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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-11-03 18:51:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00122
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB06564
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Glucose
DescriptionGlucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals glucose arises from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. Glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Roferose ST
  2. (+)-Glucose
  3. Anhydrous dextrose
  4. Cerelose
  5. Cerelose 2001
  6. Clearsweet 95
  7. Clintose L
  8. Corn sugar
  9. CPC hydrate
  10. D(+)-Glucose
  11. Dextropur
  12. Dextrose
  13. Dextrosol
  14. Glucodin
  15. Glucolin
  16. Glucose
  17. Goldsugar
  18. Grape sugar
  19. Meritose
  20. Staleydex 111
  21. Staleydex 95M
  22. Tabfine 097(HS)
  23. Vadex
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Nameglucose
CAS Registry Number50-99-7
SMILES
OC[C@H]1OC(O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassMonosaccharides
Sub ClassHexoses
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteromonocyclic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
  • D-galactopyranose(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxane
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentHexoses
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point146 - 150 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1200.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-3.24SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782.0ALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.09 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Beta Cell
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Brain Plaques
  • Epidermis
  • Eye Lens
  • Fetus
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Mouth
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Lactose DegradationSMP00457Not Available
Lactose SynthesisSMP00444Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified5350.0 +/- 120.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5400.0 (4700.0 - 6100.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3900.0 (2800.0-5000.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified5181.0 +/- 394.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12000.0 +/- 4440.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5300.0 (4900.0 - 5700.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4750.0 +/- 184.0 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2200.0 (1100.0 - 3300.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB (2006) Tie...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4440.0 +/- 370.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4570.0 +/- 411.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2750.0 (2200.0-3300.0) uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB (2006) Tie...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4470.0 +/- 346.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4400.00 (3300.00-5500.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4450.0 (3300.0 - 5600.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB (2006) Tie...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified5450.0 (4200.0 - 6700.0) uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB (2006) Tie...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified4971.3 +/- 372.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4400.0 (3300.0-5500.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4440.0 +/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4470.0 +/- 110.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified4500.0+/- 100.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2960 +/- 1110 uMNot SpecifiedBothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5390.0 +/- 1650.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1720.0 (1560.0-1880.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20 (<1-914) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified197 (<1-10764) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified247 (<1-6510) uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified90 (<1-1994) uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified817.300 +/- 1070.700 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1-2762 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified4-389 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified355.05 +/- 260.74 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.6 (10.3-56.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.0 (0.0-50.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.0 (0.0-19.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.66-111.07 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified37.5 (12.5-58.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified31.12 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.0 (0.0-15.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.8 +/- 13.82 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified143.14 +/- 399.78 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified>11100 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diabetes mellitus
    • World Health Orga...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified>7000 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diabetes mellitus
    • World Health Orga...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3743 +/- 1272.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedHeart Transplant details
BloodDetected and Quantified5500.0 +/- 160.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Growth hormone deficiency
details
BloodDetected and Quantified6000.0 (5000.0 - 6800.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAcute myelogenous leukemia (AML) details
BloodDetected and Quantified5114.0 +/- 483.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHyperlipidaemia details
BloodDetected and Quantified1000.0 (0.00-2000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGlucagon deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified1750.00 (500.00-3000.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHypoadrenocorticism details
BloodDetected and Quantified1750.0 (500.0-3000.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Both3-Methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3700.0 (3200.0-4200.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
UrineDetected and Quantified19700.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothDiabetes details
UrineDetected and Quantified79600.0 (68300.0-90900.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diabetes
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17,449.11 (137.28 – 129,930.33) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothType 1 diabetes Mellitus
    • Lorena Ivona ŞTEF...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Acute myelogenous leukemia
  1. Tatidis L, Vitols S, Gruber A, Paul C, Axelson M: Cholesterol catabolism in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and hypocholesterolemia: suppressed levels of a circulating marker for bile acid synthesis. Cancer Lett. 2001 Sep 20;170(2):169-75. Pubmed: 11463495
Addison's Disease
  1. MetaGene
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
3-methyl-crotonyl-glycinuria
  1. MetaGene
Diabetes mellitus type 2
  1. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. Pubmed: 6321058
  2. Hoppel CL, Genuth SM: Urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine during human diabetic and fasting ketosis. Am J Physiol. 1982 Aug;243(2):E168-72. Pubmed: 6810706
  3. World Health Organisation Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance (1999). "Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications"
Growth hormone deficiency
  1. Darzy KH, Murray RD, Gleeson HK, Pezzoli SS, Thorner MO, Shalet SM: The impact of short-term fasting on the dynamics of 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion in patients with severe radiation-induced GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):987-94. Epub 2005 Dec 29. Pubmed: 16384844
Hyperlipidemia
  1. Sinha S, Misra A, Kumar V, Jagannathan NR, Bal CS, Pandey RM, Singhania R, Deepak: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and single photon emission computed tomography study of the brain in asymptomatic young hyperlipidaemic Asian Indians in North India show early abnormalities. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Aug;61(2):182-9. Pubmed: 15272912
Glucagon deficiency
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012530
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5589
KEGG Compound IDC00031
BioCyc IDGLC
BiGG ID33582
Wikipedia LinkDextrose
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00122
Metagene LinkHMDB00122
METLIN ID133
PubChem Compound5793
PDB ID1A47
ChEBI ID4167
References
Synthesis ReferenceLi, Dalin; Ruan, Yi; Song, Wen; Wang, Yongjun. Improved process for producing glucose. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 4 pp
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  3. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558
  4. Bales JR, Higham DP, Howe I, Nicholson JK, Sadler PJ: Use of high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for rapid multi-component analysis of urine. Clin Chem. 1984 Mar;30(3):426-32. Pubmed: 6321058
  5. Hoppel CL, Genuth SM: Urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine during human diabetic and fasting ketosis. Am J Physiol. 1982 Aug;243(2):E168-72. Pubmed: 6810706
  6. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. Pubmed: 9693263
  7. Badiee P, Kordbacheh P, Alborzi A, Zeini F, Mirhendy H, Mahmoody M: Fungal infections in solid organ recipients. Exp Clin Transplant. 2005 Dec;3(2):385-9. Pubmed: 16417449
  8. Surdacki A, Nowicki M, Sandmann J, Tsikas D, Boeger RH, Bode-Boeger SM, Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska O, Kokot F, Dubiel JS, Froelich JC: Reduced urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites and increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in men with essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;33(4):652-8. Pubmed: 10218738
  9. Zhao J, Wu LF: [Study of the causes of fetal growth restriction with unclear etiologies] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004 May;39(5):329-33. Pubmed: 15196417
  10. Flynn DM, Fairney A, Jackson D, Clayton BE: Hormonal changes in thalassaemia major. Arch Dis Child. 1976 Nov;51(11):828-36. Pubmed: 1008588
  11. Sokup A, Swiatkowski M, Tyloch M, Skublicki S, Szymanski W, Goralczyk K: [Insulin secretion at the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is lower in multiparas than in primiparas] Ginekol Pol. 2006 Jan;77(1):4-9. Pubmed: 16736954
  12. Roberts E: The importance of being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (in the blood of primates): a longer and healthier life? Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 15;57(4):329-46. Pubmed: 9933021
  13. Kodama H, Okada S, Inui K, Yutaka T, Yabuuchi H: Studies on alpha-ketoglutaric aciduria in type I glycogenosis. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1980 Aug;131(4):347-53. Pubmed: 6936873
  14. Gollan JL, Huang SN, Billing B, Sherlock S: Prolonged survival in three brothers with severe type 2 Crigler-Najjar syndrome. Ultrastructural and metabolic studies. Gastroenterology. 1975 Jun;68(6):1543-55. Pubmed: 805737
  15. Hourd P, Edge JA, Dunger DB, Dalton N, Edwards R: Urinary growth hormone excretion during puberty in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1991 Apr;8(3):237-42. Pubmed: 1828739
  16. Zebrower ME, Kieras FJ, Brown WT: Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfates. Anal Biochem. 1986 Aug 15;157(1):93-9. Pubmed: 3094400
  17. Sakai T, Suzuki J, Marumo F, Kikawada R: A case of Fanconi syndrome with type 1 renal tubular acidosis. Jpn Circ J. 1981 Oct;45(10):1164-9. Pubmed: 7299995
  18. Rohdewald VP, Rehder J, Mollmann H, Barth J, Derendorf H: [Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prednisolone following extremely high dosage as prednisolone hemisuccinate] Arzneimittelforschung. 1987 Feb;37(2):194-8. Pubmed: 3580023
  19. Brodehl J, Oemar BS, Hoyer PF: Renal glucosuria. Pediatr Nephrol. 1987 Jul;1(3):502-8. Pubmed: 3153324
  20. KASER H, COTTIER P, ANTENER I: Glucoglycinuria, a new familial syndrome. J Pediatr. 1962 Sep;61:386-94. Pubmed: 14454131
  21. Harada H, Shimizu H, Maeiwa M: 1H-NMR of human saliva. An application of NMR spectroscopy in forensic science. Forensic Sci Int. 1987 Jul;34(3):189-95. Pubmed: 3666622

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Gene Name:
GCK
Uniprot ID:
P35557
Molecular weight:
52191.07
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Molecular weight:
99024.56
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Molecular weight:
102379.06
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Molecular weight:
102485.1
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the final stage of carbohydrate digestion. Isomaltase activity is specific for both alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-oligosaccharides.
Gene Name:
SI
Uniprot ID:
P14410
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Sucrose + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
Isomaltose + Water → Alpha-D-Glucose + D-Glucosedetails
Neohancoside D + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
Lactose + Water → D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves sequentially the 2 innermost alpha-1,3-linked glucose residues from the Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide precursor of immature glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
GANAB
Uniprot ID:
Q14697
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Water + → D-Glucose + details
Water + → D-Glucose + details
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme acting as 1,4-alpha-D-glucan:1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glycosyltransferase and amylo-1,6-glucosidase in glycogen degradation.
Gene Name:
AGL
Uniprot ID:
P35573
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-glucose to D-glucose 6-phosphate using ADP as the phosphate donor. GDP and CDP can replace ADP, but with reduced efficiency (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADPGK
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRR6
Molecular weight:
53960.185
Reactions
ADP + D-Glucose → Adenosine monophosphate + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.
Gene Name:
B4GALT2
Uniprot ID:
O60909
Molecular weight:
41971.815
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in lactose synthase activity
Specific function:
Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to synthesize lactose, the major carbohydrate component of milk. In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins.
Gene Name:
LALBA
Uniprot ID:
P00709
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Intestinal trehalase is probably involved in the hydrolysis of ingested trehalose.
Gene Name:
TREH
Uniprot ID:
O43280
Molecular weight:
66567.26
Reactions
Trehalose + Water → D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels.
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
P35575
Molecular weight:
40483.21
Reactions
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
The Golgi complex form catalyzes the production of lactose in the lactating mammary gland and could also be responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. The cell surface form functions as a recognition molecule during a variety of cell to cell and cell to matrix interactions, as those occurring during development and egg fertilization, by binding to specific oligosaccharide ligands on opposing cells or in the extracellular matrix.
Gene Name:
B4GALT1
Uniprot ID:
P15291
Molecular weight:
43919.895
Reactions
Uridine diphosphategalactose + D-Glucose → Uridine 5'-diphosphate + beta-Lactosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity
Specific function:
Besides it's role as a glycolytic enzyme, mammalian GPI can function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and an angiogenic factor (AMF) that stimulates endothelial cell motility. GPI is also a neurotrophic factor (Neuroleukin) for spinal and sensory neurons.
Gene Name:
GPI
Uniprot ID:
P06744
Molecular weight:
63146.745
General function:
Involved in intramolecular transferase activity, phosphotransferases
Specific function:
This enzyme participates in both the breakdown and synthesis of glucose.
Gene Name:
PGM1
Uniprot ID:
P36871
Molecular weight:
63789.985
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GBA
Uniprot ID:
P04062
Molecular weight:
59715.745
Reactions
D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine + Water → D-Glucose + N-acylsphingosinedetails
beta-D-Glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide + Water → D-Glucose + N-Acylsphingosinedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Essential for the degradation of glygogen to glucose in lysosomes.
Gene Name:
GAA
Uniprot ID:
P10253
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Sucrose + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform may be responsible for constitutive or basal glucose uptake. Has a very broad substrate specificity; can transport a wide range of aldoses including both pentoses and hexoses.
Gene Name:
SLC2A1
Uniprot ID:
P11166
Molecular weight:
54083.325
General function:
Involved in enzyme inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Inhibits glucokinase by forming an inactive complex with this enzyme
Gene Name:
GCKR
Uniprot ID:
Q14397
Molecular weight:
68700.7
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Glycosidase probably involved in the intestinal absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides. Able to hydrolyze a broad variety of glycosides including phytoestrogens, flavonols, flavones, flavanones and cyanogens. Possesses beta-glycosylceramidase activity and may be involved in a nonlysosomal catabolic pathway of glycosylceramide.
Gene Name:
GBA3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H227
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Prunasin + Water → Mandelonitrile + D-Glucosedetails
Prunasin + D-Glucose → Amygdalin + Waterdetails
Cyanoglycoside + Water → Cyanohydrin + D-Glucosedetails
cis-beta-D-Glucosyl-2-hydroxycinnamate + Water → Coumaric acid + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May serve as an alternate pathway for starch digestion when luminal alpha-amylase activity is reduced because of immaturity or malnutrition. May play a unique role in the digestion of malted dietary oligosaccharides used in food manufacturing.
Gene Name:
MGAM
Uniprot ID:
O43451
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Sucrose + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
Neohancoside D + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. May form with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) a ubiquitously expressed complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Probably required for normal neutrophil function.
Gene Name:
G6PC3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BUM1
Molecular weight:
38734.115
Reactions
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
May hydrolyze glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. May be responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
G6PC2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NQR9
Molecular weight:
17756.465
Reactions
Glucose 6-phosphate + Water → D-Glucose + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has alpha-glucosidase activity.
Gene Name:
GANC
Uniprot ID:
Q8TET4
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Sucrose + Water → D-Fructose + D-Glucosedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase that catalyzes the conversion of glucosylceramide to free glucose and ceramide. Involved in sphingomyelin generation and prevention of glycolipid accumulation. May also catalyze the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides, however, the relevance of such activity is unclear in vivo.
Gene Name:
GBA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCG7
Molecular weight:
104648.13
Reactions
D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine + Water → D-Glucose + N-acylsphingosinedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HKDC1
Uniprot ID:
Q2TB90
Molecular weight:
102513.88
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cleaves the distal alpha 1,2-linked glucose residue from the Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide precursor in a highly specific manner.
Gene Name:
MOGS
Uniprot ID:
Q13724
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Water + → D-Glucose + details