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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2015-06-19 23:48:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00108
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEthanol
DescriptionEthanol is a clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Indeed, ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. Ethanol has a depressive effect on the central nervous system and because of its psychoactive effects, it is considered a drug. Ethanol has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain, most notably it acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors. Death from ethanol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0.4%. A blood level of 0.5% or more is commonly fatal. Levels of even less than 0.1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0.3-0.4 %. Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde, is more toxic than ethanol. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[77] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism. Industrially, ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast. Small amounts of ethanol are endogenously produced by gut microflora through anaerobic fermentation. However most ethanol detected in biofluids and tissues likely comes from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Absolute ethanol or anhydrous alcohol generally refers to purified ethanol, containing no more than one percent water. Absolute alcohol is not intended for human consumption. It often contains trace amounts of toxic benzene (used to remove water by azeotropic distillation). Consumption of this form of ethanol can be fatal over a short time period. Generally absolute or pure ethanol is used as a solvent for lab and industrial settings where water will disrupt a desired reaction. Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA and Canada, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Hydroxyethane
  2. Absolute alcohol
  3. Absolute ethanol
  4. Absolute ethyl alcohol
  5. Aethanol
  6. Aethylalkohol
  7. Alcare Hand Degermer
  8. Alcohol
  9. Alcohols
  10. Alcool ethylique
  11. Alcool etilico
  12. Algrain
  13. Alkohol
  14. Alkoholu etylowego
  15. Anhydrol
  16. Anhydrous alcohol
  17. Cologne spirit
  18. Cologne spirits
  19. Dehydrated alcohol
  20. Dehydrated ethanol
  21. Denatured alcohol
  22. Denatured ethanol
  23. Desinfektol EL
  24. Diluted Alcohol
  25. Distilled spirits
  26. Ethanol 200 proof
  27. Ethanol solution
  28. Ethicap
  29. Ethyl alc
  30. Ethyl alcohol
  31. Ethyl alcohol anhydrous
  32. Ethyl alcohol in alcoholic beverages
  33. Ethyl alcohol usp
  34. Ethyl hydrate
  35. Ethyl hydroxide
  36. Fermentation alcohol
  37. Grain alcohol
  38. Hinetoless
  39. Hydroxyethane
  40. Infinity Pure
  41. Jaysol
  42. Jaysol S
  43. Lux
  44. Methylcarbinol
  45. Molasses alcohol
  46. Potato alcohol
  47. Punctilious ethyl alcohol
  48. Pyro
  49. Silent spirit
  50. Spirit
  51. Spirits of wine
  52. Spirt
  53. Synasol
  54. Tecsol
  55. Tecsol C
  56. Thanol
  57. Undenatured Ethanol
Chemical FormulaC2H6O
Average Molecular Weight46.0684
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.041864814
IUPAC Nameethanol
Traditional Nameethyl alcohol
CAS Registry Number64-17-5
SMILES
CCO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. These are compounds comprising the primary alcohol functional group, with the general structure RCOH (R=alkyl, aryl).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassAlcohols and polyols
Sub ClassPrimary alcohols
Direct ParentPrimary alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Component of Androgen and estrogen metabolism
  • Component of Bile acid biosynthesis
  • Component of C21-Steroid hormone metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Sulfur metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-114.1 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.31HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility579.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP-0.16ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mouth
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 (0.0-80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.0 (0.0-33.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 141.74 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified68.67 +/- 43.27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<0.01 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0105 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.2 +/- 12.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified45393.0 (18027.0-74063.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlcohol intoxication details
BloodDetected and Quantified40615.0 +/- 17158.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleDrunk driver details
BloodDetected and Quantified90.0 (10.0-170.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified230 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCervical myelopathy details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 350.32 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)BothCeliac disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.0 (0.0-661.0) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0039 - 0.0617 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected and Quantified3543.6 +/- 1414.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleDrunk driver details
UrineDetected and Quantified5-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
after 4 -5 hours of Alcohol consumption
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alcoholism
  1. Jones AW, Lund M, Andersson E: Drinking drivers in Sweden who consume denatured alcohol preparations: an analytical-toxicological study. J Anal Toxicol. 1989 Jul-Aug;13(4):199-203. [2779169 ]
  2. Jones AW, Helander A: Changes in the concentrations of ethanol, methanol and metabolites of serotonin in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers. Forensic Sci Int. 1998 May 11;93(2-3):127-34. [9717263 ]
Cervical myelopathy
  1. Meshitsuka S, Morio Y, Nagashima H, Teshima R: 1H-NMR studies of cerebrospinal fluid: endogenous ethanol in patients with cervical myelopathy. Clin Chim Acta. 2001 Oct;312(1-2):25-30. [11580906 ]
Kidney disease
  1. Liebich HM, Woll J: Volatile substances in blood serum: profile analysis and quantitative determination. J Chromatogr. 1977 Nov 11;142:505-16. [914932 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Oct 25. [18953024 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00898
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000753
KNApSAcK IDC00019560
Chemspider ID682
KEGG Compound IDC00469
BioCyc IDETOH
BiGG ID35062
Wikipedia LinkEthanol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00108
Metagene LinkHMDB00108
METLIN ID3203
PubChem Compound702
PDB IDEOH
ChEBI ID16236
References
Synthesis ReferenceLashley, David. Process for producing an alcoholic sugar cane juice beverage. U.S. (1988), 3 pp. CODEN: USXXAM US 4784859 A 19881115 CAN 110:113222 AN 1989:113222
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  2. Gordon Z, Parsons CL, Monga M: Intravesical ethanol test: an ineffective measure of bladder hyperpermeability. Urology. 2003 Mar;61(3):555-7. [12639646 ]
  3. Huang JS, She QB, Crilly KS, Kiss Z: Ethanol, Zn2+ and insulin interact as progression factors to enhance DNA synthesis synergistically in the presence of Ca2+ and other cell cycle initiators in fibroblasts. Biochem J. 2000 Feb 15;346 Pt 1:241-7. [10657263 ]
  4. Friedman GD, Klatsky AL, Siegelaub AB: Alcohol, tobacco, and hypertension. Hypertension. 1982 Sep-Oct;4(5 Pt 2):III143-50. [7049929 ]
  5. Uemura M, Lehmann WD, Schneider W, Seitz HK, Benner A, Keppler-Hafkemeyer A, Hafkemeyer P, Kojima H, Fujimoto M, Tsujii T, Fukui H, Keppler D: Enhanced urinary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in patients with acute alcohol intoxication. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jun;118(6):1140-8. [10833489 ]
  6. Hemmingsen R, Barry DI, Hertz MM, Klinken L: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat. Brain Res. 1979 Sep 14;173(2):259-69. [573652 ]
  7. Lopez JM, Bombi JA, Valderrama R, Gimenez A, Pares A, Caballeria J, Imperial S, Navarro S: Effects of prolonged ethanol intake and malnutrition on rat pancreas. Gut. 1996 Feb;38(2):285-92. [8801213 ]
  8. Yamashina S, Ikejima K, Enomoto N, Takei Y, Sato N: [Ethanol changes sensitivity of Kupffer cells to endotoxin] Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2003 Oct;38(5):415-24. [14639920 ]
  9. Aye MM, Ma C, Lin H, Bower KA, Wiggins RC, Luo J: Ethanol-induced in vitro invasion of breast cancer cells: the contribution of MMP-2 by fibroblasts. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):738-46. [15386367 ]
  10. De Martinis BS, de Paula CM, Braga A, Moreira HT, Martin CC: Alcohol distribution in different postmortem body fluids. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Feb;25(2):93-7. [16539214 ]
  11. Pohorecky LA: Influence of alcohol on peripheral neurotransmitter function. Fed Proc. 1982 Jun;41(8):2452-5. [6123447 ]
  12. Dean RA, Zhang J, Brzezinski MR, Bosron WF: Tissue distribution of cocaine methyl esterase and ethyl transferase activities: correlation with carboxylesterase protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Nov;275(2):965-71. [7473189 ]
  13. Elias AN, Meshkinpour H, Valenta LJ, Grossman MK: Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome: the role of alcohol. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1982 Apr;4(2):137-9. [6282953 ]
  14. Henriksson J, Knol M: A single bout of exercise is followed by a prolonged decrease in the interstitial glucose concentration in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005 Dec;185(4):313-20. [16266372 ]
  15. Rosdahl H, Lind L, Millgard J, Lithell H, Ungerstedt U, Henriksson J: Effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on blood flow and interstitial glucose concentration in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue studied by microdialysis. Diabetes. 1998 Aug;47(8):1296-301. [9703331 ]
  16. Boschmann M, Adams F, Schaller K, Franke G, Sharma AM, Klaus S, Luft FC, Jordan J: Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to interstitial angiotensin II in normal weight and obese men. J Hypertens. 2006 Jun;24(6):1165-71. [16685217 ]
  17. Igawa Y, Satoh T, Mizusawa H, Seki S, Kato H, Ishizuka O, Nishizawa O: The role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in autonomic dysreflexia in patients with spinal cord injury. BJU Int. 2003 May;91(7):637-41. [12699475 ]
  18. Enocksson S, Shimizu M, Lonnqvist F, Nordenstrom J, Arner P: Demonstration of an in vivo functional beta 3-adrenoceptor in man. J Clin Invest. 1995 May;95(5):2239-45. [7738189 ]
  19. Collins JW, Macdermott S, Bradbrook RA, Keeley FX Jr, Timoney AG: Is using ethanol-glycine irrigating fluid monitoring and 'good surgical practice' enough to prevent harmful absorption during transurethral resection of the prostate? BJU Int. 2006 Jun;97(6):1247-51. [16686720 ]
  20. Sokolik VV, Chursina VS, Artemchuk AA, Artemchuk AF, Bozhko GKh: [Depression of serum esterase and lipoprotein lipase activities in acute and longitudinal actions of ethanol] Biomed Khim. 2006 Jan-Feb;52(1):95-100. [16739925 ]
  21. Snyder R, Kalf GF: A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994;24(3):177-209. [7945890 ]
  22. McDonnell G, Russell AD: Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 Jan;12(1):147-79. [9880479 ]
  23. Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, Cooper H, Vale JA: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46. [12216995 ]
  24. Hingson R, Winter M: Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(1):63-78. [15301401 ]
  25. Chastain G: Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. J Gen Psychol. 2006 Oct;133(4):329-35. [17128954 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 67 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular weight:
59347.31
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
Reactions
Ethanol + NADP → Acetaldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular weight:
40221.335
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [18688716 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Lewis DF, Modi S, Dickins M: Structure-activity relationship for human cytochrome P450 substrates and inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):69-82. [11996013 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin- GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA)
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular weight:
245138.8
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin- GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular weight:
248974.1
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in cell-cell adhesion
Specific function:
Important in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with the beta-1 integrin VLA4 on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. The VCAM1/VLA4 interaction may play a pathophysiologic role both in immune responses and in leukocyte emigration to sites of inflammation
Gene Name:
VCAM1
Uniprot ID:
P19320
Molecular weight:
81275.4
References
  1. Arevalo E, Shanmugasundararaj S, Wilkemeyer MF, Dou X, Chen S, Charness ME, Miller KW: An alcohol binding site on the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):371-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707815105. Epub 2007 Dec 28. [18165316 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular weight:
101505.2
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular weight:
55279.8
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates equilibrative transport of purine, pyrimidine nucleosides and the purine base hypoxanthine. Less sensitive than SLC29A1 to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine
Gene Name:
SLC29A2
Uniprot ID:
Q14542
Molecular weight:
50112.3
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19298329 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular weight:
49704.3
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular weight:
54806.6
References
  1. Hendrickson LM, Guildford MJ, Tapper AR: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence. Front Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;4:29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00029. eCollection 2013. [23641218 ]
  2. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin- GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular weight:
212348.1
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular weight:
65713.0
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular weight:
25028.1
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific function:
Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state
Gene Name:
CACNG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y698
Molecular weight:
35965.4
References
  1. Hendricson AW, Thomas MP, Lippmann MJ, Morrisett RA: Suppression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent synaptic plasticity by ethanol: analysis of miniature synaptic currents and dendritic calcium transients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Nov;307(2):550-8. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [12970385 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular weight:
98820.3
References
  1. Dopico AM, Lovinger DM: Acute alcohol action and desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels. Pharmacol Rev. 2009 Mar;61(1):98-114. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.000430. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19270242 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular weight:
125464.1
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Wang J, Lanfranco MF, Gibb SL, Ron D: Ethanol-mediated long-lasting adaptations of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum. Channels (Austin). 2011 May-Jun;5(3):205-9. Epub 2011 May 1. [21289476 ]
  4. Ron D, Wang J: The NMDA Receptor and Alcohol Addiction [21204417 ]
  5. Williams K: Extracellular Modulation of NMDA Receptors [21204407 ]
  6. Xu M, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Effects of ethanol on phosphorylation site mutants of recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Alcohol. 2011 Jun;45(4):373-80. Epub 2010 Dec 15. [21163614 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  5. Earl DE, Tietz EI: Inhibition of recombinant L-type voltage-gated calcium channels by positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Apr;337(1):301-11. Epub 2011 Jan 24. [21262851 ]
  6. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51325.9
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55164.1
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular weight:
61622.6
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52145.6
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular weight:
51023.7
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular weight:
54234.1
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular weight:
59149.9
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular weight:
54115.0
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular weight:
50707.8
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular weight:
57971.2
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular weight:
53594.5
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular weight:
54288.2
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular weight:
50639.7
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular weight:
72020.9
References
  1. Santhakumar V, Wallner M, Otis TS: Ethanol acts directly on extrasynaptic subtypes of GABAA receptors to increase tonic inhibition. Alcohol. 2007 May;41(3):211-21. [17591544 ]
  2. Davies M: The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003 Jul;28(4):263-74. [12921221 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular weight:
52623.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Fuentealba J, Munoz B, Yevenes G, Moraga-Cid G, Perez C, Guzman L, Rigo JM, Aguayo LG: Potentiation and inhibition of glycine receptors by tutin. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Feb-Mar;60(2-3):453-9. Epub 2010 Oct 31. [21044637 ]
  4. Baenziger JE, Corringer PJ: 3D structure and allosteric modulation of the transmembrane domain of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jan;60(1):116-25. Epub 2010 Aug 14. [20713066 ]
  5. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [9452448 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA2
Uniprot ID:
P23416
Molecular weight:
52001.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Ye Q, Koltchine VV, Mihic SJ, Mascia MP, Wick MJ, Finn SE, Harrison NL, Harris RA: Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol is inversely correlated with molecular volume at position alpha267. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 6;273(6):3314-9. [9452448 ]
  4. Baenziger JE, Corringer PJ: 3D structure and allosteric modulation of the transmembrane domain of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Jan;60(1):116-25. Epub 2010 Aug 14. [20713066 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. This receptor plays a crucial role in regulating the heartbeat
Gene Name:
KCNJ3
Uniprot ID:
P48549
Molecular weight:
56602.8
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by external barium
Gene Name:
KCNJ5
Uniprot ID:
P48544
Molecular weight:
47667.3
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]
General function:
Involved in inward rectifier potassium channel activity
Specific function:
This potassium channel may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion by glucose and/or neurotransmitters acting through G-protein-coupled receptors. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium
Gene Name:
KCNJ6
Uniprot ID:
P48051
Molecular weight:
48451.0
References
  1. Spanagel R: Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev. 2009 Apr;89(2):649-705. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00013.2008. [19342616 ]
  2. Bodhinathan K, Slesinger PA: Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 5;110(45):18309-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311406110. Epub 2013 Oct 21. [24145411 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs)
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular weight:
50218.8
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [19298329 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 67 proteins in total.