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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-04-16 17:00:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000108
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00108
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEthanol
DescriptionEthanol is a clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Indeed, ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. Ethanol has a depressive effect on the central nervous system and because of its psychoactive effects, it is considered a drug. Ethanol has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain, most notably it acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors. Death from ethanol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0.4%. A blood level of 0.5% or more is commonly fatal. Levels of even less than 0.1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0.3-0.4 %. Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde, is more toxic than ethanol. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[77] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism. Industrially, ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast. Small amounts of ethanol are endogenously produced by gut microflora through anaerobic fermentation. However most ethanol detected in biofluids and tissues likely comes from consumption of alcoholic beverages. Absolute ethanol or anhydrous alcohol generally refers to purified ethanol, containing no more than one percent water. Absolute alcohol is not intended for human consumption. It often contains trace amounts of toxic benzene (used to remove water by azeotropic distillation). Consumption of this form of ethanol can be fatal over a short time period. Generally absolute or pure ethanol is used as a solvent for lab and industrial settings where water will disrupt a desired reaction. Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA and Canada, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system. Ethanol is a general biomarker for the consumption of alcohol
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-HydroxyethaneChEBI
[CH2Me(OH)]ChEBI
[OEtH]ChEBI
AlcoholChEBI
Alcohol etilicoChEBI
Alcool ethyliqueChEBI
AlkoholChEBI
AethanolChEBI
AethylalkoholChEBI
C2H5OHChEBI
Dehydrated ethanolChEBI
EtanolChEBI
Ethyl alcoholChEBI
EtOHChEBI
HydroxyethaneChEBI
MethylcarbinolChEBI
Spiritus viniChEBI
Absolute alcoholHMDB
Absolute ethanolHMDB
Absolute ethyl alcoholHMDB
Alcare hand degermerHMDB
AlcoholsHMDB
Alcool etilicoHMDB
AlgrainHMDB
Alkoholu etylowegoHMDB
AnhydrolHMDB
Anhydrous alcoholHMDB
Cologne spiritHMDB
Cologne spiritsHMDB
Dehydrated alcoholHMDB
Denatured alcoholHMDB
Denatured ethanolHMDB
Desinfektol elHMDB
Diluted alcoholHMDB
Distilled spiritsHMDB
Ethanol 200 proofHMDB
Ethanol solutionHMDB
EthicapHMDB
Ethyl alcHMDB
Ethyl alcohol anhydrousHMDB
Ethyl alcohol in alcoholic beveragesHMDB
Ethyl alcohol uspHMDB
Ethyl hydrateHMDB
Ethyl hydroxideHMDB
Fermentation alcoholHMDB
Grain alcoholHMDB
HinetolessHMDB
Infinity pureHMDB
JaysolHMDB
Jaysol SHMDB
LuxHMDB
Molasses alcoholHMDB
potato AlcoholHMDB
Punctilious ethyl alcoholHMDB
PyroHMDB
Silent spiritHMDB
SpiritHMDB
Spirits OF wineHMDB
SpirtHMDB
SynasolHMDB
TecsolHMDB
Tecsol CHMDB
ThanolHMDB
Undenatured ethanolHMDB
Alcohol, absoluteMeSH
Alcohol, ethylMeSH
Alcohol, grainMeSH
Chemical FormulaC2H6O
Average Molecular Weight46.0684
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight46.041864814
IUPAC Nameethanol
Traditional Nameethyl alcohol
CAS Registry Number64-17-5
SMILES
CCO
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3
InChI KeyLFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as primary alcohols. These are compounds comprising the primary alcohol functional group, with the general structure RCOH (R=alkyl, aryl).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct ParentPrimary alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-114.1 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-0.31HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility579 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP-0.16ChemAxon
logS1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002b-9000000000-7fa80a491183c1cdd23eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fmi-9200000000-587cc3c48ab7fbf9cd3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-001j-9000000000-a705823ce4aeba7f89e1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-d75d9996bc68c673f090View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-893c2599624722912f25View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-8af4124822065023744fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-22231ed69c5f28bfed79View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-d2881505c47bbef13f18View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-2ed988bb761ac20ba44aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-003s-9000000000-dabf5a61c5a7da9fbe13View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mouth
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Disulfiram Action PathwayThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Ethanol DegradationThumbThumb?image type=greyscaleThumb?image type=simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.0 (0.0-80.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified15.0 (0.0-33.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00-33.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified2344.34 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6063.448 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified4102.595 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Newborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-1025576.462 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified68.67 +/- 43.27 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (60 years old)Male
Normal
details
SweatDetected and Quantified< 10 uMAdult (40 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified<0.01 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0105 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.896 +/- 13.307 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified40.2 +/- 12.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified58.8 +/- 72.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified63.7 +/- 54.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified33.1 (22.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified49.3 (30.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified46.68 (25.73) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified32.21 (16.46) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified67.7 (42.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified56.1 (37.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified45393.0 (18027.0-74063.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlcohol intoxication details
BloodDetected and Quantified40615.0 +/- 17158.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleDrunk driver details
BloodDetected and Quantified90.0 (10.0-170.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.4 (10.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.1 (8.4) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified230 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCervical myelopathy details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothAutism details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleMyalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedasymptomatic diverticulosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedsymptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-2534781.615 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) non progressor details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothImmunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progressor details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Children (1-13 years old)BothCeliac disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.0 (0.0-661.0) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0039 - 0.0617 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothADPKD details
UrineDetected and Quantified3543.6 +/- 1414.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleDrunk driver details
UrineDetected and Quantified5-500 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
after 4 -5 hours of Alcohol consumption
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.217 +/- 12.367 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Cardiosvacular risk
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alcoholism
  1. Jones AW, Lund M, Andersson E: Drinking drivers in Sweden who consume denatured alcohol preparations: an analytical-toxicological study. J Anal Toxicol. 1989 Jul-Aug;13(4):199-203. [PubMed:2779169 ]
  2. Jones AW, Helander A: Changes in the concentrations of ethanol, methanol and metabolites of serotonin in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers. Forensic Sci Int. 1998 May 11;93(2-3):127-34. [PubMed:9717263 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Cervical myelopathy
  1. Meshitsuka S, Morio Y, Nagashima H, Teshima R: 1H-NMR studies of cerebrospinal fluid: endogenous ethanol in patients with cervical myelopathy. Clin Chim Acta. 2001 Oct;312(1-2):25-30. [PubMed:11580906 ]
Kidney disease
  1. Liebich HM, Woll J: Volatile substances in blood serum: profile analysis and quantitative determination. J Chromatogr. 1977 Nov 11;142:505-16. [PubMed:914932 ]
Lung Cancer
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, Xiong Y, Clive D, Greiner R, Nazyrova A, Shaykhutdinov R, Li L, Vogel HJ, Forsythe I: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D603-10. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn810. Epub 2008 Oct 25. [PubMed:18953024 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00898
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000753
KNApSAcK IDC00019560
Chemspider ID682
KEGG Compound IDC00469
BioCyc IDETOH
BiGG ID35062
Wikipedia LinkEthanol
METLIN ID3203
PubChem Compound702
PDB IDEOH
ChEBI ID16236
References
Synthesis ReferenceLashley, David. Process for producing an alcoholic sugar cane juice beverage. U.S. (1988), 3 pp. CODEN: USXXAM US 4784859 A 19881115 CAN 110:113222 AN 1989:113222
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  2. Gordon Z, Parsons CL, Monga M: Intravesical ethanol test: an ineffective measure of bladder hyperpermeability. Urology. 2003 Mar;61(3):555-7. [PubMed:12639646 ]
  3. Huang JS, She QB, Crilly KS, Kiss Z: Ethanol, Zn2+ and insulin interact as progression factors to enhance DNA synthesis synergistically in the presence of Ca2+ and other cell cycle initiators in fibroblasts. Biochem J. 2000 Feb 15;346 Pt 1:241-7. [PubMed:10657263 ]
  4. Friedman GD, Klatsky AL, Siegelaub AB: Alcohol, tobacco, and hypertension. Hypertension. 1982 Sep-Oct;4(5 Pt 2):III143-50. [PubMed:7049929 ]
  5. Uemura M, Lehmann WD, Schneider W, Seitz HK, Benner A, Keppler-Hafkemeyer A, Hafkemeyer P, Kojima H, Fujimoto M, Tsujii T, Fukui H, Keppler D: Enhanced urinary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in patients with acute alcohol intoxication. Gastroenterology. 2000 Jun;118(6):1140-8. [PubMed:10833489 ]
  6. Hemmingsen R, Barry DI, Hertz MM, Klinken L: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat. Brain Res. 1979 Sep 14;173(2):259-69. [PubMed:573652 ]
  7. Lopez JM, Bombi JA, Valderrama R, Gimenez A, Pares A, Caballeria J, Imperial S, Navarro S: Effects of prolonged ethanol intake and malnutrition on rat pancreas. Gut. 1996 Feb;38(2):285-92. [PubMed:8801213 ]
  8. Yamashina S, Ikejima K, Enomoto N, Takei Y, Sato N: [Ethanol changes sensitivity of Kupffer cells to endotoxin]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2003 Oct;38(5):415-24. [PubMed:14639920 ]
  9. Aye MM, Ma C, Lin H, Bower KA, Wiggins RC, Luo J: Ethanol-induced in vitro invasion of breast cancer cells: the contribution of MMP-2 by fibroblasts. Int J Cancer. 2004 Dec 10;112(5):738-46. [PubMed:15386367 ]
  10. De Martinis BS, de Paula CM, Braga A, Moreira HT, Martin CC: Alcohol distribution in different postmortem body fluids. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Feb;25(2):93-7. [PubMed:16539214 ]
  11. Pohorecky LA: Influence of alcohol on peripheral neurotransmitter function. Fed Proc. 1982 Jun;41(8):2452-5. [PubMed:6123447 ]
  12. Dean RA, Zhang J, Brzezinski MR, Bosron WF: Tissue distribution of cocaine methyl esterase and ethyl transferase activities: correlation with carboxylesterase protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Nov;275(2):965-71. [PubMed:7473189 ]
  13. Elias AN, Meshkinpour H, Valenta LJ, Grossman MK: Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome: the role of alcohol. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1982 Apr;4(2):137-9. [PubMed:6282953 ]
  14. Henriksson J, Knol M: A single bout of exercise is followed by a prolonged decrease in the interstitial glucose concentration in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005 Dec;185(4):313-20. [PubMed:16266372 ]
  15. Rosdahl H, Lind L, Millgard J, Lithell H, Ungerstedt U, Henriksson J: Effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on blood flow and interstitial glucose concentration in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue studied by microdialysis. Diabetes. 1998 Aug;47(8):1296-301. [PubMed:9703331 ]
  16. Boschmann M, Adams F, Schaller K, Franke G, Sharma AM, Klaus S, Luft FC, Jordan J: Hemodynamic and metabolic responses to interstitial angiotensin II in normal weight and obese men. J Hypertens. 2006 Jun;24(6):1165-71. [PubMed:16685217 ]
  17. Igawa Y, Satoh T, Mizusawa H, Seki S, Kato H, Ishizuka O, Nishizawa O: The role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in autonomic dysreflexia in patients with spinal cord injury. BJU Int. 2003 May;91(7):637-41. [PubMed:12699475 ]
  18. Enocksson S, Shimizu M, Lonnqvist F, Nordenstrom J, Arner P: Demonstration of an in vivo functional beta 3-adrenoceptor in man. J Clin Invest. 1995 May;95(5):2239-45. [PubMed:7738189 ]
  19. Collins JW, Macdermott S, Bradbrook RA, Keeley FX Jr, Timoney AG: Is using ethanol-glycine irrigating fluid monitoring and 'good surgical practice' enough to prevent harmful absorption during transurethral resection of the prostate? BJU Int. 2006 Jun;97(6):1247-51. [PubMed:16686720 ]
  20. Sokolik VV, Chursina VS, Artemchuk AA, Artemchuk AF, Bozhko GKh: [Depression of serum esterase and lipoprotein lipase activities in acute and longitudinal actions of ethanol]. Biomed Khim. 2006 Jan-Feb;52(1):95-100. [PubMed:16739925 ]
  21. Snyder R, Kalf GF: A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994;24(3):177-209. [PubMed:7945890 ]
  22. McDonnell G, Russell AD: Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999 Jan;12(1):147-79. [PubMed:9880479 ]
  23. Barceloux DG, Bond GR, Krenzelok EP, Cooper H, Vale JA: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2002;40(4):415-46. [PubMed:12216995 ]
  24. Hingson R, Winter M: Epidemiology and consequences of drinking and driving. Alcohol Res Health. 2003;27(1):63-78. [PubMed:15301401 ]
  25. Chastain G: Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. J Gen Psychol. 2006 Oct;133(4):329-35. [PubMed:17128954 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 69 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular weight:
39598.595
Reactions
Ethanol → Ethyl hydrogen sulfatedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular weight:
59347.31
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Ethanol → 6-ethoxy-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
Reactions
Ethanol + NADP → Acetaldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular weight:
40221.335
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [PubMed:21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [PubMed:21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [PubMed:19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [PubMed:18688716 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Hernandez-Tobias A, Julian-Sanchez A, Pina E, Riveros-Rosas H: Natural alcohol exposure: is ethanol the main substrate for alcohol dehydrogenases in animals? Chem Biol Interact. 2011 May 30;191(1-3):14-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Feb 15. [PubMed:21329681 ]
  2. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani PC, Cho WK, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb DW: Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jan;35(1):28-38. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01319.x. [PubMed:21166830 ]
  3. Nishimura FT, Kimura Y, Abe S, Fukunaga T, Saijoh K: Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2009 Jun;44(3):139-55. [PubMed:19618839 ]
  4. Jelski W, Kozlowski M, Laudanski J, Niklinski J, Szmitkowski M: The activity of class I, II, III, and IV alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in esophageal cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2009 Apr;54(4):725-30. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0422-8. Epub 2008 Aug 9. [PubMed:18688716 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
Reactions
Ethanol + NAD → Acetaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Lee SL, Chau GY, Yao CT, Wu CW, Yin SJ: Functional assessment of human alcohol dehydrogenase family in ethanol metabolism: significance of first-pass metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jul;30(7):1132-42. [PubMed:16792560 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs)
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular weight:
50218.8
References
  1. Allen-Gipson DS, Jarrell JC, Bailey KL, Robinson JE, Kharbanda KK, Sisson JH, Wyatt TA: Ethanol blocks adenosine uptake via inhibiting the nucleoside transport system in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 May;33(5):791-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00897.x. Epub 2009 Mar 6. [PubMed:19298329 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 69 proteins in total.