucleosides and Analogues
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Pyrimidine metabolism
  • Protein component
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point230.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-2.51HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility43.8ALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.74ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area128.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity54.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.39 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.25 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.1 +/- 0.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.44 +/- 0.32 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.45 +/- 0.31 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.05 +/- 0.828 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0683 +/- 0.0749 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0683 +/- 0.0749 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0787 +/- 0.0807 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0886 +/- 0.0760 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.123 +/- 0.0900 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.125 +/- 0.0812 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.132 +/- 0.0808 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.237 +/- 0.184 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.78 (0.00-1.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.08 +/- 0.06 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.05 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.50 +/- 1.34 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.12 +/- 0.69 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.33 +/- 0.17 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.26 +/- 0.13 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0795 +/- 0.0643 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTooth alignment disorders
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.39 +/- 0.30 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.48 +/- 0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.22 +/- 0.17 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.03 +/- 1.77 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCanavan disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. Pubmed: 16139832
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021809
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5940
KEGG Compound IDC00475
BioCyc IDCYTIDINE
BiGG ID35089
Wikipedia LinkCytidine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00089
Metagene LinkHMDB00089
METLIN ID3376
PubChem Compound6175
PDB IDCTN
ChEBI ID17562
References
Synthesis ReferenceQu, Guirong; Yang, Xining; Shen, Yanhong; Dong, Chunhong; Guo, Haiming; Wang, Xiuqiang; Wang, Dongchao. Synthesis of cytidine. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 11pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Eells JT, Spector R: Purine and pyrimidine base and nucleoside concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Neurochem Res. 1983 Nov;8(11):1451-7. Pubmed: 6656991
  3. Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Chung BC: A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of nucleosides in human urine using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with direct urine injection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(9):973-7. Pubmed: 15116424
  4. Mahieux R, Suspene R, Delebecque F, Henry M, Schwartz O, Wain-Hobson S, Vartanian JP: Extensive editing of a small fraction of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 genomes by four APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. J Gen Virol. 2005 Sep;86(Pt 9):2489-94. Pubmed: 16099907
  5. Schrofelbauer B, Yu Q, Zeitlin SG, Landau NR: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces the degradation of the UNG and SMUG uracil-DNA glycosylases. J Virol. 2005 Sep;79(17):10978-87. Pubmed: 16103149
  6. Min IM, Selsing E: Antibody class switch recombination: roles for switch sequences and mismatch repair proteins. Adv Immunol. 2005;87:297-328. Pubmed: 16102577
  7. Zhong SQ, Sun LJ, Yan YZ, Sun YQ, Zhong YY: Effect of Xuesaitong soft capsule on hemorrheology and in auxiliarily treating patients with acute cerebral infarction. Chin J Integr Med. 2005 Jun;11(2):128-31. Pubmed: 16150200
  8. Barbour JD, Grant RM: The role of viral fitness in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Feb;2(1):29-34. Pubmed: 16091246
  9. Cansev M: Uridine and cytidine in the brain: their transport and utilization. Brain Res Rev. 2006 Sep;52(2):389-97. Pubmed: 16769123
  10. Huthoff H, Malim MH: Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: towards a structural understanding of the APOBEC proteins. Virology. 2005 Apr 10;334(2):147-53. Pubmed: 15780864
  11. Navaratnam N, Sarwar R: An overview of cytidine deaminases. Int J Hematol. 2006 Apr;83(3):195-200. Pubmed: 16720547

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA47
Molecular weight:
22760.43
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → ADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Cytidine → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → dADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate + Cytidine → dTDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dCTP + Cytidine → dCDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Cytidine → dUDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Regulates and initiates biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. Plays an essential role in early development (By similarity). Required for normal sialylation in hematopoietic cells. Sialylation is implicated in cell adhesion, signal transduction, tumorigenicity and metastatic behavior of malignant cells.
Gene Name:
GNE
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y223
Molecular weight:
83065.25
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZX2
Molecular weight:
29298.92
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → ADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Cytidine → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → dADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate + Cytidine → dTDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dCTP + Cytidine → dCDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Cytidine → dUDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AID
Uniprot ID:
Q546Y9
Molecular weight:
23953.3
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular weight:
64969.2
Reactions
Cytidine monophosphate + Water → Cytidine + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
This enzyme scavenge exogenous and endogenous cytidine and 2'-deoxycytidine for UMP synthesis.
Gene Name:
CDA
Uniprot ID:
P32320
Molecular weight:
16184.545
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May contribute to UTP accumulation needed for blast transformation and proliferation.
Gene Name:
UCKL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWZ5
Molecular weight:
59465.77
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → ADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Uridine triphosphate + Cytidine → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Inosine triphosphate + Cytidine → IDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Cytidine → dADP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate + Cytidine → dTDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
dCTP + Cytidine → dCDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Cytidine → dUDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
DNA cytidine deaminase which may provide cellular innate resistance to a specific panel of genetic invaders including endogenous retroelements and a subset of viruses.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3H
Uniprot ID:
Q6NTF7
Molecular weight:
21529.795
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Binds to cytidine clusters in double-stranded DNA
Gene Name:
ZNF638
Uniprot ID:
Q14966
Molecular weight:
220622.9
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
RNA-binding protein implicated in the regulation of several post-transcriptional events. Involved in pre-mRNA alternative splicing, mRNA translation and stability. Mediates exon inclusion and/or exclusion in pre-mRNA that are subject to tissue-specific and developmentally regulated alternative splicing. Specifically activates exon 5 inclusion of TNNT2 in embryonic, but not adult, skeletal muscle. Activates TNNT2 exon 5 inclusion by antagonizing the repressive effect of PTB. Acts as both an activator and repressor of a pair of coregulated exons:promotes inclusion of the smooth muscle (SM) exon but exclusion of the non-muscle (NM) exon in actinin pre-mRNAs. Promotes inclusion of exonS 21 and exclusion of exon 5 of the NMDA receptor R1 pre- mRNA. Involved in the apoB RNA editing activity. Increases COX2 mRNA stability and inhibits COX2 mRNA translation in epithelial cells after radiation injury. Modulates the cellular apoptosis program by regulating COX2-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression. Binds to (CUG)n triplet repeats in the 3'-UTR of transcripts such as DMPK. Binds to the muscle-specific splicing enhancer (MSE) intronic sites flanking the TNNT2 alternative exon 5. Binds preferentially to UG-rich sequences, in particular UG repeat and UGUU motifs. Binds to apoB mRNA, specifically to AU-rich sequences located immediatly upstream of the edited cytidine. Binds AU-rich sequences in the 3'-UTR of COX2 mRNA. Binds to an intronic RNA element responsible for the silencing of exon 21 splicing. Binds to (CUG)n repeats
Gene Name:
CELF2
Uniprot ID:
O95319
Molecular weight:
54284.4
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminase involved in foreign DNA clearance. May trigger C-to-U hypermutation in exogenous DNA leading to its degradation. Provides cellular innate resistance to a specific panel of genetic invaders including endogenous retroelements and a subset of viruses. May have a preference for cytidines in a C-C sequence context. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3A
Uniprot ID:
P31941
Molecular weight:
23011.83
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Probable DNA cytidine deaminase involved in foreign DNA clearance. May provide cellular innate resistance to a specific panel of genetic invaders including endogenous retroelements and a subset of viruses. Binds to apoB and AU-rich RNAs.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9UH17
Molecular weight:
43107.7
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Host cellular restriction factor that may have antiviral activities against exogenous and endogenous viruses, as well as retrotransposons. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3C
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRW3
Molecular weight:
22825.725
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Probable DNA cytidine deaminase involved in foreign DNA clearance. May provide cellular innate resistance to a specific panel of genetic invaders including endogenous retroelements and a subset of viruses.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3D
Uniprot ID:
Q96AK3
Molecular weight:
46598.035
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Host cellular restriction factor that may have antiviral activities against exogenous and endogenous viruses, as well as retrotransposons. After being packaged into HIV-1 virions, blocks productive infection by massively editing dC residues to dU on the DNA minus strand during reverse transcription. The editing of the minus strand DNA of HIV-1 during reverse transcription leads to G-to-A transitions in the plus strand. The inhibition of viral replication is either due to the degradation of the minus strand before its integration or to the lethality of the hypermutations. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation.
Gene Name:
APOBEC3F
Uniprot ID:
Q8IUX4
Molecular weight:
11822.52
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Single-stranded DNA-specific cytidine deaminase. Involved in somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class-switch recombination in B-lymphocytes. Required for several crucial steps of B-cell terminal differentiation necessary for efficient antibody responses. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation.
Gene Name:
AICDA
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZX7
Molecular weight:
23953.265
Reactions
Cytidine + Water → Uridine + Ammoniadetails