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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2018-02-21 20:57:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000125
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00125
  • HMDB01463
  • HMDB06960
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutathione
DescriptionGlutathione is a compound synthesized from cysteine, perhaps the most important member of the body's toxic waste disposal team. Like cysteine, glutathione contains the crucial thiol (-SH) group that makes it an effective antioxidant. There are virtually no living organisms on this planet-animal or plant whose cells don't contain some glutathione. Scientists have speculated that glutathione was essential to the very development of life on earth. glutathione has many roles; in none does it act alone. It is a coenzyme in various enzymatic reactions. The most important of these are redox reactions, in which the thiol grouping on the cysteine portion of cell membranes protects against peroxidation; and conjugation reactions, in which glutathione (especially in the liver) binds with toxic chemicals in order to detoxify them. glutathione is also important in red and white blood cell formation and throughout the immune system. glutathione's clinical uses include the prevention of oxygen toxicity in hyperbaric oxygen therapy, treatment of lead and other heavy metal poisoning, lowering of the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation in cancer treatments, and reversal of cataracts. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/) glutathione participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I (EC 4.4.1.5) catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II (EC 3.1.2.6) catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione to glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a substrate in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is also capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as in the case of n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450-reactive metabolite formed by acetaminophen, that becomes toxic when GSH is depleted by an overdose (of acetaminophen). glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein thiol groups which would otherwise be covalently modified; when all GSH has been spent, NAPQI begins to react with the cellular proteins, killing the cells in the process. The preferred treatment for an overdose of this painkiller is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and renew the usable GSH pool. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/glutathione).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineChEBI
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineChEBI
Glutathione-SHChEBI
GSHChEBI
N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineChEBI
Reduced glutathioneChEBI
g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineGenerator
N-(N-g-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
N-(N-γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycineGenerator
Agifutol SHMDB
Bakezyme RXHMDB
CoprenHMDB
DeltathioneHMDB
gamma-GlutamylcysteinylglycineHMDB
gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
GlutathionHMDB
Glutathione redHMDB
Glutathione reducedHMDB
GlutatiolHMDB
GlutationeHMDB
GlutideHMDB
GlutinalHMDB
IsethionHMDB
L-g-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycineHMDB
L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycineHMDB
L-GlutathioneHMDB
L-Glutathione reduceHMDB
LedacHMDB
NeuthionHMDB
Red. glutathioneHMDB
TathionHMDB
TathioneHMDB
TriptideHMDB
Glutathione, reducedMeSH
gamma L Glu L cys glyMeSH
gamma-L-Glu-L-cys-glyMeSH
gamma L Glutamyl L cysteinylglycineMeSH
Chemical FormulaC10H17N3O6S
Average Molecular Weight307.323
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight307.083805981
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
Traditional Nameglutathione
CAS Registry Number70-18-8
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(=O)N[C@@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyRWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. These are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point195 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility292.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area158.82 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity69.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1910000000-52bc43dd913b68d74f84View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-08fs-3960000000-63ce34def2ae94b95515View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0pb9-0921000000-88168b0a9f5fc5fead3fView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-7890000000-5853006f66d946dd3d2eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0596-9112300000-e82cf72540c283d8e323View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-3795000000-d019cd7dcbad1f8a9e78View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9400000000-a83bf6292d41988256e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-305a92f8a9ffea58fa0eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-e950bfc5867b391c6960View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0910000000-83f6c079d1112e74ecf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-003r-0910000000-5b243cf8bd357ab270b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-29ef335479f56b620d88View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0009001000-d1f5986166efa523d024View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-056s-0495300000-dba7be381fd1ef776527View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-de5b8a5a377324599b39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-053r-0007920000-7500cef211e48c8ea244View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0119003000-4eb7ed4e2a4cf6a83c66View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-6893386899c6eed6a1a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-05g0-0190000000-cacc2de4ab18ed59798bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-6b4268add43ab66ef015View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-08fr-0015009000-a01bdc13a34d6ce8416fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uki-0290000000-ea94ec8247b4e025adbeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0039210000-e1f721157a9ea89959d6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a59-0039210000-35ce450ea95922abf0e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-9b01fba547d1fcde113aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0952000000-4a2a42699cf4aab2c559View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-002f-2900000000-bd9ba27b48b1322b7618View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004m-5900000000-cc7184d5bba50e6e49d0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-aecd0eb18a10c3ffb7abView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0729-4492000000-78a928563adf9038ba59View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)Pw000212Pw000212 greyscalePw000212 simpleNot Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyPw000070Pw000070 greyscalePw000070 simpleNot Available
5-OxoprolinuriaPw000074Pw000074 greyscalePw000074 simpleNot Available
5-oxoprolinase deficiencyPw000476Pw000476 greyscalePw000476 simpleNot Available
Acetaminophen Action PathwayPw000687Pw000687 greyscalePw000687 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.35 +/- 2.10 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.20 +/- 2.20 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0738-1.725 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified800.50 +/- 201.73 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.67 +/- 0.241 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.5 +/- 5.2 uMInfant (0-1 year old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified10.9 +/- 4.5 uMChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.00 +/- 3.00 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.8 +/- 4.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified37.03 +/- 4.76 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified3210 (1710-4710) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.2 +/- 0.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.35 +/- 0.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified7.47 +/- 6.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00976-0.0325 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.030 (0.005-0.085) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.065 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.555-7.809 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlutathionuria details
BloodDetected and Quantified516.50 +/- 238.40 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSchizophrenia details
BloodDetected and Quantified3.03 +/- 0.149 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.22 +/- 2.55 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Canavan disease
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.19 +/- 0.05 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Brain injury
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified4.56 +/- 0.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Multiple sclerosis
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.58 +/- 1.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedMultiple sclerosis details
UrineDetected and Quantified27.984-40.674 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlutathionuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Traumatic brain injury
  1. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
Canavan disease
  1. Tavazzi B, Lazzarino G, Leone P, Amorini AM, Bellia F, Janson CG, Di Pietro V, Ceccarelli L, Donzelli S, Francis JS, Giardina B: Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic separation of purines, pyrimidines, N-acetylated amino acids, and dicarboxylic acids for the chemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Clin Biochem. 2005 Nov;38(11):997-1008. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [PubMed:16139832 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Ballesteros A, Summerfelt A, Du X, Jiang P, Chiappelli J, Tagamets M, O'Donnell P, Kochunov P, Hong LE: Electrophysiological intermediate biomarkers for oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Nov;124(11):2209-15. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.05.021. Epub 2013 Jun 30. [PubMed:23823132 ]
  2. Fukushima T, Iizuka H, Yokota A, Suzuki T, Ohno C, Kono Y, Nishikiori M, Seki A, Ichiba H, Watanabe Y, Hongo S, Utsunomiya M, Nakatani M, Sadamoto K, Yoshio T: Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 8;9(7):e101652. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101652. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:25004141 ]
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency
  1. Schulman JD, Goodman SI, Mace JW, Patrick AD, Tietze F, Butler EJ: Glutathionuria: inborn error of metabolism due to tissue deficiency of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975 Jul 8;65(1):68-74. [PubMed:238530 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00143
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001498
KNApSAcK IDC00001518
Chemspider ID111188
KEGG Compound IDC02471
BioCyc IDGLUTATHIONE
BiGG ID33669
Wikipedia LinkGlutathione
METLIN ID44
PubChem Compound124886
PDB IDGSH
ChEBI ID16856
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Bayir H, Kagan VE, Tyurina YY, Tyurin V, Ruppel RA, Adelson PD, Graham SH, Janesko K, Clark RS, Kochanek PM: Assessment of antioxidant reserves and oxidative stress in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children. Pediatr Res. 2002 May;51(5):571-8. [PubMed:11978879 ]
  2. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2:18. [PubMed:15882454 ]
  3. Djurhuus R, Segadal K, Svardal AM: Glutathione in blood cells decreases without DNA breaks after a simulated saturation dive to 250 msw. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Jun;77(6):597-604. [PubMed:16780237 ]
  4. Hung CR: Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 7;11(37):5853-8. [PubMed:16270397 ]
  5. Grattagliano I, Portincasa P, Palmieri VO, Palasciano G: Contribution of canalicular glutathione efflux to bile formation. From cholestasis associated alterations to pharmacological intervention to modify bile flow. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2005 Jun;5(2):153-61. [PubMed:16089347 ]
  6. Calvo-Marzal P, Chumbimuni-Torres KY, Hoehr NF, Kubota LT: Determination of glutathione in hemolysed erythrocyte with amperometric sensor based on TTF-TCNQ. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):152-8. Epub 2006 May 2. [PubMed:16650398 ]
  7. Calabrese V, Scapagnini G, Ravagna A, Bella R, Butterfield DA, Calvani M, Pennisi G, Giuffrida Stella AM: Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. Neurochem Res. 2003 Sep;28(9):1321-8. [PubMed:12938853 ]
  8. Sohlenius-Sternbeck AK, Schmidt S: Impaired glutathione-conjugating capacity by cryopreserved human and rat hepatocytes. Xenobiotica. 2005 Jul;35(7):727-36. [PubMed:16316931 ]
  9. Iida M, Yasuhara T, Mochizuki H, Takakura H, Yanagisawa T, Kubo H: Two Japanese brothers with hereditary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(1):49-55. [PubMed:15702405 ]
  10. Briz O, Romero MR, Martinez-Becerra P, Macias RI, Perez MJ, Jimenez F, San Martin FG, Marin JJ: OATP8/1B3-mediated cotransport of bile acids and glutathione: an export pathway for organic anions from hepatocytes? J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30326-35. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16877380 ]
  11. Czeczot H, Scibior D, Skrzycki M, Podsiad M: [Antioxidant barrier in patients with gastric cancer--preliminary study]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005 Oct;19(112):521-5. [PubMed:16379316 ]
  12. Czeczot H, Scibior D, Skrzycki M, Podsiad M: Glutathione and GSH-dependent enzymes in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(1):237-42. Epub 2006 Jan 9. [PubMed:16404476 ]
  13. Kawakami Y, Monobe M, Kuwabara K, Fujita T, Maeda M, Fujino O, Kojima S, Fukunaga Y: A comparative study of nitric oxide, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase activities in cerebrospinal fluid from children with convulsive diseases/children with aseptic meningitis. Brain Dev. 2006 May;28(4):243-6. Epub 2006 Jan 10. [PubMed:16376049 ]
  14. Kaynar H, Meral M, Turhan H, Keles M, Celik G, Akcay F: Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of patients with small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005 Sep 28;227(2):133-9. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:16112416 ]
  15. Tsai CC, Chen HS, Chen SL, Ho YP, Ho KY, Wu YM, Hung CC: Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2005 Oct;40(5):378-84. [PubMed:16105090 ]
  16. Wielandt AM, Vollrath V, Farias M, Chianale J: Bucillamine induces glutathione biosynthesis via activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Aug 14;72(4):455-62. Epub 2006 Jun 27. [PubMed:16806086 ]
  17. Oztezcan S, Balkan J, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Cevikbas U, Aykac-Toker G, Uysal M: Resistance of erythrocytes to lipid peroxidation in cirrhotic rats. Arch Med Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;36(5):459-63. [PubMed:16099321 ]
  18. Schulpis KH, Papassotiriou I, Parthimos T, Tsakiris T, Tsakiris S: The effect of L-cysteine and glutathione on inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity by aspartame metabolites in human erythrocyte membrane. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;60(5):593-7. [PubMed:16391576 ]
  19. Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Hoffmaster KA, Nezasa K, Tallman MN, Brouwer KL: Integration of hepatic drug transporters and phase II metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms of hepatic excretion of sulfate, glucuronide, and glutathione metabolites. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;27(5):447-86. Epub 2006 Feb 10. [PubMed:16472997 ]
  20. Iwasaki Y, Hoshi M, Ito R, Saito K, Nakazawa H: Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in human saliva using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Jul 24;839(1-2):74-9. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16621738 ]
  21. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH: The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9. [PubMed:1362956 ]
  22. Yim CY, Hibbs JB Jr, McGregor JR, Galinsky RE, Samlowski WE: Use of N-acetyl cysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during the induction of antitumor responses by IL-2. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 15;152(12):5796-805. [PubMed:8207209 ]
  23. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND: Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. [PubMed:14988435 ]
  24. Struzynska L, Chalimoniuk M, Sulkowski G: The role of astroglia in Pb-exposed adult rat brain with respect to glutamate toxicity. Toxicology. 2005 Sep 1;212(2-3):185-94. [PubMed:15955607 ]
  25. Drevet JR: The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase family and spermatozoa: a complex story. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 May 16;250(1-2):70-9. Epub 2006 Jan 19. [PubMed:16427183 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 57 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular weight:
56256.565
Reactions
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPHdetails
Glutathione + NAD → Oxidized glutathione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glutathione + NADP → Oxidized glutathione + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
References
  1. Messarah M, Boulakoud MS, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, El Feki A: The impact of thyroid activity variations on some oxidizing-stress parameters in rats. C R Biol. 2007 Feb;330(2):107-12. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17303537 ]
  2. Brocardo PS, Assini F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN, Dafre AL, Rodrigues AL: Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2007 May;97(1):140-8. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327255 ]
  3. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. [PubMed:17338281 ]
  4. Markaryan AA, Dubinskaya VA, Dargaeva TD: Peroxide-eliminating oxidoreductases as biosensors of antioxidant components of medicinal plants. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006 Jul;142(1):55-6. [PubMed:17369902 ]
  5. Maity S, Roy S, Chaudhury S, Bhattacharya S: Antioxidant responses of the earthworm Lampito mauritii exposed to Pb and Zn contaminated soil. Environ Pollut. 2008 Jan;151(1):1-7. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17512104 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
P48637
Molecular weight:
52384.325
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Glycine → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Glutathionedetails
References
  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17452339 ]
  2. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK: Cadmium induced oxidative stress influence on glutathione metabolic genes of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Environ Toxicol. 2007 Aug;22(4):368-74. [PubMed:17607728 ]
  3. Forcella M, Berra E, Giacchini R, Parenti P: Antioxidant defenses preserve membrane transport activity in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to anoxia. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007 Aug;65(4):181-94. [PubMed:17630655 ]
  4. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401648 ]
  5. Bridges CC, Battle JR, Zalups RK: Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;221(2):251-60. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17467761 ]
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Initiates extracellular glutathione (GSH) breakdown, provides cells with a local cysteine supply and contributes to maintain intracellular GSH level. It is part of the cell antioxidant defense mechanism. Catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. Alternatively, glutathione can be hydrolyzed to give Cys-Gly and gamma glutamate. Isoform 3 seems to be inactive.
Gene Name:
GGT1
Uniprot ID:
P19440
Molecular weight:
61409.67
Reactions
Glutathione + Water → Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamic aciddetails
Glutathione + L-Amino acid → Cysteinylglycine + (5-L-Glutamyl)-L-amino aciddetails
References
  1. Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang C, Oliver DJ: Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(5):878-88. [PubMed:17316176 ]
  2. Martin MN, Saladores PH, Lambert E, Hudson AO, Leustek T: Localization of members of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase family identifies sites of glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate hydrolysis. Plant Physiol. 2007 Aug;144(4):1715-32. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17545509 ]
  3. Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K: Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):450-4. [PubMed:17569287 ]
  4. Adamis PD, Panek AD, Eleutherio EC: Vacuolar compartmentation of the cadmium-glutathione complex protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from mutagenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Aug 30;173(1):1-7. Epub 2007 Jun 14. [PubMed:17644279 ]
  5. Zhu Y, Carvey PM, Ling Z: Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neurochem Int. 2007 Mar;50(4):671-80. Epub 2007 Jan 13. [PubMed:17291629 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular weight:
24970.46
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Brigelius-Flohe R: Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors. Biol Chem. 2006 Oct-Nov;387(10-11):1329-35. [PubMed:17081103 ]
  4. Myllyla V, Kihlstrom M, Takala TE, Tolonen U, Salminen A, Vihko V: Activities of some antioxidative and hexose monophosphate shunt enzymes of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular diseases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986 Jul;74(1):17-24. [PubMed:3532684 ]
  5. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D'Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb;19(2):118-28. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17588737 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular weight:
22087.94
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G: Anthropological survey on red cell glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) polymorphism in central western Africa: a tentative hypothesis on the interaction between GPX1*2 and Hb beta *S allelic products. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1989 Jun;79(2):217-24. [PubMed:2742004 ]
  4. Liddell JR, Hoepken HH, Crack PJ, Robinson SR, Dringen R: Glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione are required to protect mouse astrocytes from iron-mediated hydrogen peroxide toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 15;84(3):578-86. [PubMed:16721761 ]
  5. Ursini F, Maiorino M: Native specific activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) does not differ between normo- and hypomotile human sperm samples. Int J Androl. 2005 Feb;28(1):61-2; author reply 63-4. [PubMed:15679624 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatidycholine hydroperoxide, can act as acceptors.
Gene Name:
GPX2
Uniprot ID:
P18283
Molecular weight:
21953.835
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Walshe J, Serewko-Auret MM, Teakle N, Cameron S, Minto K, Smith L, Burcham PC, Russell T, Strutton G, Griffin A, Chu FF, Esworthy S, Reeve V, Saunders NA: Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase activity contributes to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;67(10):4751-8. [PubMed:17510403 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular weight:
25552.185
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Jacobson GA, Yee KC, Ng CH: Elevated plasma glutathione peroxidase concentration in acute severe asthma: comparison with plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium and malondialdehyde. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(4):423-30. [PubMed:17558897 ]
  2. Carmeli E, Bachar A, Barchad S: Biochemical assessments of total antioxidant status in active and nonactive female adults with intellectual disability. Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):93-101. [PubMed:17578749 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular weight:
25046.57
Reactions
Glutathione + a lipid hydroperoxide → Oxidized glutathione + lipid + Waterdetails
Lipid hydroperoxide + Glutathione → Lipid + Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Moreno SG, Laux G, Brielmeier M, Bornkamm GW, Conrad M: Testis-specific expression of the nuclear form of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx). Biol Chem. 2003 Apr;384(4):635-43. [PubMed:12751792 ]
  4. Baek IJ, Seo DS, Yon JM, Lee SR, Jin Y, Nahm SS, Jeong JH, Choo YK, Kang JK, Lee BJ, Yun YW, Nam SY: Tissue expression and cellular localization of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA in male mice. J Mol Histol. 2007 Jun;38(3):237-44. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17503194 ]
  5. Nam SY, Baek IJ, Lee BJ, In CH, Jung EY, Yon JM, Ahn B, Kang JK, Yu WJ, Yun YW: Effects of 17beta-estradiol and tamoxifen on the selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression in male reproductive organs of rats. J Reprod Dev. 2003 Oct;49(5):389-96. [PubMed:14967915 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular weight:
25202.14
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Koh CS, Didierjean C, Navrot N, Panjikar S, Mulliert G, Rouhier N, Jacquot JP, Aubry A, Shawkataly O, Corbier C: Crystal structures of a poplar thioredoxin peroxidase that exhibits the structure of glutathione peroxidases: insights into redox-driven conformational changes. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 13;370(3):512-29. Epub 2007 Apr 19. [PubMed:17531267 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular weight:
20995.88
Reactions
Glutathione + Hydrogen peroxide → Oxidized glutathione + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 5(S)-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid → Oxidized glutathione + 5-HETE + Waterdetails
Glutathione + 15(S)-HPETE → Oxidized glutathione + 15(S)-HETE + Waterdetails
References
  1. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D'Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb;19(2):118-28. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17588737 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular weight:
149525.3
References
  1. Lai L, Tan TM: Role of glutathione in the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4)-mediated efflux of cAMP and resistance to purine analogues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 1;361(Pt 3):497-503. [PubMed:11802779 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs
Gene Name:
ABCC5
Uniprot ID:
O15440
Molecular weight:
160658.8
References
  1. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o- glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular weight:
171589.5
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  2. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. [PubMed:10917554 ]
  3. Jedlitschky G, Leier I, Buchholz U, Barnouin K, Kurz G, Keppler D: Transport of glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate conjugates by the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump. Cancer Res. 1996 Mar 1;56(5):988-94. [PubMed:8640791 ]
  4. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular weight:
174205.6
References
  1. Paulusma CC, van Geer MA, Evers R, Heijn M, Ottenhoff R, Borst P, Oude Elferink RP: Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. Biochem J. 1999 Mar 1;338 ( Pt 2):393-401. [PubMed:10024515 ]
  2. Hagmann W, Nies AT, Konig J, Frey M, Zentgraf H, Keppler D: Purification of the human apical conjugate export pump MRP2 reconstitution and functional characterization as substrate-stimulated ATPase. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct 1;265(1):281-9. [PubMed:10491184 ]
  3. Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Roy-Chowdhry J, Arias IM: Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Nov;90(5):2130-5. [PubMed:1430236 ]
  4. Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ: Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):422-30. [PubMed:10648470 ]
  5. Madon J, Hagenbuch B, Landmann L, Meier PJ, Stieger B: Transport function and hepatocellular localization of mrp6 in rat liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;57(3):634-41. [PubMed:10692506 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
References
  1. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 57 proteins in total.